Financial Glossary B - Z


Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock descriptor specifying that issue is the Class B shares of the company.

An Internet strategy of dealing directly with businesses, rather than consumers, i.e. business to (2) business.

See: Bank anticipation notes

See: Boston Exchange Automated Communication Order-Routing Network

See: Bonds Enabling Annual Retirement Savings (BEARS)

See: Bank Investment Contract

See: Bank Insurance Fund

See: Bank for International Settlements

Baby bond
A bond with a par value of less than $1000.

Back away
In the context of general equities, to withdraw from a previously declared interest, indication, or transaction; broker-dealer's failure, as a market maker in a given security, to make good on a bid/offer for the minimum quantity.

Back fee
The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.

Back months
In the context of futures and options trading, refers to the months of contracts with expiration dates farthest away. See farthest month.

Back office
Brokerage house clerical operations that support, but do not include, the trading of stocks and other securities. All written confirmation and settlement of trades, record keeping, and regulatory compliance happen in the back office.

Back on the shelf
In the context of general equities, permanently cancelled order/interest in a stock by a customer. See: Take a powder.

Back taxes
Due taxes that have not been paid on time.

Back up
(1) When bond yields rise and prices fall, the market is said to backup. (2) An investor who swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity is said to back up.

"Back up the truck"
In the context of general equities, "Prepare for a very large buyer."

In the context of mutual funds, a feature allowing fundholders to use an earlier date on a letter of intent to invest in a mutual fund in exchange for a reduced sales charge, e.g. Giving retroactive value to purchases from the earlier date.

Backed in
In the context of general equities, to describe result of unanticipated events that allow for a purchase at a discount or a sale at a premium.

Back-end load fund
A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from 4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a designated length ofg time, such as one year. The commission decreases, the longer the investor holds the shares. The formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or C.D.S.C.

Creating a hypothetical portfolio performance history by applying current asset selection criteria to prior time periods.

Back-to-back financing
An intercompany loan channeled through a bank.

Back-to-back loan
A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's currency for a specific time period and repay the other's currency at an agreed-upon maturity.

Backup line
A commercial paper issuer's bank line of credit covering maturing notes if, for some reason, selling new notes to cover the maturing notes is not possible.

A market condition in which futures prices are lower in the distant delivery months than in the nearest delivery month. This may occur when the costs of storing the product until eventual delivery are effectively subtracted from the price today. The opposite of contango.

Bad debt
A debt that is written off and deemed uncollectible.

Bad delivery
Antithesis of good delivery.

Bad title
Title to property that does not distinctly confer ownership, usually in the context of real estate.

Two-sided market picture, in Japanese terminology applies mainly to international equities.

Bailing out
In the context of securities, refers to selling a security or commodity quickly, regardless of the price. May occur when an investor no longer wants to sustain further losses on a stock.

Also refers to relieving an individual, corporation, or government entity in financial trouble.

Bailout bond
A bond issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation (Refcorp) to save the failing savings and loan associations in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Baker Plan
A plan by former U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker under which 15 principal middle-income debtor countries (the Baker 15) would undertake growth-oriented structural reforms, to be supported by increased financing from the World Bank and continued lending from commercial banks.

Balance of payments
A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a calendar year.

Balance of trade
Net flow of goods (exports minus imports) between two countries.

Balance sheet
Also called the statement of financial condition, it is a summary of a company's assets, liabilities, and owners' equity.

Balance sheet exposure
See: Accounting exposure.

Balance sheet identity
Total assets = Total liabilities + Total stockholders' equity

Balanced budget
A budget in which the income equals expenditure. See: budget.

Balanced fund
An investment company that invests in stocks and bonds. The same as a balanced mutual fund.

Balanced mutual fund
This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock, and bonds. The same as a balanced fund.

Balloon interest
In the context of serial bond issues, the elevated coupon rate on bonds with late maturities.

Balloon maturity
Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a sinking fund requirement.

See: Bond anticipation note.

Bank anticipation notes (BAN)
Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for projects that will eventually be funded long term through the sale of a bond issue.

Bank collection float
The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the bank is collecting payment from the payer's bank.

Bank discount basis
A convention used for quoting bids and offers for Treasury bills in terms of annualized yield, based on a 360-day year.

Bank draft
A draft addressed to a bank.

Bank holding company
A company that owns or has controlling interest in two or more banks and/or other bank holding companies.

Bank Insurance Fund (BIF)
A unit of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) that provides deposit insurance for banks excluding thrifts.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning international bank regulation.

Bank Investment Contract (BIC)
Interest guaranteed by the bank in a portfolio over a specific time frame with a specific yield.

Bank line
Line of credit that by a bank grants to a customer.

Bank trust department
Bank department that deals with estates, administers trusts, and provides services such as estate planning advice to its clients.

Bank wire
A computer message system linking major banks. It is used not for effecting payments, but as a mechanism to advise the receiving bank of some action that has occurred, e.g., the payment by a customer of funds into that bank's account.

Banker's acceptance
A short-term credit investment created by a nonfinancial firm and guaranteed by a bank as to payment. Acceptances are traded at discounts to face value in the secondary market. These instruments have been a popular investment for money market funds. They are commonly used in international transactions.

An agreement between a company engaged in a takeover bid and a bank that the bank will not finance the bid of another acquirer.

Inability to pay debts. In bankruptcy of a publicly owned entity, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from the stockholders to the bondholders.

Bankruptcy cost view
The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt financing.

Bankruptcy risk
The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.

Bankruptcy view
The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from financing entirely with debt.

Slang for one million dollars.

Barbell strategy
A fixed income strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated at two extremes.

Barefoot pilgrim
A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who has lost everything on the stock market.

Bargain hunter
In the context of general equities, purchaser who is extremely selective in the price sought on a transaction.

Bargain-purchase-price option
Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market value when the lease expires.

Economic and market data that represent an overall trend. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is an example of a stock market barometer.

BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)
A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to evaluate their money managers' performance.

Barrier options
Option contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of other options. These are exotic options.

Barron's confidence index
Index measuring the ratio of the average yield on 10 top-grade bonds to the average yield on 10 intermediate-grade bonds. The discrepancy between high-rated top-grade bonds and low-rated bond yields establishes a measure that is indicative of investor confidence.

The trading/exchange of goods or services without using currency.

A technical analysis tool. A chart pattern depicting the period when the supply and demand of a certain stock are in relative equilibrium, resulting in a narrow trading range. The merging of the support level and resistance level.

Base currency
Applies mainly to international equities. Currency in which gains or losses from operating an international portfolio are measured.

Base interest rate
Related: Benchmark interest rate.

Base market value
A group of securities, average market price at a specific time. Used for the purpose of indexing.

Base period
A particular period of time used for comparative purposes when measuring economic data.

Base probability of loss
The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return. Related: Value at risk.

Base rate
British equivalent of the U.S. prime rate.

Basic balance
In a balance of payments, the basic balance is the net balance of the combination of the current account and the capital account.

Basic business strategies
Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.

Basic IRR rule
Accept the project if IRR is higher than the discount rate; reject the project if it is lower than the discount rate. It is wise to also consider net present value for project evaluation.

The price an investor pays for a security plus any out-of-pocket expenses. It is used to determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is sold. Also, for a futures contract, the difference between the cash price and the futures price observed in the market.

Basis point
In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. Basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of 5% is 50 basis points higher than an interest rate of 4.5%.

Basis price
Price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.

Basis risk
Uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for price risk.

Applies to derivative products. Group of stocks that is formed with the intention of either being bought or sold all at once, usually to perform index arbitrage or a hedging program.

Basket options
Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing foreign exchange market rate or at a prearranged rate of exchange. Multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows frequently use basket options because it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each of the currencies that make up the basket.

Basket trades
Related: Program trades.

BD form
An SEC required document of brokerage houses that outlines the firm's finances and officers.

Boston Exchange Automated Communication Order-Routing Network (BEACON)
This system permits the automatic execution of trades based on the current stock prices on the consolidated markets at any of the U.S. securities exchanges.

An investor who believes a stock or the overall market will decline. A bear market is a prolonged period of falling stock prices, usually by 20% or more. Related: bull.

Bear CD
A bear CD pays the holder a fraction of any fall in a given market index.

Bear hug
Often used in risk arbitrage. Hostile takeover attempt in which the acquirer offers an exceptionally large premium over the market value of the acquiree's share so as to as to squeeze (hug) the target into acceptance.

Bear market
Any market in which prices exhibit a declining trend. For a prolonged period, usually falling by 20% or more.

Bear raid
In the context of general equities, attempt by investors to move the price of a stock opportunistically by selling large numbers of shares short. The investors pocket the difference between the initial price and the new, lower price after this maneuver. This technique is illegal under S.E.C. rules, which stipulate that every short sale must be on an uptick.

Bear spread
Applies to derivative products. Strategy in the options market designed to take advantage of a fall in the price of a security or commodity, usually executed by buying a combination of calls and puts on the same security at different strike prices in order to profit as the security's price falls.

Bear trap
The predicament facing short sellers when a bear market reverses its trend and becomes bullish. The assets continue to sell in anticipation of further declines in price, and short sellers then are forced to cover at higher prices

Bearer bond
Bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and delivering them to the paying agent.

Bearer form
Describes issue form of security not registered on the issuing corporation's books, and therefore payable to its bearer. See also: Bearer bond; coupon bond.

Bearer share
Security not registered on the books of the issuing corporation and thus payable to possessor of the shares. Negotiable without endorsement and transferred by delivery, thus avoiding some of the control associated with ordinary shares. Dividends are payable upon presentation of dividend coupons, which are dated or numbered. Applies mainly to international equities.

Words used to describe investor attitude.

Beating the gun
In the context of general equities, gaining an advantageous price in a trade through a quick response to market developments.

Before-tax profit margin
The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

An international trade policy of competitive devaluations and increased protective barriers that one country institutes to gain at the expense of its trading partners.

Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation
A devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby increase its exports at the expense of other countries. Devaluation can also reduce a nation's imports. Such devaluations often lead to trade wars.

Used for listed equity securities. At the same price but entered after your order/interest, such as on the specialist's book. Antithesis of ahead of you.

Signal on a stock exchange to indicate the open and close of trading.

Bellwether issues
Related: Benchmark issues.

Below par
Less than the nominal or face value of a security.

The performance of a predetermined set of securities, used for comparison purposes. Such sets may be based on published indexes or may be customized to suit an investment strategy.

Benchmark error
Use of an inappropriate proxy for the true market portfolio.

Benchmark interest rate
Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on the comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued (on-the-run).

Benchmark issue
Also called on-the-run or current-coupon issue or bellwether issues. In the secondary market, the benchmark issue is the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.

Used for listed equity securities. 1) Behind; 2) Lower in price.

Beneficial ownership
Often used in risk arbitrage. Person who enjoys the benefits of ownership even though title is in another name. (Abused through the illegal use of a parking violation.)

Term used to refer to the person who receives the benefits of a trust or the recipient of the proceeds of a life insurance policy.

Best's rating
A rating A.M. Best Co. assigns to insurance companies based on the company's ability to meet its obligations to its policyholders.

Best-efforts sale
A method of securities distribution/underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or fixed-price sale, in which the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (and holds any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).

Best-interests-of-creditors test
The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization must receive at least as much as if the debtor were liquidated.

The measure of a fund's or a stock's risk in relation to the market or to an alternative benchmark. A beta of 1.5 means that a stock's excess return is expected to move 1.5 times the market excess returns. E.g., if market excess return is 10%, then we expect, on average, the stock return to be 15%. Beta is referred to as an index of the systematic risk due to general market conditions that cannot be diversified away.

Beta equation (security)
The market beta of a security is determined as follows: Regress excess returns of stock y on excess returns of the market. The slope coefficient is beta. Define n as number of observation numbers. Beta =

[(n) (sum of [xy]) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of y)]/
[(n) (sum of [xx]) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (usually 36 to 60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 index
y = rate of return for the security

Related: Alpha

Biased expectations theories
Related: Pure expectations theory.

The price a potential buyer is willing to pay for a security. Sometimes also used in the context of takeovers where one corporation is bidding for (trying to buy) another corporation. In trading, we have the bid-ask spread which is the difference between what buyers are willing to pay and what sellers are asking for in terms of price.

Bid away
Refers to over-the-counter trading. Bid from another dealer exists at the same (listed) or higher (O.T.C.) price.

Bid-asked spread
The difference between the bid and the asked prices.

Bid price
This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask, offer.

Bid-to-cover ratio
The ratio of the number of bids received in a Treasury security auction compared to the number of accepted bids.

Bid wanted
Used in the context of general equities. Announcement that a holder of securities wants to sell and will entertain bids.

A firm or person that wants to buy a firm or security.

Bidding buyer
In the context of general equities, a nonaggressive buyer who prefers to await a natural seller in the hope of paying a lower price.

Bidding through the market
In the context of general equities, aggressive willingness to purchase a security at a premium to the inside market. Contrast with bidding buyer.

Bidding up
Moving the bid price higher.

Big Bang
The term applied to the liberalization in 1986 of the London Stock Exchange (L.S.E.) when trading was automated.

Big Board
A nickname for the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Also known as The Exchange. More than 2,000 common and preferred stocks are traded. Founded in 1792, the N.Y.S.E. is the oldest exchange in the United States, and the largest. It is located on Wall Street in New York City.

Big picture
To highlight trading interest due to the size of the trade.

Big producer
A successful broker who generates a large volume of commission. See Rainmaker.

Big uglies
Unpopular stocks.

Bill of exchange
General term for a document demanding payment.

Bill of lading
A contract between an exporter and a transportation company in which the latter agrees to transport the goods under specified conditions that limit its liability. It is the exporter's receipt for the goods as well as proof that goods have been or will be received.

Billing cycle
The time elapsed between billing periods for goods sold or services rendered.

An amount of money paid to indicate good faith in a transaction before the transaction is completed.

Binomial option pricing model
An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can assume one of only two possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.

Bi-weekly mortgage loan
A mortgage loan on which interest and principal payments are made every half-month (total of 26 payments) as opposed to monthly payments. This results in earlier loan retirement.

Black Friday
A precipitous drop in a financial market . The original Black Friday occurred on September 24, 1869, when prospectors attempted to corner the gold market.

Black market
An illegal market.

Black Monday
Refers to October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 508 points on the heels of sharp drops the previous week. On Monday, October 27, 1997, the Dow dropped 554 points. While the point drop set a new record, the percentage decline was substantially less than in 1987.

Black-Scholes option-pricing model
A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments. Uses the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the expected standard deviation of the stock return. Developed by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in 1973.

Blank check
A check that is duly signed, but the amount of the check is left blank to be supplied by the drawee.

Blank check offering
An initial public offering by a company whose business activities are undefined and therefore speculative.

Blanket certification form
See: NASD form FR-1

Blanket fidelity bond
SEC-required insurance coverage that brokerage firms are required to have in order to cover fraudulent trading by employees.

Blanket inventory lien
A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.

Blanket recommendation
A recommendation by a brokerage firm sent to all its customers advising that they buy or sell a particular stock regardless of investment objectives or portfolio size.

Blind pool
A limited partnership that does not announce its intentions as to what properties will be acquired.

Blind trust
A trust in which a fiduciary third party has total discretion to make investments on behalf of a beneficiary while the beneficiary is uninformed about the holdings of the trust.

Blitzkrieg tender offer
In the context of a takeover, refers to a tender offer that is priced so attractively that the tender is completed quickly.

Large quantity of stock or large dollar amount of bonds held or traded. As a rule of thumb, 10,000 shares or more of stock and $200,000 or more worth of bonds would be described as a block.

Block call
In the context of general equities, conference meeting during which customer indications and orders, along with the traders' own buy/sell preferences, are conveyed to the entire organization. See block list.

Block house
Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.

Block list
In the context of general equities, listing of stock the investment bank is looking for (wants to buy) or (wants to sell) at the beginning of the day, whether on an agency or principal basis.

Block trade
A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of 10,000 shares of a given stock or at a total market value of $200,000 or more.

Block trader
A dealer who will take a position in the block trades to accommodate customer buyers and sellers of blocks. See: Dealer, market maker, principal.

Block voting
Descirbes a group of shareholders banding together to vote their shares in a single block.

Blocked currency
A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.

Blow-off top
A steep and rapid increase in price followed by a steep and rapid drop. This is an indicator seen in charts and used in technical analysis of stock price and market trends.

The rapid sale of all shares in a new securities offering. See: hot issue.

Blue list
Daily financial publication featuring bonds offered for sale by dealers and banks that represent billions of dollars in par value. Also available on-line at

Blue-chip company
Used in the context of general equities. Large and creditworthy company. Company renowned for the quality and wide acceptance of its products or services, and for its ability to make money and pay dividends. Gilt-edged security.

Blue-sky laws
State laws covering the issue and trading of securities.

Bo Derek stock
High quality stock.

Board broker
Employee of the Chicago Board Options Exchange who manages away from the market orders, which cannot be executed immediately.

Board of Directors
Individuals elected by the shareholders of a corporation who carry out certain tasks established in the charter.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
The managing body of the Federal Reserve System, set which policies on bank practices and the money supply.

Board room
A room at a brokerage firm where its clients can watch an electronic board displaying stock prices and transactions. Also refers to the room where Board of Directors meetings take place.

The return an investment manager is compared to for performance evaluation.

Boiler room
Used to describe place or operation in which unscrupulous salespeople call and try to sell people speculative, even fraudulent, securities.

Standard terms and conditions.

Spanish for stock exchange.

Bolsa de Commercio de Santiago (SSE)
Chile's preeminent stock exchange.

Bolsa de Valores de Rio de Janeiro (BVRJ)
Brazil's second-largest stock exchange.

Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (BOVESPA)
The largest stock exchange in Brazil.

Used for listed equity securities. Block trading version of COLT.

Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
See: National Stock Exchange; Mumbai stock exchange.

Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.

Bond agreement
A contract for privately placed debt.

Bond anticipation note (BAN)
A short-term debt instrument issued by a state or municipality to borrow against the proceeds of an upcoming bond issue.

Bond broker
A broker on the floor of an exchange who trades bonds.

Bond Buyer
A daily publication featuring many essential statistics and index figures relevant to the fixed income markets.

Bond Buyer's municipal bond index
A municipal bond price tracking index published daily by the Bond Buyer.

Bond counsel
An attorney who prepares the legal opinion concerning a municipal bond issue.

Bond covenant
A contractual provision in a bond indenture. A positive covenant requires certain actions, and a negative covenant limits certain actions.

Bond crowd
Members of the stock exchange who transact bond orders on the floor of the exchange.

Bond discount
The difference by which a bond's market price is lower than its face value. The antithesis of a bond premium, which prevails when the market price of a bond is higher than its face value. See: Original issue discount.

Bond-equivalent basis
The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

Bond equivalent yield
Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual effective yield.

Bond indenture
Contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of investors.

Bond indexing
Designing a bond portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.

Bond market association
An international trade association of broker/dealers and banks in U.S. government and federal agency securities, municipal securities, mortgage-backed securities, and money market securities.

Bond mutual fund
A mutual fund holding bonds.

Bond points
A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $1 and equivalent to 1% of the $100 face value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face or par value.

Bond power
A form used in the transfer of registered bonds from one owner to a different owner.

Bond premium
See: Bond discount

Bond rating
A rating based on the possibility of default by a bond issuer. The ratings range from AAA (highly unlikely to default) to D (in default). See: Rating, investment grade.

Bond ratio
The percentage of a company's capitalization represented by bonds. The ratio is calculated by dividing the total bonds due after one year by that same figure plus all other equity. See: Debt-to-equity-ratio.

Bond swap
The sale of one bond issue and purchase of another bond issue simultaneously. See: Swap; swap order.

Bond value
With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible. That is the market value of the bond minus the value of the conversion option.

The firm often has stockholders and bondholders. In a liquidation, the bondholders have first priority.

A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed income portfolio, as well as the individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDPAR decomposes the return into the elements beyond the manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations, and individual bond selection.

Bonds Enabling Annual Retirement Savings (BEARS)
Holders of BEARS receive the face value of bonds underlying call option, which are exercised by CUBS (an acronym for Calls Underwritten by Swanbrook). If the calls are exercised by CUBS, BEARS holders receive the total of the exercise price.

Bon voyage bonus
See: Greenmail.

Charging a lot more for an asset than its worth.

A banker or trader's positions.

Book cash
A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also calledledger cash.

Book profit
The cumulative book income plus any gain or loss on disposition of assets.

Book runner
The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book of securities sold.

Book to bill
In the context of general equities, high-technology industry's demand to supply ratio of orders on a firm's book to number of orders filled. Measures who the company has more orders than it can deliver (>1), equal amounts (=1), or less (<1). This monthly figure is of major interest to investors/ traders in the high-technology sector. Book value A company's total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A company's book value might be higher or lower than its market value. Book value per share The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation (and not necessarily market valuation). Book-entry securities System in which securities are not represented by paper certificates but are maintained in computerized records at the Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep computer records of the securities they own as well as those they are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, certificates reside in a central clearinghouse or by another agent. These securities do not move from holder to holder. Bootstrap Term used to describe the start-up of a company with very little capital. Bootstrapping Creating a theoretical spot rate curve using one yield projection as the basis for the yield of the next maturity. Borrow To obtain or receive money on loan with the promise or understanding that it will be repaid. Borrowed reserves Funds borrowed from a Federal Reserve Bank by member banks to maintain the required reserve ratios. Borrower fallout In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be closed will elect to withdraw from the contract. Bot Shorthand for bought. Antithesis of SL, meaning sold. Bottom Refers to the base support level for market prices of any type. Also used in the context of securities to refer to the lowest market price of a security during a specific time-frame. Bottom fisher An investor seeking stocks that have fallen to prices at or near their bottom, which he or she believes will trend up in the future. Bottom-up equity management style A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks. Bought deal Security issue in which one or two underwriters buy the entire issue. Bounce A check returned by a bank because it is not payable, usually because of insufficient funds. Also used in the context of securities to refer to the rejection and ensuing reclamation of a security; a stock price's abrupt decline and recovery. Bourse French for a stock market. Boutique A small, specialized brokerage firm that offers limited services and products to a limited number of clients. Antithesis of financial supermarket. Box The actual physical location at a brokerage house or bank where securities or other documents are stored for safekeeping. Alternatively, a quotation machine or battery march. Bracket A term signifying the extent of an underwriter's commitment in a new issue, e.g., major bracket or minor bracket. Bracket creep The gradual movement into higher tax brackets when incomes increase as a result of inflation. Brady bonds Bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan. Branch An operation in a foreign country incorporated in the home country. Breadth of the market In the context of general equities, percentage of stocks participating in a particular market move. Technical analysts say there was significant breadth if two-thirds of the stocks listed on an exchange move in the same direction during a trading session. See: A/D line. Break A rapid and sharp price decline. Related: Crash. Break price Used in the context of general equities. Change one's offering or bid prices to move to a more realistic, tight level where execution is more feasible. Often done to trim one's position, thus "breaking price" from where the trades occurred (if long, "break price" downward 1/8 a point or more). Break-even analysis An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit. Break-even lease payment The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between entering and not entering into a lease arrangement. Break-even payment rate The prepayment rate of an MBS coupon that will produce the same cash flow yield (CFY) as that of a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon the prepayment rate that will produce the same cash flow yield (CFY) as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so. Break-even point Refers to the price at which a transaction produces neither a gain nor a loss. In the context of options, the term has the additonal definitions: 1. Long calls and short uncovered calls: strike price plus premium. 2. Long puts and short uncovered puts: strike price minus premium. 3. Short covered call: purchase price minus premium. 4. Short put covered by short stock: short sale price of underlying stock plus premium. Break-even tax rate The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering into and not entering into the transaction. Break-even time Related: Premium payback period. Breaking the syndicate Terminating an agreement among underwriters, specifically the investment banking group assembled to underwrite the issue of a security. Breakout A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or a drop below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator. Breakpoint sale For mutual funds, refers to the investment amount necessary to make the fundholder eligible for a reduced sales charge. See: Letter of intent; right of accumulation. Breakup value See: Private market value. Breeden, Douglas T. Inventor of one of the foundational asset pricing models in finance, the consumption based capital asset pricing model. Chairman of Smith Breeden Associates. Bretton Woods Agreement An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that established the International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.) and the post-World War II international monetary system of fixed exchange rates. Bridge financing Interim financing of one sort or another used to solidify a position until more permanent financing is arranged. "Bring it out" In the context of general equities, "make stock available for sale to indicated buyers." British clearers The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic sterling market. Broad tape An expanded version of the ticker tape, which is displayed on a screen in the board room of a brokerage firm and shows constantley updated financial information and news. Broken up Used for listed equity securities. Prevented from executing a trade (committed to upstairs) due to exchange priority rules excluding one's order (e.g., higher bid/lower offer on floor, market order to satisfy). Broker An individual who is paid a commission for executing customer orders. Either a floor broker who executes orders on the floor of the exchange, or an upstairs broker who handles retail customers and their orders. Also, person who acts as an intermediary between a buyer and seller, usually charging a commission. A "broker" who specializes in stocks, bonds, commodities, or options acts as an agent and must be registered with the exchange where the securities are traded. Antithesis of dealer. Broker-dealer See: Dealer. Broker loan rate Related: Call money rate. Brokered CD A certificate of deposit issued by a bank or thrift institution bought by a brokerage firm in bulk for the purpose of reselling to brokerage customers. A broker CD features a higher interest rate, usually 1% higher, and is FDIC insured and do not usually have commissions. Brokered market A market in which an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers. Brought over the wall Compelling a research analyst of an investment bank to work in the underwriting department for a corporate client, therefore allowing for the transmission of insider information. Also called "Over the Chinese wall". Brussels Stock Exchange (BSE) Stock exchange that handles the majority of securities transactions in Belgium. Bubble theory Security prices sometimes move wildly above their true values, or the price falls sharply until the "bubble bursts.". Budget A detailed schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget. Budget deficit The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues. Buck Slang for one million dollars. Bucket shop An illegal brokerage firm that accepts customer orders but does not attain immediate executions. A bucket shop broker promises the customer a certain price, but waits until a price discrepancy is present and the trade is advantageous to the firm and then keeps the difference as profit. Alternatively, the broker may never fill the customer's order but keep the money. Budget surplus The amount by which government revenues exceed government spending. Build a book In the context of general equities, develop customer orders to gather demand/supply in order to make a bid or an offer. Builder buydown loan A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest rate amount for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown). Bulge A short-lived stock price increase. Synonymous with bubble. Bulge bracket A tier of firms in an underwriting syndicate that have the highest participation level. See: Mezzanine bracket. Bull An investor who thinks the market will rise. Related: Bear. Bull-bear bond Bond whose principal repayment is linked to the price of another security. The bonds are issued in two tranches: In the first tranche repayment increases with the price of the other security, and in the second tranche repayment decreases with the price of the other security. Bull CD A bull CD pays its holder a specified percentage of the increase in return on a specified market index while guaranteeing a minimum rate of return. Bull market Any market in which prices are in an upward trend. Bull spread A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option, financing it by selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying security. Bulldog bond Foreign bond issue made in London. Bulldog market The foreign market in the United Kingdom. Bullet contract A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related: Window contract. Bullet loan A bank term loan that calls for no amortization. Bullet strategy A fixed income strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly concentrated at one point on the yield curve. Bullion coins Metal coins consisting of gold, silver, platinum, or palladium that are actively traded. Some examples include the American eagle and the Canadian maple leaf. Their price is directly connected to the underlying price of their metal. Bullish Words used to describe investor attitudes. Bullish refers to an optimistic outlook, while bearish means a pessimistic outlook. Bump-up CD A certificate of deposit granting the owner the right to increase its yield one time for the remaining term of the CD. The power is exercised by the owner in the event of an interest rate hike. Bunching Describes the act of traders combining round-lot orders for execution at the same time. Bunching can also be used to combine odd-lot orders to save the odd-lot differential for customers. Also used to refer to the pattern on the ticker tape when a series of trades for a security appear consecutively. Bundling, unbundling Creation of securities either by combining primitive and derivative securities into one composite hybrid or by separating returns on an asset into classes. Burn rate Used in venture capital financing to refer to the rate at which a start-up company expends capital to finance overhead costs prior to the generation of positive cash flow. Burnout Depletion of a tax shelter's benefits. In the context of mortgage backed securities it refers to the percentage of the pool that has prepaid their mortgage. Business combination See: Merger Business cycle Repetitive cycles of economic expansion and recession. The official peaks and troughs of the U.S. cycle are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, MA. Business day A day in which financial markets are open for trading. Business failure A business that has terminated operations with a loss to creditors. Business risk The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses. Business segment reporting Reporting the results of the separate divisions or subsidiaries of a business. Busted convertible Related: Fixed income equivalent. Mainly applies to convertible securities. Convertible bond selling essentially as a straight bond. Assuming the issuer is "money good," or will continue to meet credit obligations, such issues can be highly attractive since the price makes virtually no allowance for the bond's call on the common stock, although such issues usually carry high premiums. Bust-up takeover A leveraged buyout in which the buyer sells off the assets of the target_company to repay the debt that financed the takeover. Butterfly In the context of equities, a firm with two divisions may split into two companies and issue original shareholders two shares (one in each of the new companies) for every old share they have. Butterfly shift A nonparallel shift in the yield curve involving the height of the curve. Butterfly spread Applies to derivative products. Complex option strategy that involves selling two calls and buying two calls on the same or different markets, with several maturity dates. One of the options has a higher exercise price and the other has a lower exercise price than the other two options. The payoff diagram resembles the shape of a butterfly. Buy To purchase an asset; taking a long position. Buy-and-hold strategy A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon. Buy-and-write strategy An options strategy that calls for the purchase of stocks and the writing of covered call options on them. Buy the book An order, typically from a large institutional investor to a broker to purchase all the shares available at the market from the specialist and other brokers and dealers at the current offer price. The book refers to the record a specialist kept before the advent of computers. Buy hedge See: Long hedge Buy in To cover, offset, or close out a short position. Related: Evening up, liquidation. Buy limit order A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated price or lower. Related: Sell limit order. Buy minus order In the context of general equities, rare market or limit order to buy a stated amount of a stock, provided that the price to be obtained is not higher than the last sale if the last sale is a minus or zero-minus tick, and is not higher than the last sale minus the minimum fractional change in the stock if the last sale is a plus or zero-plus tick. (If limit, then the buy cannot occur above the limit, regardless of tick.) Buy on the bad news Buying stock shortly after a price drop resulting from bad news from the company. Investors believe that the price has hit bottom and will trend upward. See: Bottom fisher. Buy on close Buying at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range. Buy on margin Borrowing to buy additional shares, using the shares themselves as collateral. Buy on opening Buying at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range. Buy order An order to a broker to purchase a specific quantity of a security. Buy-side analyst A financial analyst employed by a nonbrokerage firm, typically one of the larger money management firms that purchases securities on its own account. Buy stop order A buy order not to be executed until the market price rises to the stop price. Once the security has broken through that price, the order is then treated as a market order. Also known as a suspended market order. "Buy them back" Used for listed equity securities. "Cover my short position. Buyback The covering of a short position by purchasing a long contract, usually resulting from the short sale of a commodity. See: Short covering, stock buyback. Also used in the context of bonds. The purchase of corporate bonds by the issuing company at a discount in the open market. Also used in the context of corporate finance. When a firm elects to repurchase some of the shares trading in the market. Buydowns Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest. During the early part of the loan, portions of these payments are provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly payments. Buyer's market Market in which the supply exceeds the demand, creating lower prices. Antithesis of seller's_market. Buyers/sellers on balance Used for listed equity securities. Indicates that at a given time (usually before the opening of a stock/market or at expiration time), there are more buyers/sellers in the marketplace, usually with market orders. See: Imbalance of orders. Buying climax A rapid rise in the price of a stock resulting from heavy buying, which usually creates the market condition for a rapid fall in the price. Buying the index Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the same return. Buying power The amount of money available to buy securities, determined by adding the total cash held in brokerage accounts and the amount that could be spent if securities were margined to the limit. Buyout Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy out is effected with borrowed money. Bylaws Rules and practices that govern management of an organization. C Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock descriptor specifying that issue is exempt from Nasdaq listing requirements for a temporary period. CAMPS See: Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks CAPM See: Capital asset pricing model CAPS See: Convertible adjustable preferred stock CARs See: Certificates of Automobile Receivables CARDs See: Certificates of Amortized Revolving Debt CATS See: Certificate of Accrual on Treasury Securities (CATS) CBO See: Collateralized Bond Obligation. CBOE See: Chicago Board Options Exchange CD See: Certificate of deposit CDN See: Canadian Dealing Network CEC See: Commodities Exchange Center CEG See: Canadian Exchange Group CFAT Cash flow after taxes. CFAT See: Cash flow after taxes CFC See: Controlled foreign corporation CFTC See: Commodity Futures Trading Commission CHAP See: Clearing House Automated Payments System CHESS See: Clearing House Electronic Subregister System CHIPS See: Clearing House Interbank Payments System CMBS See: Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities CME See: Chicago Mercantile Exchange CML See: Capital market line CMO See: Collateralized mortgage obligation CTA See: Cumulative Translation Adjustment CUSIP See: Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures Cabinet crowd NYSE members who trade bonds with a low daily traded volume. See: Automated Bond System. Cabinet security A stock or bond listed on a major exchange with low daily traded volume. Cable Exchange rate between British pound sterling and the U.S. dollar. CAC 40 index A broad-based index of common stocks composed of 40 of the 100 largest companies listed on the forward segment of the official list of the Paris Bourse. Cage A section of a brokerage firm used for receiving and disbursing funds. Calendar List of new issues scheduled to come to market shortly. Calendar effect Describes the tendency of stocks to perform differently at different times, including preformance anomalies like the January effect, month-of-the-year effect, day-of-the-week effect, and holiday effect. Calendar spread Applies to derivative products. A strategy in which there is a simultaneous purchase and sale of options of the same class at different strike prices, but with the same expiration date. Call An option that gives the holder the right to buy the underlying futures contract. Call date A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond for a specified call price. Call feature Part of the indenture agreement between the bond issuer and buyer describing the schedule and price of redemptions prior to maturity. Call loan A loan repayable on demand. Sometimes used as a synonym for broker loan or broker overnight loan. Call loan rate See: Call money rate Call money rate Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rateplus a service charge. Call option An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the contract. Call an option To exercise a call option. Call premium Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date. Call price The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a specified call date. Call protection A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be called. Call provision An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of an issue prior to maturity. Call risk The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision. Call swaption A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating-rate payer. Callable Applies mainly to convertible securities. Redeemable by the issuer before the scheduled maturity under specific conditions and at a stated price, which usually begins at a premium to par and declines annually. Bonds are usually called when interest rates fall so significantly that the issuer can save money by issuing new bonds at lower rates. Called away Convertible: Redeemed before maturity. Option: Call or put option exercised against the stockholder. Sale: Delivery required on a short sale. Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks (CAMPS) Stands for Cumulative Auction Market Preferred Stocks, Oppenheimer & Company's Dutch Auction preferred stock product. Canadian agencies Agency banks established by Canadian Banks in the U.S. Canadian Dealing Network (CDN) The organized OTC market of Canada. Formerly known as the Canadian Over-the-Counter Automated Trading System (COATS), the CDN became a subsidiary of the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1991. Canadian Exchange Group (CEG) The CEG is an association among the Toronto Stock Exchange, the Montreal Exchange, the Vancouver Stock Exchange, the Alberta Stock Exchange, and the Winnipeg Stock Exchange for the purpose of providing Canadian market data to customers outside Canada. "Can get $xxx" Refers to over-the-counter trading. "I have a buyer who will pay $xxx for the stock". Uusually a standard markdown (1/8) from $xxx is applied to this price in bidding the seller for its stock. Antithesis of cost me. Cancel To void an order to buy or sell from (1) the floor, or (2) the trader/salesperson's scope. In Autex, the indication still remains on record as having once been placed unless it is expunged. "Cannot compete" In the context of general equities, cannot accommodate customers at that price level (i.e., compete with other market makers), often because there is no natural opposite side of the trade. "Cannot complete" In the context of general equities, inability to finish an order on a principal or agency basis, given prevailing price instructions and/or market conditions. Cap An upper limit on the interest rate on a floating-rate note (FRN) or an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). Capacity Credit grantors' measurement of a person's ability to repay loans. Capital Money invested in a firm. Capital account Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities. Capital allocation decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets and the risky portfolio. Capital asset A long-term asset, such as land or a building, not purchased or sold in the normal course of business. Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium multiplied by the assets systematic risk. Theory was invented by William Sharpe (1964) and John Lintner (1965). Capital budget A firm's planned capital expenditures. Capital budgeting The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets. Capital Builder Account (CBA) A Merrill Lynch brokerage account that allows investors to access the loan value of his or her eligible securities to buy or sell securities. Excess cash in a CBA can be invested in a money market fund or an insured money market deposit account without losing access to the money. Capital expenditures Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as property, plant, or equipment. Capital flight The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk. Capital formation Expansion of capital or capital goods through savings, which leads to economic growth. Capital gain When a stock is sold for a profit, the capital gain is the difference between the net sales price of the securities and their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss. Capital gains distribution A distribution to the shareholders of a mutual fund out of profits from selling stocks or bonds, that is subject to capital gains taxes for the shareholders. Capital gains tax The tax levied on profits from the sale of capital assets. A long-term capital gain, which is achieved once an asset is held for at least 12 months, is taxed at a maximum rate of 20% (taxpayers in 28% tax bracket) and 10% (taxpayers in 15% tax bracket). Assets held for less than 12 months are taxed at regular income tax levels, and, since January 1, 2000, assets held for at least five years are taxed at 18% and 8%. Capital gains yield The price change portion of a stock's return. Capital goods Goods used by firms to produce other goods, e.g., office buildings, machinery, equipment. Capital-intensive Used to describe industries that require large investments in capital assets to produce their goods, such as the automobile industry. These firms require large profit margins and/or low costs of borrowing to survive. Capital International Indexes Market indexes maintained by Morgan Stanleythat track major stock markets worldwide. Capital investment See: Capital expenditure. Capital lease A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet. Capital loss The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sales price, if the security is sold at a loss. Capital market The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year). Capital market efficiency The degree to which the precent asset price accurately reflects current information in the market place. See: Efficient market hypothesis. Capital market imperfections view The view that issuing debt is generally valuable, but that the firm's optimal choice of capital structure involves various other views of capital structure (net corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), that result from considerations of asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs. Capital market line (CML) The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio. The line represents the risk premium you earn for taking on extra risk. Defined by the capital asset pricing model. Capital rationing Placing limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on the entire capital budget or parts of it. Capital requirements Financing required for the operation of a business, composed of long-term and working capital plus fixed assets. Capital shares One of two types of shares in a dual-purpose investment company, which entitle the holder to the appreciation or depreciation in the value of a portfolio, as well as the gains from trading in the portfolio. Antithesis of income shares. Capital stock Stock authorized by a firm's charter and having par value, stated value, or no par value. The number and the value of issued shares are usually shown, together with the number of shares authorized, in the capital accounts section of the balance sheet. See: Common stock. Capital structure The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities. Capital surplus Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value. Capital turnover Calculated by dividing annual sales by average stockholder equity (net worth). The ratio indicates how much a company could grow its current capital investment level. Low capital turnover generally corresponds to high profit margins. Capitalization The debt and/or equity mix that funds a firm's assets. Capitalization method A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a number of the most highly capitalized names in the stock index in proportion to their capitalization. Capitalization rate The rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a number of future payments. Capitalization ratios Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow. Capitalization table A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization ratios. Capitalized Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures for items with useful lives longer than one year. Capitalized interest Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then amortized through the income statement over time. Captive finance company A company, usually a subsidiary that is wholly owned, whose main function is financing consumer purchases from the parent company. Caput An exotic option. It represents a call option on a put option. That is, you Car A loose quantity term sometimes used to describe the amount of a commodity underlying one commodity contract; e.g., "a car of bellies." Derived from the fact that quantities of the product specified in a contract once corresponded closely to the capacity of a railroad car. Carrot equity British slang for an equity investment with the added benefit of an opportunity to purchase more equity if the company reaches certain financial goals. Carry Related: Net financing cost. Carrying charge The fee a broker charges for carrying securities on credit, such as on a margin account. Carrying costs Costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets. Carrying value Book value. Cartel A group of businesses or nations that act together as a single producer to obtain market control and to influence prices in their favor by limiting production of a product. The United States has laws prohibiting cartels. Cash The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and banker's acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities that mature within 90 days (e.g., notes). Cash asset ratio Cash and marketable securities divided by current liabilities. See: Liquidity ratios. Cash basis Refers to the accounting method that recognizes revenues and expenses when cash is actually received or paid out. Cash and equivalents The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days. Cash budget A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its expected cash and loan balances. Cash & carry Applies to derivative products. Combination of a long position in a stock/index/commodity and short position in the underlying futures, which entails a cost of carry on the long position. Cash commodity The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract. Cash conversion cycle The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash from accounts receivable. Cash cow A company that pays out most of its earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow. Cash cycle In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period. Cash deficiency agreement An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash deficiency the project may experience. Cash delivery The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but settlement according to the cash value of the asset. Cash discount An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time period, such as ten days. Cash dividend A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in addition to the dividend. Cash earnings A firm's cash revenues less cash expenses, which excludes the costs of depreciation. Cash-equivalent items Examples include Treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances. Cash flow In investments, cash flow represents earnings before depreciation, amortization, and non-cash charges. Sometimes called cash earnings. Cash flow from operations (called funds from operations by real estate and other investment trusts) is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends. Cash flow after interest and taxes Net income plus depreciation. Cash flow break-even point The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs. Cash flow per common share Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Cash flow coverage ratio The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments, preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental payments, and depreciation. Cash flow matching Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization that calls for the manager to match the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the last liability to assure all required cash flows. Cash flow from operations A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations (disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus noncash expenses that are deducted in calculating net income. Cash flow time line Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period. Cash management Refers to the efficient management of cash in a business in order to put the cash to work more quickly and to keep the cash in applications that produce income, such as the use of lock boxes for payments. Cash management bill Very short-maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash balances are down and it needs money for a few days. Cash markets Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security or instrument. Related: Derivative markets. Cash offer Often used in risk arbitrage. Proposal, either hostile or friendly, to acquire a target company through the payment of cash for the stock of the target. Compare to exchange offer. Cash-on-cash return A method used to find the return on investments when there is no active secondary market. The yield is determined by dividing the annual cash income by the total investment. See: Current yield or yield to maturity. Cash on delivery (COD) In the context of securities, this refers to the practice of institutional investors paying the full purchase price for securities in cash. Cash plus convertible Convertible bond that requires cash payment upon conversion. Cash price Applies to derivative products. See: Spot price. Cash ratio The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash. Cash sale/settlement Transaction in which a contract is settled on the same day as the trade date, or the next day if the trade occurs after 2:30 p.m. EST and the parties agree to this procedure. Often occurs because a party is strapped for cash and cannot wait until the regular five-business day settlement. See: Settlement date. Cash settlement contracts Futures contracts such as stock index futures that settle for cash and do not involve delivery of the underlying. Cash-surrender value The amount an insurance company will pay if the policyholder tende4s or cashes in a whole life insurance policy. Cash transaction A transaction in which exchange is immediate in the form of cash, unlike a forward contract (which calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price). Cashbook An accounting book that is composed of cash receipts plus disbursements. This balance is posted to the cash account in the ledger. Cashier's check A check drawn directly on a customer's account, making the bank the primary obligor, and assuring firms that the amount will be paid. Cashout Occurs when a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities. Casualty-insurance Insurance protecting a firm or homeowner against loss of property, damage, and other liabilities. Casualty loss A financial loss caused by damage, destruction, or loss of property as a result of an unexpected or unusual event. Catastrophe call Early redemption of a municipal revenue bond because a catastrophe has destroyed the project that provided the revenue source backing the bond. Cats and dogs Speculative stocks with short histories of sales, earnings, and dividend payments. Caveat emptor, caveat subscriptor Latin expressions for "buyer beware" and "seller beware," which warn of overly risky, inadequately protected markets. CEDEL A centralized clearing system for Eurobonds. Ceiling The highest price, interest rate, or other numerical factor allowable in a financial transaction. Central bank A country's main bank whose responsibilities include the issue of currency, the administration of monetary policy, open market operations, and engaging in transactions designed to facilitate healthy business interactions. See: Federal Reserve System. Certainty equivalent An amount that would be accepted today (risk free) in lieu of a chance to receive a possibly higher, but uncertain, amount. Certificate A formal document used to record a fact and used as proof of the fact, such as stock certificates, that evidence ownership of stock in a corporation. Certificate of Accrual on Treasury Securities (CATS) Refers to a zero-coupon U.S. Treasury issue that is sold at a deep discount from the face value and pays no coupon interest during its lifetime, but returns the full face value at maturity. Certificate of deposit (CD) Also called a time deposit this is a certificate issued by a bank or thrift that indicates a specified sum of money has been deposited. A CD has a maturity date and a specified interest rate, and can be issued in any denomination. The duration can be up to five years. Certificates of Amortized Revolving Debt (CARD) Pass-through securities backed by credit card receivables. Certificates of Automobile Receivables (CAR) Pass-through securities backed by automobile loan receivables. Certificateless municipals Municipal bonds with one certificate which is valid for the entire issue, and having no individual certificates, easing transactions. See: Book-entry securities. Certified check A bank guaranteed check for which funds are immediately withdrawn, and for which the bank is legally liable. Certified Financial Planner (CFP) A person who has passed examinations accredited by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, showing that the person is able to manage a client's banking, estate, insurance, investment, and tax affairs. Certified financial statements Financial statements that include an accountant's opinion. Certified Public Accountant (CPA) An accountant who has met certain standards, including experience, age, and licensing, and passed exams in a particular state. Chair of the board Highest-ranking member of a Board of Directors, who presides over its meetings and who is often the most powerful officer of a corporation. Changes in financial position Sources of funds provided from operations that alter a company's cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures. Characteristic line The market model applied to a single security; a regression of security returns on the benchmark return. The slope of the regression line is a security's beta. Charge off See: Bad debt Charitable remainder trust An irrevocable trust that pays income to a designated person or persons until the grantor's death, when the income is passed on to a designated charity. A charitable lead trust by contrast allows the charity to receive income during the grantor's life, and the remaining income to pass to designated family members upon the grantor's death. Charter See: Articles of incorporation Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) An experienced financial analyst who has passed examinations in economics, financial accounting, portfolio management, security analysis, and standards of conduct given by the institute of Chartered Financial Analysts. Chartists A technical analyst who charts the patterns of stocks, bonds, and commodities to find trends in patterns of trading used to advise clients. Related: Technical analysts. Chasing the market Purchasing a security at a higher price than expected because prices are rapidly climbing, or selling a security at a lower level when prices are quickly falling. Chastity bonds Bonds redeemable at par value in the case of a takeover. Chatter See: Whipsawed Cheapest to deliver issue The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date. Check A bill of exchange representing a draft on a bank from deposited funds that pays a certain sum of money to a certain person or party. Checking the market Searching for bid and offer prices from market makers to find the best deal. Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) A securities exchange created in the early 1970s for the public trading of standardized option contracts. Primary place stock options, foreign currency options, and index options (S&P 100, 500, and 0.T.C. 250 index) Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) The largest futures exchange in the U.S., and was a pioneer in the development of financial futures and options. Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, to collect and disseminate market information, to maintain a clearing mechanism, and to enforce trading rules. Applies to derivative products. Primary place futures (O.T.C. 250 industrial stock price index, S& P 100 and 500 index) and futures options (S&P 500 stock index) are traded. Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX) A major exchange trading only stocks, with 90% of trades taking place on an automated execution system, called MAX. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) A title held often by the Chairperson of the Board, or the president. The person principally responsible for the activities of a company. Chief Financial Officer (CFO) The officer of a firm is responsible for handling the financial affairs of a company. Chief Operating Officer (COO) The officer of a firm responsible for day-to-day management, usually the president or an executive vice-president. Chinese hedge Applies mainly to convertible securities. Trading hedge in which one is short the convertible and long the underlying common, in the hope that the convertible's premium will fall. Antithesis of set-up. Chinese wall Communication barrier between financiers at a firm (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have. Choice market Applies mainly to international equities. Locked market in London terminology. Churning Excessive trading of a client's account in order to increase the broker's commissions. Cincinnati Stock Exchange (CSE) Stock exchange based in Cincinnati that is the only fully automated stock exchange in the U.S. It has no trading floor, but handles all members' transactions using computers. Circle Underwriters, actual or potential, often seek out and "circle" investor interest in a new issue before final pricing. The customer circled has basically made a commitment to purchase the issue if it is available at an agreed-upon price. If the actual price is other than that stipulated, the customer supposedly has first offer at the actual price. Circuit breakers Measures instituted by exchanges to stop trading temporarily when the market has fallen by a certain percentage in a specified period. They are intended to prevent a market free fall by permitting buy and sell orders to rebalance. Circus swap A fixed-rate currency swap against floating U.S. dollar LIBOR payments. Citizen bonds Certificateless municipals that can be registered on stock exchanges and are listed in newspapers. City code on takeovers and mergers See: Dawn raid Claim dilution A decrease in the likelihood that one or more of a firm's claimants will be fully repaid, including time value of money considerations. Claimant A party to an explicit or implicit contract. Class In the case of derivative products, options of the same type-put or call-with the same underlying security. See: Series. In general, refers to a category of assets such as: domestic equity, fixed income, etc. Class A/Class B shares See: Classified stock Class action A legal complaint filed by a lawyer or group of lawyers for a group of petitioners with an identical grievance, often with an award proportionate to the number of shareholders involved. Classified stock The division of stock into more than one class of common stock, usually called Class A and Class B. The specific features of each class, which are set out in the charter and bylaws, usually give certain advantages to the Class A shares, such as increased voting power. Clean In the context of general equities, block trade that matches buy or sell orders/interests, sparing the block trader any inventory risk (no net position and hence none available for additional customers). Natural. Antithesis of open. Clean opinion An auditor's opinion reflecting an unqualified acceptance of a company's financial statements. Clean price Bond price excluding accrued interest. Clean up In the context of general equities, purchase/sale of all the remaining supply of stock, or the last piece of a block, in a trade-leaving a net zero position. "Clean your skirts" In the context of general equities, "make all your obligated calls"; check with all prior obligations in a security. Often preceded by "subject to." Clear To settle a trade is settled out by the seller delivering securities and the buyer delivering funds in the proper form. A trade that does not clear is said to fail. Comparison of the details of a transaction between broker/dealers prior to settlement; final exchange of securities for cash on delivery. Clear a position To eliminate a long or short position, leaving no ownership or obligation. Clear title Title to ownership that is untainted by any claims on the property or disputed interests, and therefore available for sale. This is usually checked through a title search by a title company. Clearing corporations Organizations that are affiliated with exchanges and are used to complete securities transactions by taking care of validation, delivery, and settlement. Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS) A computerized clearing system for sterling funds that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS). Clearing House Electronic Subregister System (CHESS) CHESS is the automatic transfer and settlement system for the majority of Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) listed securities. Clearing house funds Funds from the Federal Reserve System, requiring three days to clear, that are passed to and from banks. Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS) An international wire transfer system for high-value payments operated by a group of major banks. Clearinghouse An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed on its floor are settled by a process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation. Clearing member A member firm of a clearing house. Each clearing member must also be a member of the exchange. Not all members of the exchange, however, are members of the clearing organization. All trades of a non-clearing member must be registered with, and eventually settled through, a clearing member. Clientele effect Describes the tendary of funds or investments to be followed by groups of investors who have a simular preferences that the firm follow a particular financing policy, such as the amount of leverage it uses. Clone fund A new fund set up in a fund family to emulate another successful fund. Close The close is the period at the end of the trading session. Sometimes used to refer to closing price. Related: Opening. Close a position In the context of general equities, eliminate an investment from one's portfolio, by either selling a long position or covering a short position. Close market An active market in which there is a narrow spread between bid and offer prices, due to a high volume of trading and many competing market makers. Closed corporation A corporation whose shares are owned by just a few people, having no public market. Closed-end management company An investment company that has only a set number of shares of the mutual fund that it manages, and does not create new shares if demand increases. Antithesis of an open-end management company. Closed-end fund An investment company that sells shareslike any other corporation and usually does not redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund. Closed-end management company An investment company that has only a set number of shares of the mutual fund that it manages, and does not create new shares if demand increases. Antithesis of an open-end management company. Closed-end mortgage Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued. Closed fund A mutual fund that is no longer issuing shares, mainly because it has grown too large. Closed out Position that is liquidated when the client does not meet a margin call or cover a short sale. Closely held A corporation whose voting stock is owned by only a few shareholders. Closely held company A company who has a small group of controling shareholders. In contrast, a widely-held firm has many shareholders. It is difficult or impossible to wage a proxy battle for any closely-held firm. Closing costs All the expenses involved in transferring ownership of real estate. Closing price Price of the last transaction of a particular stock completed during a day's trading session on an exchange. Closing purchase A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in a stock, or in a given series of options. Closing quote The last bid and offer prices of a particular stock at the close of a day's trading session on an exchange. Closing range Also known as the range. The high and low prices, or bids and offers, recorded during the period designated as the official close. Related: Settlement price. Closing sale A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock, or a given series of options. Closing tick The net of the number of stocks whose closing prices are higher than their previous trades (uptick) against the number of stocks whose closing prices were lower than their previous trades (downtick). A positive closing tick indicates "buying at the close", or a bullish market; a negative closing tick indicates "selling at the close," or a bearish market. See: TRIN. Closing transaction Applies to derivative products. Buy or sell transaction that eliminates an existing position (selling a long option or buying back a short option). Antithesis of opening transaction. Closing TRIN See: TRIN Cloud on title Any claim or encumbrance, usually discovered in a title search, that may impair the title to a property, and make its validity questionable. See: bad title. Cluster analysis A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated across clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable, and energy stocks. CMO REIT A very risky type of Real Estate Investment Trust investing in the residual cash flows of Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMOs). CMO cash_flows are derived from the difference between the rates paid by the mortgage loan holders and the lower, shorter-term rates paid to CMO investors. Coattail investing A risky trading practice of making trades similar to those of other successful investors, usually institutional investors. COD transaction See: Delivery versus payment Code of procedure The guide of the National Association of Securities Dealers used to adjudicate complaints filed against NASD members. Coefficient of determination A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return. Also known as R-square. Coffee, Sugar & Cocoa Exchange (CS&CE) The New York-based commodity exchange trading futures and options. The CS&CE shares the trading floor at the Commodities Exchange Center. Coincident indicators Economic indicators that give an indication of the status of the economy. Coinsurance effect Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms lessens the probability of default on either firm's debt. Cold-calling Calling potential new customers in the hope of selling stocks, bonds or other financial products and receiving commissions. Collar An upper and lower limit on the interest rate on a floating-rate note (FRN) or an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). Collateral Asset than can be repossessed if a borrower defaults. Collateral trust bonds A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond. Collateralized Bond Obligation (CBO) Investment-grade bonds backed by a collection of junk bonds with different levels of risk, called tiers, that are determined by the quality of junk bond involved. CBOs backed by highly risky junk bonds receive higher interest rates than other CBOs. Collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) A security backed by a pool of pass-through rates , structured so that there are several classes of bondholders with varying maturities, called tranches. The principal payments from the underlying pool of pass-through securities are used to retire the bonds on a priority basis as specified in the prospectus. Related: mortgage pass-through security. Collection The presentation of a negotiable instrument for payment, or the conversion of any accounts receivable into cash. Collection float The period between the time is deposited a check in an account and the time funds are made available. Collection fractions The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each month following the month of sale. Collection period See: Collection ratio Collection policy Procedures a firm follows in attempting to collect accounts receivables. Collection ratio The ratio of a company's accounts receivable to its average daily sales, which gives the average number of days it takes the company to convert receivables into cash. Collective wisdom The combination of all the individual opinions about a stock's or security's value. COLT (Continuous on-line trading system) Computerized OTC traders assistance system that provides for trade entry and position monitoring, among other functions. Comanager A bank that ranks just below a lead manager in a syndicated Eurocredit or international bond issue. Comanagers may assist the lead manager bank in the pricing and issue of the instrument. Combination Applies to derivative products. Arrangement of options involving two long or two short positions with different expiration dates or strike (exercise) prices. See: Straddle. Combination annuity See: Hybrid annuity Combination bond + A bond backed by the government unit issuing it as well as by revenue from the project that is to be financed by the bond. Combination order See: Alternative order Combination matching Also called horizon-matching, a variation of multiperiod immunization and cash flow-matching in which a portfolio is created that is always duration-matched and also cash-matched in the first few years. Combination strategy A strategy in which a put and call with the same strike price and expiration are either both bought or both sold. Related: Straddle Combined financial statement A financial statement that merges the assets, liabilities, net worth, and operating figures of two or more affiliated companies. A combined statement is distinguished from a consolidated financial statement of a company and subsidiaries, which must reconcile investment and capital accounts. Come in In the context of general equities, a fall in price. Come out of the trade In the context of general equities, trader's position in a security that results from executing a trade (or the expectations thereof). Antithesis of going into the trade. Comeout In the context of general equities, the opening. Antithesis of the close. COMEX A division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). Formerly known as the Commodity Exchange, COMEX is the leading U.S. market for metals futures and options trading. Comfort letter A letter from an independent auditor in securities underwriting agreements to assure that information in the registration statement and prospectus is correctly prepared to the best of the auditor's knowledge. Commercial draft Demand for payment. Commercial hedgers Companies that take futures positions in commodities so that they can guarantee prices at which they will buy raw materials or sell their products. Commercial loan A short-term loan, typically 90 days, used by a company to finance seasonal working capital needs. Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities Similar to MBS but backed by loans secured with commercial rather than residential property. Commercial property includes multi-family, retail, office, etc., They are not standardized so there are a lot of details associated with structure, credit enhancement, diversification, etc., that need to be understood when valuing these instruments. Commercial paper Short-term unsecured promissory notes issued by a corporation. The maturity of commercial paper is typically less than 270 days; the most common maturity range is 30 to 50 days or less. Commercial property Real estate that produces some sort of income-producing property. Commercial risk The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events, such as bankruptcy. Commingling In the context of securities, this involves mixing customer-owned securities with brokerage firm-owned securities. This process is referred to as rehypothecation, which is the use of customers' collateral to secure their loans. This is legal with customer consent, although some securities and collateral must be kept separately. Commission The fee paid to a broker to execute a trade, based on number of shares, bonds, options, and/or their dollar value. In 1975, deregulation led to the establishment of discount brokers, who charge lower commissions than full service brokers. Full service brokers offer advice and usually have a staff of analysts who follow specific industries. Discount brokers simply execute a client's order and usually do not offer an opinion on a stock. Also known as a round-turn. Commission broker A broker on the floor of an exchange who acts as agent for a particular brokerage house and buys and sells stocks for the brokerage house on a commission basis. Commission house A firm that buys and sells futures contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures commission merchant, omnibus account. Commitment Describes a trader's obligation to accept or make delivery on a futures contract. Related: Open interest. Commitment fee A fee paid to a commercial bank in return for its legal commitment to lend funds that have not yet been advanced. Often used in risk arbitrage. Payment to institutional investors in the U.K. (pension funds and life insurance companies) by the lead underwriter of a takeover that takes place when the underwriter provides the target company's shareholders with a cash alternative for a target company's shares in exchange for the bidding companies' shares. The payment is typically 0.5% for the first 30 days, 1.25% for each week thereafter, and a final 0.75% acceptance payment when the takeover is completed. Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures (CUSIP) Committee that assigns identifying numbers and codes for all securities. These "CUSIP" numbers and symbols are used when recording all buy or sell orders. Commodities Exchange Center (CEC) The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity Exchange, Inc. (COMEX); the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX); New York Cotton Exchange, Coffee, Sugar ;&; Cocoa Exchange (CS;&;CE), and New York Futures Exchange (NYFE). Commodity A commodity is food, metal, or another fixed physical substance that investors buy or sell, usually via futures contracts. Commodity-backed bond A bond with interest payments tied to the price of an underlying commodity. Commodity futures contract An agreement to buy a specific amount of a commodity at a specified price on a particular date in the future, allowing a producer to guarantee the price of a product or raw material used in production. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) An agency created by the U.S. Congress in 1974 to regulate exchange trading in futures. Commodity indexs Indexs measuring the price and performance of physical commodities, often by the price of futures contracts for the commodities that are listed on commodity exchanges. Commodity paper A loan or advance secured by commodities. Common-base-year analysis The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages of amounts in an initial year. Common code A nine-digit identification code issued jointly by CEDEL and Euroclear. As of January 1991 common codes replaced the earlier separate CEDEL and Euroclear codes. Common market An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital and labor as well as goods and services. Common shares In general, a public corooration has two types of shares, common and preferred. The common shares usually entitle the shareholders to vote at shareholders meetings. The common shares have a discretionary dividend. Common-size analysis The representing of balance sheet items as percentages of assets and of income statement items as percentages of sales. Common-size statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of analyzing trends and changing relationship among financial statement items. For example, all items in each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales. Common stock Securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security. Units of ownership of a public corporation with junior status to the claims of secured/unsecured creditors, bondholders and preferred shareholders in the event of liquidation. Common stock equivalent A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned common stock is trading at a high price. Common stock fund A mutual fund investing only in common stock. Common stock market The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock. Common stock/other equity Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained earnings. Also called shareholders' equity. Common stock ratios Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings (cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm. Companion bonds A class of a Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO) whose principal is paid off first when the underlying mortgages are prepaid due to falling interest rates. When interest rates rise, there will be lower prepayments of the principal; companion bonds therefore absorb most of the prepayment risk of a CMO. Company A proprietorship, partnership, corporation, or other form of enterprise that engages in business. Company doctor An executive, usually appointed from outside, brought in to turn a company around and make it profitable. Company-specific risk Related: Unsystematic risk Comparative credit analysis Comparing a firm to others that have a desired target debt rating in order to deduce an appropriate financial ratio target. Comparative statements Financial statements for different periods, that allo the comparson of figures to illustrate trends in a company's performance. Comparison Short for "comparison ticket," a memorandum between two brokers that confirms the details of a transaction to be carried out. Comparison universe A group of money managers of similar investment style used to assess relative performance of a portfolio manager. Compensating balance An excess balance that is left in a bank to provide indirect compensation for loans extended or services provided. Competence Sufficient ability or fitness for one's needs. The necessary abilities to be qualified to achieve a certain goal or complete a project. Competition Intra- or intermarket rivalry between or among businesses trying to obtain a larger piece of the same market share. Competition ahead Often used in risk arbitrage. Situation whereby another O.T.C. market maker has transacted with investment bank at the stated market level before the bid/offer has been made. Competitive bidding A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell. Competitive offering An offering of securities through competitive bidding. Complete In the context of general equities, to fill an order. Complete capital market A market in which there is a distinctive marketable security for each and every possible outcome. Complete portfolio The entire portfolio, including risky and risk-free assets. Completion bonding Insurance that a construction contract will be completed successfully. Completion risk The risk that a project will not be brought into operation successfully. Completion undertaking An undertaking either (1) to complete a project so that it meets certain specified performance criteria on or before a certain specified date, or (2) to repay project debt if the completion test cannot be met. Compliance department A department in all organized stock exchanges to ensure that all companies, traders, and brokerage firms comply with Securities and Exchange Commission and exchange rules and regulations. Composite tape See: Tape Composition Voluntary arrangement to restructure a firm's debt, under which payment is reduced. Compound annual return See: Internal rate of return Compound growth rate The rate of growth of a figure, compounded over some period of time. Compound interest Interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal. Compound option Option on an option. Compounding The process of accumulating the time value of money forward in time. For example, interest earned in one period earns additional interest during each subsequent time period. Compounding frequency The number of compounding periods in a year. For example, quarterly compounding has a compounding frequency of 4. Compounding period The length of the time period that elapses before interest compounds (a quarter in the case of quarterly compounding). Comprehensive due diligence investigation The investigation of a firm's business in conjunction with a securities offering to determine whether the firm's business and financial situation and its prospects are adequately disclosed in the prospectus for the offering. Comptroller of the Currency A government official, appointed by the president, who keeps control over all national banks, and receives reports from the banks at least quarterly, to be published in newspapers. Computerized market timing system A computer system that compiles large amounts of trading data in search of patterns and trends to make buy and sell recommendations. Concave Property that a curve is below a straight line connecting two end points. If the curve falls above the straight line, it is called convesity. Concentration account A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations (lockboxes) are transferred. Concentration services Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration account from which disbursements and investments are made. Concession The per-share or per-bond compensation of a selling group for participating in a corporate underwriting. Concession agreement An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the rules under which the company can operate locally. Conditional call Applies mainly to convertible securities. Circumstances under which a company can effect an earlier call, usually stated as percentage of a stock's trading price during a particular period, such as 140% of the exercise price during a 40-day trading span. Conditional call options A protective guarantee that, in the event a hign yield bond is called, the issuing corporation will replace the bond with a noncallable bond of the same life and terms as the bond that is being called. Conditional sales contracts Similar to equipment trust certificates, except that the lender is either the equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to which the manufacturer has sold the conditional sales contract. Condor Applies to derivative products. Option strategy consisting of both puts and calls at different strike prices to capitalize on a narrow range of volatility. The payoff diagram takes the shape of a bird. Conduit theory A theory that because investment companies are merely conduits for capital gains, dividends, and interest, which are in fact passed through to shareholders, the investment company should not be taxed at the corporate level. Confidence indicator A measure of investors' faith in the economy and the securities market. A low or deteriorating level of confidence is considered by many technical analysts as a bearish sign. Confidence letter Statement by an investment bank that it is highly confident that the financing for its client/acquirer's takeover can and will be obtained. Often used in risk arbitrage. Confidence level In risk analysis, the degree of assurance that a specified failure rate is not exceeded. "Confirm me out" Used for listed equity securities. "Go to the floor and check with the specialist or floor broker that my previously active order has been cancelled and was not executed". One does not have to honor any trade reported after given a "firm out". Confirmation The written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. Confirmation is issued immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc. Conflict between bondholders and stockholders Bondholders and stockholders may have interests in a corporation that conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective covenants in bond documents work to resolve these conflicts. Conforming loans Mortgage loans that meet the qualifications of Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae, which are bought from lenders and issued as pass-through securities. Conglomerate A firm engaged in two or more unrelated businesses. Conglomerate merger A merger involving two or more firms that are in unrelated businesses. Consensus forecast The mean of all financial analysts' forecasts for a company. Consol A government bond with no maturity . Popular in Great Britain. The formula for valuing these bonds is simple. The consol payment divided by yield to maturity is the price of the bond. Consolidated financial statement A financial statement that shows all the assets, liabilities, and operating accounts of a parent company and its subsidiaries. Consolidated mortgage bond A bond that covers several units of property, sometimes refinancing mortgages on the properties. Consolidated tape Used for listed equity securities. Combined ticker tapes of the NYSE and the curb. Network A covers the NYSE-listed securities and is used to identify the originating market. Network B does the same for AMEX-listed securities and also reports on securities listed on regional stock exchanges. See: tape. Consolidated tax return A tax return combining the reports of affiliated companies, that are at least 80% owned by a parent company. Consolidation The combining of two or more firms to form an entirely new entity. Consolidation loan A loan that is used to combine and finance payments on other loans. Consortium A group of companies that cooperate and share resources in order to achieve a common objective. Consortium banks A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the same nationality. Consortium banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication. Constant-dollar plan Method of purchasing securities by investing a fixed amount of money at set intervals. The investor buys more shares when the price is low and fewer shares when the price is high, thus reducing the overall cost. Constant dollars Dollars of a base year used as a general measure of purchasing power. Constant-growth model Also called the Gordon-Shapiro model, an application of the dividend discount model that assumes (1) a fixed growth rate for future dividends, and (2) a single discount rate. Constant ratio plan Maintaining a predetermined ratio between stock and fixed income investments through regular adjustments of distribution of funds into different investments. See: formula investing. Constant yield method Allocation of annual interest on a zero-coupon security for income tax use. Construction loan A short-term loan to finance building costs. Constructive receipt The date a taxpayer receives dividends or other income, for use in the determination of taxes. Consumer credit Credit a firm grants to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. Also called retail credit. Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968 Federal legislation establishing rules for the disclosure of the terms of a loan to protect borrowers. See: Truth in lending. Consumer debenture An investment note issued directly to the public by a financial institution. Consumer durables Consumer products that are expected to last three years or more, such as an automobile or a home appliance. Consumer finance company See: Finance company Consumer goods Goods not used in production but, bought for personal or household use such as food, clothing, and entertainment. Consumer interest Interest paid on consumer loans; e.g., interest on credit cards and retail purchases. Consumer Price Index The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S. Department of Labor publishes the CPI every month. Consumption tax See: Value-added tax Contagion Excess correlation of equity or bond returns. For example, under usual conditions we might observe a certain level of correlation of market returns. A period of contagion would be associated with much higher-than-expected correlation. Some examples are the conjectured contagion in East Asian markets beginning in July 1997 when the Thai currency devalued and the impact across many emerging markets of the Russian default. Contagion is difficult to identify because you need some sort of measure of the expected correlation. It is complicated because correlations are known to change through time, for example, see Erb, Harvey and Viskanta's article in the 1994 Financial Analysts Journal. In periods of negative returns, correlations (and volatility) are known to increase, so what might appear to be excessive may not be contagion. Contango A market condition in which futures prices are higher in the distant delivery months. Contingency order In the context of general equities, order to buy one security, if the trader can sell another, usually given that certain price limits or conditions reach a certain level. Swap, switch order. Contingent claim A claim that can be made only if one or more specified outcomes occur. Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC) The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund. Contingent immunization An arrangement in which the money manager pursues an active bond portfolio strategy until an adverse investment experience drives the then-available potential return down to the safety net level. When that point is reached, the money manager is obligated to pursue an immunization strategy to lock in the safety-net level return. Contingent pension liability Under ERISA, a firm is liable to its pension plan participants for up to 39% of the net worth of the firm. Continuous compounding The process of accumulating the time value of money forward in time on a continuous, or instantaneous, basis. Interest is earned constantly, and at each instant, the interest that accrues immediately begins earning interest on itself. Continuous net settlement (CNS) Method of securities clearing and settlement using a clearing house, which matches transactions to securities available, resulting in one net receive or deliver position at the end of the day. Continuous random variable A random value that can take any fractional value within specified ranges, as contrasted with a discrete variable. Contra broker The broker on the buy side of a sell order or the sell side of a buy order. Contract A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual bilateral agreement between the buyer and seller of a transaction as defined by an exchange. Contract month The month in which futures contracts may be satisfied by making or accepting a delivery. Contractual plan A plan in which fixed dollar amounts of mutual fund shares are purchased through periodic investments, usually featuring some sort of additional incentive for the fixed period payments. Contramarket stock In the context of general equities, stock that tends to go against the trend of the market as a whole, such as a commodities-related stock or one in an industry out of favor with investors in a bull market. Contrarian An investment style that leads one to buy assets that have performed poorly and sell assets that have performed well. There are two possible reasons this strategy might work. The first is a mean-reversion argument; that is, if the asset has deviated from its usual level, it should eventually return to that usual level. The second reason has to do with overreaction. Investors might have overreacted to bad news sending the asset price lower than it should be. Contributed capital See: Paid-in capital Contribution margin The difference between variable revenue and variable cost. Control 50% of the outstanding votes plus one vote. Control person See: Affiliated person Control stock The shares owned by the controlling shareholders of a corporation. Controlled commodities Commodities regulated by the Commodities Exchange Act of 1936 in order to prevent fraud and manipulation in commodities futures markets. Controlled disbursement A service that provides for a single presentation of checks each day (typically in the early part of the day). Controlled foreign corporation (CFC) A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power. Controller The corporate manager responsible for the firm's accounting activities. Convenience yield The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than a future position. Convention statement An annual statement filed by a life insurance company in each state where it does business in compliance with that state's regulations. The statement and supporting documents show, among other things, the assets, liabilities, and surplus of the reporting company. Conventional mortgage A loan based on the credit of the borrower and on the collateral for the mortgage. Conventional option An option contract arranged off the trading floor and not traded regularly. Conventional pass-throughs Also called private-label pass-throughs, any mortgage pass-through security not guaranteed by government agencies. Compare agency pass-throughs. Conventional project A project with a negative initial cash flow (cash outflow), which is expected to be followed by one or more future positive cash flows (cash inflows). Convergence The movement of the price of a futures contract toward the price of the underlying cash commodity. At the start, the contract price is higher because of time value. But as the contract nears expiration, and time value decreases, the futures price and the cash price converge. Conversion In the context of securities, refers to the exchange of a convertible security such as a bond into stock. In the context of mutual funds, refers to the free exchange of mutual fund shares from one fund to another in a single family. Conversion factors Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each acceptable deliverable Treasury issue against the Treasury Bond futures contract. Conversion feature Specification of the right to transform a particular investment to another form of investment, such as switching between mutual funds or converting preferred stock or bonds to common stock. Conversion parity See: Market conversion price Conversion parity price Related: Market conversion price Conversion parity/value Applies mainly to convertible securities. Common stock price at which a convertible bond can become exchangeable for common shares of equal value; value of a convertible bond based solely on the market value of the underlying equity. Par value + conversion ratio. See bond value, investment value, parity. Conversion premium The extent by which the conversion price of a convertible security exceeds the prevailing common stock price at the time the convertible security is issued. Conversion price Applies mainly to convertible securities. Dollar value at which convertible bonds, debentures, or preferred stock can be converted into common stock, as specified when the convertible is issued. Conversion ratio Applies mainly to convertible securities. Relationship that determines how many shares of common stock will be received in exchange for each convertible bond or preferred stock when a conversion takes place. It is determined at the time of issue and is expressed either as a ratio or as a conversion price from which the ratio can be figured by dividing the par value of the convertible by the conversion price. Conversion value The value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately. Also called parity value. Convertibility The ability to exchange a currency without government restrictions or controls. Convertible adjustable preferred stock (Caps) The interest rate on caps is adjustable and is pegged to Treasury security rates. They can be exchanged at par value for common stock or cash after the next period's dividend rates are revealed. Convertible arbitrage A practice, usually of buying a convertible bond and shorting a percentage of the equivalent underlying common shares, to create a positive cash flow position (with expected returns above the riskless rate) in a static environment and benifit from capital appreciation should the convertible's premium. This form of investing is far from riskless and requires constant monitoring. See: Chinese hedge and set-up. Convertible bond General debt obligation of a corporation that can be exchanged for a set number of common shares of the issuing corporation at a prestated conversion price. Convertible eurobond A eurobond that can be converted into another asset, often through exercise of attached warrants. Convertible exchangeable preferred stock Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred stock. Convertible 100 Goldman Sachs index of the 100 convertibles of greatest institutional importance. Weighted by issue size, it measures the performance of its components against that of their underlying common stock and against other broad market indexs as well. Convertible preferred stock Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder. See also: participating convertible preferred stock. Convertible price The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be converted into shares of common stock. Convertible security A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the securityholder; includes convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock. Convex Curved, as in the shape of the outsid of a circle. Usually referring to the price/required yield relationship for option-free bonds. Convexity Property that a curve is above a straight line connecting two end points. If the curve falls below the straight line, it is called concave. Cook the books To deliberately falsify the financial statements of a company. This is an illegal practice. Cooling-off period The period of time between the filing of a preliminary prospectus with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the actual public offering of the securities. Cooperative An organization owned by its members. Examples are agriculture cooperatives that assist farmers in selling their products more efficiently and apartment buildings owned by the residents who have full control of the property. Copenhagen Stock Exchange The only securities exchange in Denmark. It features electronic trading of stocks, bonds, futures, and options. Core capital The capital required of a thrift institution, which must be at least 2% of assets to meet the rules of the Federal Home Loan Bank. Core competence Primary area of expertise. Narrowly defined fields or tasks at which a company or business excels. Primary areas of specialty. Cornering the market Purchasing a security or commodity in such volume as to achieve control over its price. An illegal practice. Corporate acquisition The acquisition of one firm by another firm. Corporate bonds Debt obligations issued by corporations. Corporate charter A legal document creating a corporation. Corporate equivalent yield A comparison of the after-tax yield of government bonds selling at a discount and corporate bonds selling at par. Corporate finance One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm (both the investment decision and the financing decision) from the firm's point of view. Corporate financial management The application of financial principles within a corporation to create and maintain value through decision-making and proper resource management. Corporate financial planning Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both long-and short-term financial plans. Corporate financing committee A committee of the NASD that reviews underwriters' SEC-required documents to ensure that proposed markups are fair and in the public interest. Corporate income fund (CIF) A unit investment trust featuring a fixed portfolio of high-grade securities and other investments, usually with monthly distribution of income. Corporate processing float The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the deposit of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer payments. Corporate repurchase Active buying by a corporation of its own stock in the marketplace. Reasons for repurchase include putting idle cash to use, raising EPS, creating support for a stock price, increasing internal control (shark repellant), or stock for ESOP or pension plans. Repurchase is subject to rules, such as that buying must be on a zero minus or a minus tick, after the opening and before 3:30 p.m. Corporate tax view The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes debt a cheaper financing method. Corporate taxable equivalent Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to maturity that the quoted premium or discount bond would generate. Corporation A legal entity that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own assets, incur liabilities, and sell securities, among other things. Corpus See: Principal Correction Reverse movement, usually downward, in the price of an individual stock, bond, commodity, or index. If prices have been rising on the market as a whole, and then fall dramatically, this is know as a correction within an upward trend. Antithesis of a technical rally. See: Dip, break. Correlation Statistical measure of the degree to which the movements of two variables (stock/option/convertible prices or returns) are related. See: Correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables, defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables. Correspondent A financial organization that performs services (acts as an intermediary) in a market for another organization that does not have access to that market. Cost accounting A branch of accounting that provides information to help the management of a firm evaluate production costs and efficiency. Cost basis The original price of an asset, used to determine capital gains. Cost-benefit ratio The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called the profitability index. Cost of capital The required return for a capital budgeting project. Cost of carry Out-of-pocket costs incurred while an investor has an investment position. Examples include interest on long positions in margin account, dividend lost on short margin positions, and incidental expenses. Related: Net financing cost. Cost-of-carry market Applies to derivative products. Futures contracts trade in a "cost-of-carry market" where the underlying commodity can be stored, insured, and converted into the future easily and inexpensively. Arbitrageurs, because of the ease of switching from the spot commodity to futures, will keep these markets in line with prevailing interest rates. Cost company arrangement Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project. Cost of equity The required rate of return for an investment of 100% equity. Cost of funds Interest rate associated with borrowing money. Cost of goods sold The total cost of buying raw materials, and paying for all the factors that go into producing finished goods. Cost of lease financing A lease's internal rate of return. Cost of limited partner capital The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital raised from limited partners. "Cost me" Refers to over-the-counter trading. "The price I must pay to obtain the securities you wish to buy is [$]". Usually, a standard markup (1/8) is then applied for resale to this buyer. Antithesis of can get. Cost-plus contract A contract in which the selling price is based on the total cost of production plus a fixed percentage or fixed amount. Cost-push inflation Inflation caused by rising prices, usually from increased raw material or labor costs that push up the costs of production. Related: Demand-pull inflation. Cost records The records maintained by an investor of the prices at which securities transactions are made, so that capital gains can be computed. Council of Economic Advisers A group of economists appointed by the President of the United States to provide economic counsel and help prepare the president's budget presentation to Congress. Countercyclical stocks Stocks whose price tends to rise when the economy is in recession or the market is bearish, and vice versa. Counter trade The exchange of goods for other goods rather than for cash; barter. Counterpart items In the balance of payments, counterpart items are analogous to unrequited transfers in the current account. They arise through the double-entry system in balance of payments accounting and refer to adjustments in reserves owing to monetization or demonetization of gold, allocation or cancellation of SDRs, and revaluation of the various components of total reserves. Counterparties The parties to an interest rate swap. Counterparty Party on the other side of a trade or transaction. Counterparty risk The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed. Country beta Covariance of a national economy's rate of return and the rate of return of the world economy divided by the variance of the world economy. Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international financial transaction. Country financial risk Centers around the ability of a national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt. Country risk General level of political, financial, and economic uncertainty in a country affect which the value of loans or investments in that country. Country selection A type of active international management that measures the contribution to performance attributable to investing in the better-performing stock markets of the world. Coupon The periodic interest payment made to the bondholders during the life of the bond. Coupon bond A bond featuring coupons that must be presented to the issuer in order to receive interest payments. Coupon-equivalent rate See: Eequivalent bond yield Coupon equivalent yield True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year. Coupon pass Canvassing by the desk of primary dealers to determine the inventory and maturities of their Treasury securities. The desk then decides whether to buy or sell certain issues (coupons) in order to add or withdraw reserves. Coupon payments A bond's interest payments. Coupon rate In bonds, notes, or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually paid twice a year. Covariance A statistical measure of the degree to which random variables move together. A positive covariance implies that one variable is above (below) its mean value when the other variable is above (below) its mean value. Covenants Provisions in a bond indenture or preferred stock agreement that require the bond or preferred stock issuer to take certain specified actions (affirmative covenants) or to refrain from taking certain specified actions (negative covenants). Cover The purchase of a contract to offset a previously established short position. Coverage See: Fixed-charge coverage Coverage initiated Usually refers to the fact that analysts begin following a particular security. This usually happens when there is enough trading in to warrant attention by the investment community. Coverage ratios Ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed-charge coverage ratio. Covered call A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it. Covered call writing strategy A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor owns. See: Covered or hedge option strategies. Covered interest arbitrage Occurs when a portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign currency and hedges the resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for dollars. Covered or hedge option strategies Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other, including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: Naked strategies Covered option Option position that is offset by an equal and opposite position in the underlying security. Antithesis of naked option. Covered put A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put option. Covered writer An investor who writes options only on stock that he or she owns, so that option positions may be collected. CPI A measure of inflation. See: Consumer Price Index. Cramdown The ability of the bankruptcy court to confirm a plan of reorganization over the objections of some classes of creditors. Cram-down deal A merger in which stockholders are forced to accept undesirable terms, such as junk bonds instead of cash or equity, due to the absence of any better alternatives. Crash Dramatic loss in market value. The last great crash was in 1929. Some refer to October 1987 as a crash but the market return was positive. Crawling peg An automatic system for revising the exchange rate. It involves establishing a par value around which the rate can vary up to a given percent. The par value is revised regularly according to a formula determined by the authorities. Credible signal A signal that provides accurate information; a signal that can distinguish among senders. Credit Money loaned. Credit analysis Evaluating information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: Default risk. Credit balance The surplus in a cash account with a broker after purchases have been paid for, plus the extra cash from the sale of securities. Credit bureau An agency that researches the credit history of consumers so that creditors can make decisions about granting of loans. Credit enhancement Purchase of the financial guarantee of a large insurance company to raise funds. Credit insurance Insurance against abnormal losses due to unpaid accounts receivable. Credit period The length of time for which a firm's customer is granted credit. Credit rating An evaluation of an individual's or company's ability to repay obligations or its likelihood of not defaulting See: Creditworthiness. Credit risk The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on its obligations, or that the payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk. Credit scoring A statistical technique that combines several financial characteristics to form a single score to represent a customer's creditworthiness. Credit spread Applies to derivative products. Difference in the value of two options, when the value of the one sold exceeds the value of the one bought. One sells a "credit spread." Antithesis of a debit spread Related: Quality spread. Credit union A not-for-profit institution that is operated as a cooperative and offers financial services such as low-interest loans, to its members. Credit watch A warning by a bond rating firm indicating that a company's credit rating may change after the current review is concluded. Crediting rate The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy. Creditor Lender of money. Creditor's committee A group representing firms that have claims on a company facing bankruptcy or extreme financial difficulty. Creditworthiness Eligibility of an individual or firm to borrow money. Creeping tender offer The process by which a group attempting to circumvent certain provisions of the Williams Act gradually acquires shares of a target company in the open market. CREST CREST is CrestCo's real-time settlement system for U.K. and Irish shares and other corporate securities. CrestCo has provided settlement systems for government bonds and money market instruments in the U.K. since 1990. Cross Securities transaction in which the same broker acts as agent for both sides of the trade; a legal practice only if the broker first offers the securities publicly at a price higher than the bid. Cross-border risk Describes the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent. Cross-default A provision under which default on one debt obligation triggers default on another debt obligation. Cross hedging Applies to derivative products. Hedging with a futures contract that is different from the underlying being hedged. Use of a hedging instrument different from the security being hedged. Hedging instruments are usually selected to have the highest price correlation to the underlying. Cross-holdings The holding by one corporation of shares in another firm. One needs to allow for cross-holdings when aggregating capitalizations of firms. Ignoring cross-holdings leads to double-counting. Cross rates The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates that are both expressed in terms of a third currency. Foreign exchange rate between two currencies other than the U.S. dollar, the currency in which most exchanges are usually quoted. Cross-sectional approach A statistical methodology applied to a set of firms at a particular time. Cross-share holdings Often used in risk arbitrage. Corporations' or governments' equity share ownership in another corporation's shares. Crossed market In the context of general equities, happens when the inside market consists of a highest bid price that is higher than the lowest offer price. See: Overlap the market. Crossed trade The prohibited practice of offsetting buy and sell orders without recording the trade on the exchange, thus not allowing other traders to take advantage of a more favorable price. Crossover rate The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value. Crowd trading Used for listed equity securities. Group of exchange members with a defined area of function tending to congregate around a trading post pending execution of orders. Includes specialists, floor traders, odd-lot dealers, and other brokers as well as smaller groups with specialized functions. See: Priority. Crowding out Heavy federal borrowing that drives interest rates up and prevents businesses and consumers from borrowing when they would like to. Crown jewel A particularly profitable or otherwise particularly valuable corporate unit or asset of a firm. Often used in risk arbitrage. The most desirable entities within a diversified corporation as measured by asset value, earning power, and business prospects; in takeover attempts, these entities typically are the main objective of the acquirer and may be sold by a takeover target to make the rest of the company less attractive. See: Scorched earth policy. Cum dividend With dividend; said of a stock whose buyer is eligible to receive a declared dividend. Stocks are usually "cum dividend" for trades made on or before the fifth trading day preceding the record date, when the register of eligible holders is closed for that dividend period. Antithesis of ex-dividend. Cum rights With rights. Cumulative abnormal return (CAR) Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock (systematic risk multiplied by the realized market return) and the actual return often used to evaluate the impact of news ona stock price. Cumulative dividend feature A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid in full before any common dividend payment is made. Cumulative preferred stock Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely dividend payments. Related: Non-cumulative preferred stock. Cumulative probability distribution A function that shows the probability that the random variable will attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on. Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The C.T.A. account is required under the FASB No. 52 rule. Cumulative voting A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of votes is equal to the number of shares held times the number of candidates. The Curb Used for listed equity securities. American Stock Exchange (AMEX). Currency Money. Currency arbitrage Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market. Currency basket The value of a portfolio of specific amounts of individual currencies, used as the basis for setting the market value of another currency. It is also referred to as a currency cocktail. Currency in circulation Paper money, coins, and demand deposits that constitute all the money circulating in the economy. Currency future A financial future contract for the delivery of a specified foreign currency. Currency hedge Applies mainly to international equities. Hedging technique to guard against foreign exchange fluctuations (i.e., short Euro l00 mm when holding a long position of Euro l00 mm in stocks). Currency option An option to buy or sell a foreign currency. Currency overvaluation Applies mainly to international equities: (1) consideration that a currency is overvalued if private demand for the currency at the going exchange rate is less than total private supply (i.e., central banks are buying up the difference, supporting the value of the currency through foreign exchange intervention); (2) currency value exceeding purchasing power parity. Currency risk Related: Exchange rate risk Currency selection Asset allocation in which the investor chooses among investments denominated in different currencies. Currency swap An agreement to swap a series of specified payment obligations denominated in one currency for a series of specified payment obligations denominated in a different currency. Current account Net flow of goods, services, and unilateral transactions (gifts) between countries. Current assets Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that could be converted to cash in less than 1 year. Current coupon A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk. Current-coupon issues Related: Benchmark issues Current income Money that is routinely received from investments in the form of dividends, interest, and other income sources. Current issue In Treasury securities, the most recently auctioned issue. Trading is more active in current issues than in off-the-run issues. Current liabilities Amount owed for salaries, interest, accounts payable and other debts due within 1 year. Current market value The value of a client's portfolio at today's market price, as listed in a brokerage statement. Current maturity Current time to maturity on an outstanding debt instrument. Current/noncurrent method The translation of all of a foreign subsidiary's current assets and liabilities into home currency at the current exchange rate while noncurrent assets and liabilities are translated at the historical exchange rate; that is, the rate in effect at the time the asset was acquired or the liability incurred. Current production rate The highest interest rate permissible on current Government National Mortgage Association, mortgage-backed securities. Current rate method The translation of all foreign currency balance sheet and income statement items at the current exchange rate. Current ratio Indicator of short-term debt-paying ability. Determined by dividing current assets by current liabilities. The higher the ratio, the more liquid the company. Currency risk sharing An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying transaction. Current yield For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond. Cushion The minimum period between the time a bond is issued and the time it is called. Cushion bonds High-coupon bonds that sell at only at a moderate premium because they are callable at a price below that at which a comparable noncallable bond would sell. Cushion bonds offer considerable downside protection in a falling market. Cushion theory The theory that a stock with many short positions taken in it will rise, because these positions must be covered by the stock. CUSIP number Unique number given to a security to distinguish it from other stocks and registered bonds. See: Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures. Custodial fees Fees charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor. Custodian bank Applies mainly to international equities. Bank or other financial institution that keeps custody of stock certificates and other assets of a mutual fund, individual, or corporate client. See: Depository Trust Company (DTC) Customary payout ratios A range of payout ratios that is typical according to an analysis of comparable firms. "Customer picking prices" Customer is firm on price and has set the price at which to transact. Customer's loan consent Agreement signed by a margin customer that allows a broker to borrow margined securities up to the level of the customer's debit balance to help cover other customers' short positions. Customers' net debit balance The total amount of credit given by NYSE member firms to finance customers purchasing securities. Customized benchmarks A benchmark that is designed to meet a client's requirements and long-term objectives. Customs union An agreement by two or more countries to erect a common external tariff and to abolish restrictions on trade among members. Cutoff point The lowest rate of return acceptable on investments. Cyclical stock Stock that tends to rise quickly when the economy turns up and fall quickly when the economy turns down. Examples are housing, automobiles, and paper. D Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that it is a new issue, such as the result of a reverse split. DCF See: Discounted cash flows DDM See: Discounted dividend model DISC See: Domestic International Sales Corporation DNR Order See: Do Not Reduce Order DOT See: Designated order turnaround system DRP See: Dividend reinvestment plan DTC See: Depository transfer check DTC See: Depository Trust Company Daily price limit The level at which many commodity, futures, and options markets are allowed to rise or fall in a day. Exchanges usually impose a daily price limit on each contract. Daisy chain Manipulation of the market by traders to create the illusion of active volume to attract investors. Date of issue Used in the context of bonds to refer to the date on which a bond is issued and when interest accrues to the bondholder. Used in the context of stocks to refer to the date trading begins on a new stock issued to the public. Date of payment Date dividend checks are mailed. Date of record Date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Dated date The date one uses to calculate accrued interest on various debt instruments, specifically bonds. Dates convention Treating cash flows as being received on exact dates-date 0, date 1, and so forth-as opposed to the end-of-year convention. Dating Credit extension beyond normal terms of a credit supplier. Dawn raid A term of British origin used to describe the purchase of all available shares of a target company at the market's open by a raider. A dawn raid is a surprise technique that allows the raider to gain a substantial share of the target company before the target company knows what is happening Day around order A day order that supersedes (cancels and replaces) the previous order by altering its size or price limit. Day of deposit to day of withdrawal account A bank account that pays interest according to the number of days that the money is actually on deposit. Day loan A loan from a bank to a broker prior to the delivery of securities. Upon the delivery of the securities, a day loan becomes a regular broker call loan for which securities serve as collateral. Day order In the context of general equities, request from a customer to either buy or sell stock, that, if not cancelled or executed the day it is placed, expires automatically. All orders are day orders unless otherwise specified. Traders often make calls before the opening to check for renewals. Day trading Establishing and liquidating the same position or positions within one day's trading. Days in receivables Average collection period. Days' sales in inventory ratio The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory. Days' sales outstanding Average collection period. De facto Existing in actual fact although not by official recognition. Dead cat bounce A small upmove in a bear market. Deal flow In investment banking, the rate at which new deals are referred to a brokerage firm. Deal stock Stock subject to merger or acquisition, either publicly announced or rumored. Dealer An entity that stands ready and willing to buy a security for its own account (at its bid price) or sell from its own account (at its ask price). Individual or firm acting as a principal in a securities transaction. Principals are market makers in securities, and thus trade for their own account and risk. Antithesis of broker. See: Agency. Dealer loan Overnight, collateralized loan from a money market bank made to a dealer financing his position by borrowing. Dealer market Where traderss specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their own accounts. Dealer options Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed securities dealers. Dealer's spread See: markdown; underwriting spread. Dear money British term for tight money. Death-backed bonds Bonds backed by loans of a policyholder against a life insurance policy. The policyholder will repay the loans while alive or with the benefits from the insurance policy upon death. Death play A stock strategy that buys stock on the belief that a key executive will die, the company will be dissolved, and shares will command a higher price at their private market value. Death Valley Curve In venture capital, refers to the period before a new company starts generating revenues, when it is difficult for the company to raise money. Debenture Any debt obligation backed strictly by the borrower's integrity, e.g. an unsecured bond. A debenture is documented in an indenture. Debenture bond An unsecured bond whose holder has the claim of a general creditor on all assets of the issuer not pledged specifically to secure other debt. Compare subordinated debenture bond and collateral trust bonds. Debenture stock A type of stock that makes fixed payments at scheduled intervals of time. Debenture stock differs from a debenture in that it has the status of equity, not debt, in liquidation. Debit balance The amount that is owed to a broker by a margin customer for loans the customer uses to buy securities. Debit spread Applies to derivative products. Difference in the value of two options, when the value of the option bought exceeds the value of the one sold. One buys a "debit spread." Antithesis of a credit spread. Debt Money borrowed. Debt bomb A default on debt and obligations by a major financial institution that disrupts the stability of the economic system. Debt capacity Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no longer increases. Debt ceiling See: Debt limit Debt displacement The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing are curtailed in their debt capacity. Debt/equity ratio Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided by shareholders. Determined by dividing long-term debt by common stockholder equity. Debt instrument An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond. Debt leverage Amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed partially with borrowed money. Debt limit The maximum amount that a municipality can borrow. Debt limitation A bond covenant that restricts the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness in some way. Debt market The market for trading debt instruments. Debt ratio Total debt divided by total assets. Debt relief Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on Less developed country loans. Debt retirement The complete repayment of debt. See: Sinking fund. Debt securities IOUs created through loan-type transactions-commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and other instruments. Debt service Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors (retirement of debt). Debt service coverage The ratio of cash flow available to the borrower to the annual interest and principal payments on a loan or other debt. Debt-service coverage ratio Earnings before interest and income taxes, divided by interest expense plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one minus the tax rate. Debt service parity approach Payment alternatives that provide the firm with the exact same schedule of after-tax debt payments (including both interest and principal). Debt swap A set of transactions in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local equity. Also called a debt-equity swap. Debtholder See: Bondholder Debtor Borrower of money. Debtor in possession A firm that continues to operate under the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process. Debtor-in-possession financing New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process. Decile rank Performance over time, rated on a scale of 1-10. 1 indicates that a mutual fund's return is in the top 10% of funds being compared; while 3 means the return is in the top 30%. Decimal trading The quotation and trading of stock prices in decimals, as opposed to the quotation of stock prices in fractions of a dollar. Decision tree Schematic way of representing alternative sequential decisions and the possible outcomes from these decisions. Declaration date The date on which a firm's directors meet and announce the date and amount of the next dividend. Declare The Board of Directors motion to authorize dividend payments. Dedicated capital Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also called dedicated value. Dedicating a portfolio Related: Cash flow matching Dedication strategy Refers to multiperiod cash-flow matching. Deduction An expense that is allowable as a reduction of gross taxable income by the IRS e.g., charity donations. Deductive reasoning Using known fact to draw a conclusion about a specific situation. Deed of trust See: Indenture Deep-discount bond A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon that sell at a price far below par value. A bond that has no coupon is called a zero-coupon bond. Deep in/out of the money A call option with an exercise price substantially below the underlying stock's market price (deep in the money) or substantially above the market price (deep out of the money). Also put option with an exercise price substantially above the underlying stock's market price (deep in the money) or substantially below the underlying stock's market price (deep out of the money). Default Failure to make timely payment of interest or principal on a debt security or to otherwise comply with the provisions of a bond indenture. Default premium A differential in promised yield that compensates the investor for the risk inherent in purchasing a corporate bond that entails some risk of default. Default risk The risk that an issuer of a bond may be unable to make timely principal and interest payments. Also referred to as credit risk (as gauged by commercial rating companies). Defeasance The setting aside by a borrower of cash or bonds sufficient to service the borrower's debt. Both the borrower's debt and the offsetting cash or bonds are removed from the balance sheet. Defensive securities Low-risk stocks or bonds that will provide a predictable and safe return on an investor's money. Deferred account A type of account that delays taxes on that account until some later date. Deferred annuities Tax-advantaged life insurance products. Deferred annuities offer deferral of taxes with the option of withdrawing one's funds in the form of life annuity. Deferred call A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this period the bond is said to be call protected. Deferred charge An expenditure treated as an asset that carries forward until it becomes pertinent to the business at hand, e.g., advance rent payment. Deferred compensation An amount that has been earned but is not actually paid until a later date, typically through a payment plan, pension, or stock option plan. Deferred equity A common term for convertible bonds, which recognizes their equity component and the expectation that the bond will ultimately be converted into shares of common stock. Deferred futures The most distant months of a futures contract. Deferred interest bond A bond that pays interest at a later date, usually in one lump sum, effectively reinvesting interest earned over the life of the bond. See: Zero coupon bond. Deferred nominal life Annuity A monthly fixed-dollar payment beginning at retirement age. It is nominal because the payment is fixed in a dollar amount at any particular time, up to and including retirement. Deferred payment annuity An annuity that stipulates payments be made to the annuitant at a later date, such as when the annuitant reaches a certain age. Deferred taxes A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid. Deficiency letter Notification from the SEC to a prospective issuer of securities that revisions or additions need to be made to the preliminary prospectus. Deficit An excess of liabilities over assets, of losses over profits, or of expenditure over income. Deficit spending When government spending overwhelms government revenue resulting in government borrowing. See: Deficit financing. Defined asset fund A unit investment trust consisting of a fixed portfolio of securities, including blue chips, REITs, or high-yielding stocks on a major exchange such as the NYSE or FTSE. Defined benefit plan A pension plan obliging the sponsor to make specified dollar payments to qualifying employees. The pension obligations are effectively the debt obligation of the plan sponsor. Related: Defined contribution plan Defined contribution plan A pension plan whoae sponsor is responsible only for making specified contributions into the plan on behalf of qualifying participants. Related: Defined benefit plan Deflation Decline in the prices of goods and services. Antithesis of inflation. Deflator A statistical factor used to convert current dollar purchasing power into inflation-adjusted purchasing power. Enabling the comparison of prices while accounting for inflation in two different time periods. Delayed issuance pool Refers to mortgage backed securities (MBS) that at the time of issuance were collateralized by seasoned loans originated prior to the MBS pool issue date. Delayed opening Postponement of the start of trading in a stock until correction of a gross imbalance in buy and sell orders. Such an imbalance is likely to follow on the heels of a significant event such as a takeover offer. See: Suspended trading. Delayed settlement/delivery In the context of general equities, transaction in which a contract is settled in excess of five full business days. Seller's option. See: Dividend play, settlement. Delinquency Failure to make a payment on a debt or obligation by the specified due date. Delisting Removal of a company's security from listing on an exchange because the firm has not abided by specific regulations. Deliver The sale of a futures or forward contract may require the seller to deliver the commodity. Deliverable bills The Treasury bills that fulfill a set of guidelines set forth by the exchange on which the bills are traded. Deliverable instrument The asset in a forward contract that will be delivered in the future at an agreed-upon price. Delivery The tender and receipt of an actual commodity or financial instrument in settlement of a futures contract. Delivery date Date by which a seller must fulfill the obligations of a forward or futures contract. Delivery notice The written notice given by the seller of its intention to make delivery against an open, short futures position on a particular date. Related: Notice day. Delivery options The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options mean that the buyer is uncertain of which Treasury bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered. Delivery points Locaations designated by futures exchanges at which the financial instrument or commodity covered by a futures contract may be delivered in fulfillment of such a contract. Delivery price The price fixed by the clearinghouse at which deliveries on futures are invoiced; also the price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made. Delivery versus payment A transaction in which the buyer's payment for securities is due at the time of delivery (usually to a bank acting as agent for the buyer) upon receipt of the securities. The payment may be made by bank wire, check, or direct credit to an account. Delta The ratio of the change in price of a call option to the change in price of the underlying stock. Also called the hedge ratio. Applies to derivative products. Measure of the relationship between an option price and the underlying futures contract or stock price. For a call option, a delta of 0.50 means a half-point rise in premium for every dollar that the stock goes up. As options near expiration, in-the-money call option contracts approach a delta of 1.0, while in the money put options approach a delta of -1. See: hedge ratio, neutral hedge. Delta hedge A dynamic hedging strategy using options that calls for constant adjustment of the number of options used, as a function of the delta of the option. Delta neutral Describes value of a portfolio not affected by changes in the value of the asset on which the options are written. Demand deposits Checking accounts that pay no interest and from which funds can be withdrawn upon demand. Demand line of credit A bank line of credit that enables a customer to borrow on a daily or on-demand basis. Demand loan A loan which can be called by the lender at any time and carries no set maturity date. Demand master notes Short-term securities that are repayable immediately upon the holder's demand. Demand-pull inflation A theory of inflation or price increases resulting from so-called excess demand. Related: Cost-push inflation. Demand shock An event that affects the demand for goods and services in an economy. Denomination Corresponds to the face value of currency units, coins, and securities. Dependent Acceptance of a capital budgeting project contingent on the acceptance of another project. Deposit insurance See: FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act The 1980 federal legislation that ended the regulation of the banking industry. Depository preferred Device enabling an issuer to circumvent an arbitrary corporate limit on the number of preferred shares issuable. Applies mainly to convertible securities. Depository receipt See: ADR American Depository Receipt Depository transfer check (DTC) Check made out directly by a local bank to a particular firm or person. Depository Trust Company (DTC) DTC is a user-owned securities depository that accepts deposits of eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody. Central securities repository where stock and bond certificates are exchanged. Most of these exchanges now take place electronically, and few paper certificates actually change hands. The DTC is a member of the Federal Reserve System and is owned by most of the brokerage houses on Wall Street and the NYSE Depreciate To allocate the purchase cost of an asset over its life. Depreciated cost In terms of economics: The measure of cost of capital consumption during production, e.g., machine and equipment wear. In terms of finance: The process of amortization of fixed assets (equipment) to spread the cost over the depreciable life of the assets. Depreciation A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the period to amortize the cost of acquiring long-term assets over the useful life of the assets. Depreciation tax shield The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment. Depressed market Market in which supply overwhelms demand, leading to weak and lower prices. Depressed price In the context of stocks, stock whose market price is low in comparison to stocks in its sector. Depression Period when excess aggregate supply overwhelms aggregate demand, resulting in falling prices, unemployment problems, and economic contraction. Deregulation The reduction of government's role in controlling markets, which lead to freer markets, and presumably a more efficient marketplace. Derivative instruments Contracts such as options and futures whose price is derived from the price of an underlying financial asset. Derivative markets Markets for derivative instruments. Derivative security A financial security such as an option or future whose value is derived in part from the value and characteristics of another security, the underlying asset. Descending tops A chart pattern which in which each successive peak in a security's price is lower than the preceding peak over a period of time. Antithesis of ascending tops. Designated order turnaround system (DOT) Computerized order entry system that allows orders to buy or sell large baskets of stock to be transmitted immediately to the specialist on the exchange, where execution will occur quickly, depending on the basket size. Also used for odd-lot transactions to occur at the prices and quantities available. See: AOS. Desk The New York Federal Reserve Bank's trading desk (or securities department) where all transactions of the Federal Reserve System are executed in the money market or the government securities market. Detachable warrant A warrant entitles the holder to buy a given number of shares of stock at a stipulated price. A detachable warrant is one that may be sold separately from the package it may have originally been issued with (usually a bond). Deterministic models Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows are known with certainty. Related: Stochastic models. Detrend To remove the general drift, tendency, or bent of a set of statistical data as related to time. Often accomplished by regressing a variable or a time index and perhaps time-squared and capturing the residuals. Deutsche Börse AG (DBAG) Deutsche Börse AG (DBAG) is the operating company for the German cash and derivatives markets. It has four subsidiaries: Deutsche Börse Clearing AG, Deutsche Börse Systems AG, Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse (FWB), and the derivatives market, EUREX Deutschland (formerly the Deutsche Terminbörse ). Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of a currency. Often initiated by a government announcement. Diagonal spread An options strategy requiring a long and a short position in the same class of option at different strike prices and different expiration dates. For example, two puts or two calls in the same stock. See: Calendar spread; vertical spread. Dialing and smiling See: Cold calling Dialing for dollars A term used to describe the practice of cold calling, but which has negative implications as it is frequently applied to salespeople selling speculative or fraudulent investments. Diamonds Units of interest in the diamonds trust, a unit investment trust that serves as an index to the Dow Jones Industrial Average in that its holdings consist of the 30 component stocks of the Dow. Diff Short version of Euro rate differential, which is a Chicago Mercantile Exchange Futures contract that is founded on the interest rate spread between the U.S. dollar and the British pound, the German mark, or the Japanese yen. Difference from S&P A mutual fund's return minus the change in the Standard & Poor's 500 index for the same time period. A notation of -5.00 means the fund return is 5 percentage points less than the gain in the S&P, while 0.00 means that the fund and the S&P have the same return. Differential A small charge, typically 1/8 point, added to the purchase price and subtracted from the selling price by the dealer for odd-lot quantities. Differential disclosure The practice of reporting conflicting or markedly different information in official corporate statements including annual and quarterly reports and 10-Ks and 10-Qs. Differential swap Swap between two LIBOR rates of interest, e.g., yen LIBOR for dollar LIBOR Payments are in one currency. Diffusion process A conception of the way a stock's price changes that assumes that the price takes on all intermediate values. Digits deleted Designation on securities exchange tape meaning that because the tape has been delayed, some digits have been dropped (e.g., 26 1/2 becomes 6 1/2). Dilution Diminution in the proportion of income to which each share is entitled. Dilution protection Standard provision that changes the conversion ratio in the case of a stock dividend or extraordinary distribution to avoid dilution of a convertible bondholder's potential equity position. Adjustment usually requires a split or stock dividend in excess of 5% or issuance of stock below book value. Dilutive effect Result of a transaction that decreases earnings per common share (EPS). Dip Slight drop in securities prices after a sustained uptrend. Analystsoften advise investors to buy on dips, meaning to buy when a price is momentarily weak. See: Correction, break, crash. Direct estimate method A method of cash budgeting based on detailed estimates of cash receipts and cash disbursements category by category. Direct investment The purchase of a controlling interest in a company or at least enough interest to have enough influence to direct the course of the company. Direct lease Contract in which a lessor purchases new equipment from the manufacturer and leases it to the lessee. Direct overhead A fraction of overhead costs devoted to the manufacturing sector of a firm to cover expenses such as rent and utilities. Direct paper Commercial paper sold directly by the issuer to investors. Direct participation program An investment program enabling investors to directly participate in the cash_flow and tax benefits of the partnership invested in by the investor, typically a form of passive investment. Direct placement Selling a new issue not by offering it for sale publicly, but by placing it with one of several institutional investors. Direct quote For foreign exchange, the number of U.S. dollars needed to buy one unit of a foreign currency. Direct search market Buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly. Direct stock-purchase programs Investors purchase securities directly from the issuer. Director See: Board of directors. Directorship Used in the context of general equities. Stock status whereby a trader may not maintain positions in the security, due to an investment bank employee serving as a director on the corporation's board of directors done to avoid conflicts of interest; signified by a flashing "D" on Quotron. Contrast to restricted. Dirty float A system of floating exchange rates in which a government may intervene to change the direction of the value of the country's currency. Dirty price Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer. Dirty stock A stock that fails to fulfill prerequisites to attain good delivery status. Disability income insurance An insurance policy that insures a worker in the event of an occupational mishap resulting in disability. Insurance benefits compensate the injured worker for lost pay. Disbursement float A decrease in book cash but no immediate change in bank cash, generated by checks written by the firm. Discharge of bankruptcy The termination of bankruptcy proceedings, resulting in cancellation of the debtor's obligations. Discharge of lien An order terminating a lien on property. Disclaimer of opinion An auditor's statement that does not express any opinion regarding the company's financial condition. Disclosure A company's release of all information pertaining to the company's business activity, regardless of how that information may influence investors. Discontinued operations Divisions of a business that have been sold or written off and that no longer are maintained by the business. Discount Convertible: Difference between gross parity and a given convertible price. Most often invoked when a redemption is expected before the next coupon payment, making it liable for accrued interest. Antithesis of premium. General: Information that has already been taken into account and is built into a stock or market. Straight equity: Price lower than that of the last sale or inside market. Discount bond Debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no coupon, it is called a zero coupon bond. Discount broker A brokerage house featuring relatively low commission rates in comparison to a full-service broker. Discount factor Present value of $1 received at a stated future date. Discount period The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill when making payment. Discount rate The interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges a bank to borrow funds when a bank is temporarily short of funds. Collateral is necessary to borrow, and such borrowing is quite limited because the Fed views it as a privilege to be used to meet short-term liquidity needs, and not a device to increase earnings. Discount securities Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g., U.S. Treasury bills. Discount window Facility provided by the Fed enabling member banks to borrow reserves against collateral in the form of governments or other acceptable paper. Discount yield The yield or annual interest rate on a security sold to an investor at a discount. A bond that is sold at $4875 that matures to $5000 has a discount of $125. To calculate the discount yield: (discount divided by the face value of the security) multiplied by the (number of days in the year divided by the number of days to maturity). Discounted basis To sell below maturity value, so that the difference makes up all or part of the interest. Discounted cash flow (DCF) Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values. Discounted dividend model (DDM) A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the present value of all expected future dividends. Discounted payback period rule An investment decision rule in which cash flows are discounted at an interest rate and one determines how long it takes for the sum of the discounted cash flows to equal the initial investment. Discounted in/by market Unannounced information that is widely accepted or anticipated, and hence is already taken into account in the pricing of the security/ market (e.g., poor earnings). Discounting Calculating the present value of a future amount. Discounting is opposite to compounding. Discounting the news An adjustment of a stock's price as speculators bid the price up or down in anticipation of news about the company, whether good or bad. Discrete compounding Compounding the time value of money for separate time intervals. Discrete random variable A random variable that can take only a certain specified set of individual possible values-for example, the positive integers 1, 2, 3, . . . Discrete variable Variable like 1, 2, 3. Bond ratings are examples of discrete classifications. Discretionary account Accounts over which an individual or organization, other than the person in whose name the account is carried, exercises trading authority or control. Discretionary cash flow Cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive net present value (NPV) capital investment projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on. Discretionary income The amount of income a consumer has available after purchasing essentials such as food and shelter. Discretionary order A type of buy order that gives the broker the freedom and power to make the execution at any time and price that is seen fit and reasonable, given the investor's goals. Discretionary trust In the context of mutual funds, refers to a mutual fund or unit trust whose management decides on the best way to use the assets without restriction to a specific type of security. In the context of trusts, refers to a personal trust in which a trustee has the power of decision as to how much income or principal each beneficiary receives. Discriminant analysis A statistical process that links the probability of default to a specified set of financial ratios. Dishonor A refusal to pay. Disinflation A decrease in the rate of inflation. Disintermediation Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly. Disinvestment A reduction in capital investment reflected by a decrease in capital goods and a company's decision not to replace depleted capital goods. Disposable income The amount of personal income an individual has after taxes and government fees, which can be spent on necessities, or non-essentials, or be saved. Distress sale The selling of assets under adverse conditions, e.g., an investor may have to sell securities to cover a margin call. Distributed As new Treasury issues in dealers' hands are said to be distributed. Distributing syndicate A syndicate consisting of a number of brokerage firms or investment bankers that work together to sell and disperse a large lot of securities. Distribution Selling a large lot of a security in such a way that the security price is not heavily influenced. Distribution area An established price range in which a stock has been trading in for a significant amount of time. See: Accumulation area. Distribution period The few days between the board of directors' declaration of a stock dividend (declaration date) and the date of record, or the date an individual must own shares to be entitled to a dividend. Distribution plan A mutual fund's plan to charge distribution costs such as advertising to the investors of the fund. Distribution stock A small amount of a specific stock that forms part of a larger block of stock that is sold small amount by small amount so as not to disrupt the stock's market price. Distributions Payments from fund or corporate cash flow. May include dividends from earnings, capital gains from sale of portfolio holdings and return of capital. Fund distributions can be made by check or by investing in additional shares. Funds are required to distribute capital gains (if any) to shareholders at least once per year. Some corporations offer Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRP). Divergence When two or more averages or indexes fail to show confirming trends. Diversifiable risk Related: Unsystematic risk Diversification Dividing investment funds among a variety of securities with different risk, reward, and correlation statistics so as to minimize unsystematic risk. Diversified investment company An investment vehicle such as a mutual fund that invests in an assortment of securities. Divestiture A complete asset or investment disposal such as outright sale or liquidation. Dividend A portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%. Dividend in arrears Accumulated dividends on cumulative preferred stock that are deemed payable to the current holder. Dividend capture See: Dividend rollover plan Dividend clawback An arrangement under which sponsors of a project agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover any cash deficiencies. Dividend clientele A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. Such a preference may be based on comparable tax situations. Dividend Discount Model (DDM) A method to value the common stock of a company that is based on the present value of the expected future dividends. Dividend growth model An approach that assumes dividends grow at a constant rate in perpetuity. The value of the stock equals next year's dividends divided by the difference between the required rate of return and the assumed constant growth rate in dividends. Dividend limitation A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends. Dividend payout ratio Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends. Dividend policy Standards by which a firm determines the amount of money it will pay as dividends. Dividend rate The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock based on par value. Dividend record S&P publication stating companies' payment histories and corporate policies. Dividend Reinvestment Plan (DRP) Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the long term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the holder. Dividend requirement The annual earnings minimum required for payment of dividends on a preferred stock. Dividend rights A shareholder's rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive. Dividend rollover plan An investment strategy that entails the purchase and selling of a stock right before its ex-dividend date in order to collect the dividends paid out by the stock and capture a trade profit. Dividend trade roll/play Used for listed equity securities. Method of buying and selling stocks around their ex-dividend dates so as to collect the dividend (which is 80% tax-exempt) offset by a fully-taxable capital loss. Predicated on the 80% current exemption that some corporations receive on dividend income. Dividend yield (Funds) Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12 months. Assumes fund was purchased a year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not redemption charges. Dividend yield (Stocks) Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price. Dividends payable The declared dividend dollar amount that a company is obligated to pay. Dividends per share Dividend paid for the past 12 months divided by the number of common shares outstanding, as reported by a company. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term. Dividends-received deduction A corporate tax deduction on income allowed by company A that is in ownership of shares of company B and receives dividends on the shares of company B. DM Deutsche (German) marks. Deutsche Terminbörse (DTB) Formerly the German financial futures and options market. Merged with the Swiss Options and Financial Futures Exchange (SOFFEX) in 1998 to form EUREX, the European derivatives exchange. Divisor Used in construction of stock indices. Suppose you have 10 stocks in an index, each worth $10 and the index is at 100. Now suppose you want to replace one of the stocks with another stock (reshuffling happens). Suppose that the new stock to be included is worth $20. So the total value of the index is 110 after the swapping. But we really shouldn't have an increase in value because nothing has happened - other than switching two constituents. So, what people do is to change the divisor. In this case, the divisor goes from 1 to 1.10. Notice that the value of the index, 110/1.1 is now exactly 100 - which is where we began from. Do Not Increase (DNI) A restriction that an investor places on a good til' cancelled order to prevent an order increase in the case of a stock dividend or stock split. Do Not Reduce Order (DNR Order) Limit order to buy or to sell, or a stop limit order to sell that is not to be reduced by the amount of an ordinary cash dividend on the ex-dividend date. A "do not reduce order" applies only to ordinary cash dividends, and not stock dividends or rights. Doctrine of sovereign immunity Principle that a nation may not be tried in another country without its consent. Documented discount notes Commercial paper backed by normal bank lines of credit plus a letter of credit from a bank stating that it will pay off the paper at maturity if the borrower defaults. Such paper is also referred to as L.O.C. paper. Dogs of the Dow T 10 stocks of the 30 on the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the most depressed prices and consequently the highest yields. The investor buying these stocks speculates that they will bounce back over a one-year period. Dollar bears Traders who capitalize on a falling dollar by buying other foreign currencies directly. Dollar bonds Municipal revenue bonds for which quotes are given in dollar prices. Not to be confused with "U.S. Dollar" bonds, a common term of reference in the Eurobond market. Dollar cost averaging See: Constant dollar plan Dollar drain The impact of importing from foreign countries more than exporting to them. The money required to finance the import purchases removes dollars from the importing nation. Dollar duration The product of modified duration and the initial price. Dollar price of a bond Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted. Dollar return The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period. Dollar roll Similar to the reverse repurchase agreement-a simultaneous agreement to sell a security held in a portfolio with purchase of a similar security at a future date at an agreed-upon price. Dollar safety margin The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization strategy. Dollar shortage Results when a nation importing U.S. goods cannot pay for them without the aid of the United States. Dollar-weighted rate of return Also called the internal rate of return; the interest rate that makes the present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in an evaluation period plus the terminal market value of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio. Domestic corporation A corporation that is conducting business and is based in the country in which it is established, as opposed to a foreign corporation. Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC) A US corporation that receives a tax incentive for export activities. Domestic market A nation's internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading securities of entities domiciled within that nation. Compare external market and foreign market. Donor One who gives property or assets to someone else through the vehicle of a trust. Don't fight the tape Phrase advising not to trade against the market trend. If stock prices are rising, do not sell. Don't know (DK, DKed) "Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. Double auction market Systems by which listed securities are bought and sold through brokers on the securities exchanges, as distinguished from the OTC market, where trades are negotiated. Unlike the conventional auction with one auctioneer and many buyers, double auction markets consist of many sellers and many buyers. Double auction system A market consisting of many sellers and many buyers, as opposed to a conventional auction with one market maker and many buyers. Double-barreled Describes backing of the principal and interest of a smaller municipal revenue bond the large municipal entity. Double bottom A term used in technical analysis to refer to the drop of a stock's price, a rebound, and then a drop back to the same level as the original drop. Double-declining-balance depreciation method (DDB) An accounting methodology in which depreciation is accelerated to twice the rate of annual depreciation by the straight-line method. Double-declining-balance depreciation Method of accelerated depreciation. Double dip Used for listed equity securities. Dividend roll in which the "dividend capturer" already owns the stock cum dividend . Double-dip lease A cross-border lease in which the different rules of the lessor's and lessee's countries let both parties be treated as the owner of the leased equipment for tax purposes. Double-tax agreement Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends. Double taxation Government taxation of the same money twice; specifically, taxation of earnings at the corporate level and dividends at the stockholder level. Double top A term used in technical analysis to refer to the rise of a stock's price, a drop, and then a rise back to the same level as the original rise. Double up A stock buying strategy that doubles the risk when the price moves in the opposite direction from the direcetion the investor hoped for. For example, an investor with confidence in ABC buys 1000 shares at $100 and another 1000 shares when the price declines to $90. Double witching day A trading day when of two related classes of options and futures expire, resulting in a variety of arbitrage strategies to close out positions. Doubling option A sinking fund provision that may allow repurchase of twice the required number of bonds at the sinking fund call price. Dow dividend theory See: Dogs of the Dow. Dow Jones Industrial Average The best known U.S. index of stocks. A price-weighted average of 30 actively traded blue-chip stocks, primarily industrials including, stocks that trade on the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest U.S. companies are performing. There are hundreds of investment indexes around the world for stocks, bonds, currencies, and commodities. Dow Theory Used in the context of general equities. Technical theory that a major trend in the stock market must be confirmed by simultaneous movement of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Dow Jones Transportation Average to new highs or lows. Down round Refers to a round of venture capital financing that is raised at a lower firm valuation than the previous round. Down-and-in option Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a predetermined price level. Down-and-out option Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a predetermined price level. Downgrade A negative change in ratings for a stock, or other rated security. Downside risk The risk that a security will decline in value in includng the implications of risk. Downsizing A company's reduction in the number of employees, number of bureaucratic levels, and overall size in an attempt to increase efficiency and profitability. Downstream The transfer of corporate activity from the larger parent to the smaller subsidiary. Downtick Move down in a particular stock. On U.S. stock exchanges, you cannot sell a stock short on a downtick. Downturn The transition point between a rising, expanding economy to a falling, contracting one. Draining reserves Federal Reserve System's course of action to tighten the money supply by (1) raising a bank's minimum reserve requirements, (2) selling bonds in the open market, (3) raising the rate at which banks borrow from the Fed. Draft An unconventional order in writing-signed by a person, usually the exporter, and addressed to the importer-ordering the importer or the importer's agent to pay, on demand (sight draft) or at a fixed future date (time draft) the amount specified on the face of the draft. Draw a call In the context of general equities, provoking a customer indication/inquiry/order by up or doing large amount of the volume in a stock. Drawback A tax or duty rebate on imported goods that are exported at a later date. Dressing up a portfolio Money managers' strategy to make transactions for the sole purpose of making a portfolio look good to the investor near the end of a reporting period. See: Window dressing Drip feed The continual investment of capital in a small and growing company as the company needs it, rather than investing a lump sum at the company's inception. Drive-by VC A type of venture capitalist. In the usual model, the venture capitalist (VC) is involved in management and mentoring of the startup. A drive-by VC invests in a portfolio of startups and is often quick to exit. Drop Refers to over-the-counter trading. Remove from O.T.C. trading list; hence, no longer making a market in a security. Drop, The In a dollar roll transaction, the difference between the sale price of a mortgage-backed pass-through, and its repurchase price on a future date at a predetermined price. Drop-dead day The date on which a deadline is final, with no exceptions. Drop-dead fee A term of British origin referring to fee that must be paid if a deal falls through because of financing issues. Drop lock The fixing of the interest rate on a floating-rate note or preferred stock if it falls to a specified level. Dual banking Describes United States custom in which a bank is chartered by the state or federal government. Dual-currency issues Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different currency. Dual listing Listing of a security on more than one exchange, thus increasing the competition for bid and offer prices, the liquidity of the securities, and the length time the stock can be traded daily (if listed on both the east and west coasts.) See: Listed security. Dual-purpose fund A closed-end fund consisting of two classes of shares. The two classes are preferred shares, on which shareholders receive all the dividends and interest from the portfolio, and common shares, on which shareholders receive all the capital gains. Dual syndicate equity offering An international equity placement that splits the offering is split into two tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager. Dual trading The custom of a trader on the commodities market to deal for its own account and the investor's account at the same time. Due bill An instrument evidencing the obligation of a seller to deliver securities sold to the buyer. Occasionally used in the bill market. Due date Date on which a debt must be paid. Due dilengence An internal audit of a target frim by an acquiring firm. Offers are often made contingent upon resolution of the due diligence process. Due diligence meeting Meeting legally required to be held by an underwriter to enable brokers to question a new issuer about an upcoming issue. Due-on-sale clause A mortgage contract clause stipulating that the borrower to pay off the full remaining principal on a mortgage if the mortgaged property is sold before the mortgage is paid off. Dumping In the context of general equities, offering large amounts of stock with little or no concern for price or market effect. Duplicative portfolio Applies mainly to derivative products. Basket of stocks that imitates the price movement of another set of securities (e.g., S&P 500 index). Dupont system of financial control Expressing return on assets (ROA) in terms of the profit margin and asset turnover. Duration A common gauge of the price sensitivity of a fixed income asset or portfolio to a change in interest rates. Dutch auction Auction in which the lowest price necessary to sell the entire offering becomes the price at which all securities offered are sold. This technique has been used in Treasury auctions. Often used in risk arbitrage. The price of an item (stock) is gradually lowered until it elicits a responsive bid (government T-bills) or offer (corporate repurchase) and is sold. In a corporate repurchase, the company sets a range of prices within which shareholders are invited to tender their shares. The tender offer is open for a specific period of time (i.e., 20 days), and the quantity of stock to be purchased is stated as well, subject to prorating if more shares are tendered than can be legally purchased under the stated terms (often an additional amount equal to 20% of outstanding shares can be purchased). Compare to double auction system. Dutch auction preferred stock A form of adjustable-rate preferred stock in which the dividend is ascertained in a Dutch auction process by corporate bidders every seven weeks. Duty A tax on imports, exports, or consumption goods. Dwarfs Fannie Mae-issued mortgage-backed securities pool that has an original maturity of 15 years. Dynamic asset allocation An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is shifted in response to changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example. Dynamic hedging A strategy that involves rebalancing hedge positions as market conditions change; a strategy that seeks to insure the value of a portfolio using a synthetic put option. E Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that an issue has not met the reporting date for the company's SEC regulatory filing requirements. EAFE index See: European Australian and Far East index EASD See: European Association of Securities Dealers EBIAT See: Earnings Before Interest after Taxes EBIT See: Earnings Before Interest and Taxes EBITD See: Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation EBITDA See: Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization EBT See: Earnings Before Taxes ECU See: European Currency Unit EDI See: Electronic Data Interchange EM See: Effective margin EMS See: European Monetary System EOE See: European Options Exchange EOQ See: Economic Order Quantity EM See: Effective Margin ERM See: Exchange Rate Mechanism ESOP See: Employee Stock Ownership Plan EU See: European Union EUREX The European derivatives exchange formed in 1998 by a merger of the Deutsche Terminbörse (DTB) and the Swiss Options and Financial Futures Exchange (SOFFEX). Each way A broker's commission from his or her involvement on both the purchase and the sale side of a security. Early withdrawal penalty Penalty paid by the holder of a fixed-term investment penalizing an investor who withdraws money before the agreed-upon maturity date. Earn-out Refers to an additional payment in a merger or acquisition that is not part of the original acquisition cost, which is based on the acquired company's future earnings relative to a level determined by the merger agreement. Earned income credit A tax credit for taxpayers with children. Earned surplus See: Retained earnings Earnest money Money given to a seller by a buyer to demonstrate the buyer's good faith. If the deal falls through, the deposit is usually forfeited. Earning asset An asset that generates income, e.g., income from rental property. Earning power Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) divided by total assets. Earnings Net income for the company during a period. Earnings before interest after taxes (EBIAT) A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of interest plus cash income taxes. Equivalent to EBIT minus cash taxes. Earnings before interest and, taxes (EBIT) A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of interest and income taxes. Earnings before interest, taxes, and depreciation (EBITD) A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of interest and income taxes. Depreciation expenses are not included in the costs. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of interest and income taxes. Depreciation and amortization expenses are not included in the costs. Earnings before taxes (EBT) A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of income taxes. Earnings momentum An increase in the earnings per share growth rate from one reporting period to the next. Earnings per share (EPS) A company's profit divided by its number of outstanding shares. If a company earning $2 million in one year had $2 million shares of stock outstanding, its EPS would be $1 per share. In calculating EPS, the company often uses a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term. Earnings-price ratio See: Earnings yield Earnings retention ratio Plowback rate. Earnings surprises Positive or negative differences from the consensus forecast of earnings by institutions such as First Call or IBES Negative earnings surprises generally have a greater adverse effect on stock prices than a reciprocal positive earnings surprise. Earnings yield The ratio of earnings per share, after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price-earnings ratio. It is the total twelve months, earnings divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is shown in percentage terms. We often look at earnings yield because this avoids the problem of zero earnings in the denominator of the price-earning ratio. Easy money See: Tight money Eating stock When an underwriter can't find buyers for a stock and therefore has to buy them for his own account. ECN See: Emerging company marketplace Economic assumptions General market environment a firm expects to operate in over the life of a financial plan. Economic defeasance See: In-substance defeasance Economic dependence When the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another. Economic earnings The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in the firm's productive capacity. Economic exposure The extent to which the value of a firm will change because of an exchange rate change. Economic growth rate The annual percentage rate of change in the Gross National Product. Economic income Cash flow plus change in present value. Economic indicators The key statistics of the economy that reveal the direction the economy is heading in; for example, the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. Economic order quantity (EOQ) The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs. Economic rents Profits in excess of the competitive level. Economic risk In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements. Economic surplus For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market value of its liabilities. Economic union An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital, labor, and all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary policies. Economics The study of the economy. See also: Macroeconomics; microeconomics; Keynesian economics, monetarism, and supply-side economics. Economies of scale The decrease in the marginal cost of production as a firm's extent of operations expands. Economies of scope Scope economies exist whenever the same investment can support multiple profitable activities less expensively in combination than separately. EDGAR The Securities & Exchange Commission uses Electronic Data Gathering and Retrieval to transmit company documents such as 10-Ks, 10-Qs, quarterly reports, and other SEC filings, to investors. Edge corporations Specialized banking institutions, authorized and chartered by the Federal Reserve Board of Goverors in the U.S., that are allowed to engage in transactions of a foreign or international character. They are not subject to restrictions on interstate banking. Foreign banks operating in the U.S. are permitted to organize and own an edge corporation. Education IRA A type of individual retirement account enabling the contribution of up to $500 per year for each child up to the age of 18 by the parents in the family. Effective annual interest rate An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding. Effective annual yield Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques. Effective call price The strike price in a market redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the redemption date. Effective convexity The convexity of a bond calculated using cash flows that change with yields. Effective date In an interest rate swap, the date the swap begins accruing interest. Effective debt The total debt owed by a firm to its creditors. Effective duration The duration calculated using the approximate duration formula for a bond with an embedded option, reflecting the expected change in the cash flow caused by the option. Measures the responsiveness of a bond's price-taking into account that expected cash flows will change as interest rates change due to the embedded option. Effective margin (EM) Used with SAT performance measures, the amount equal to the net earned spread, or margin of income, on assets in excess of financing costs for a given interest rate and prepayment rate scenario. Effective net worth Net worth plus subordinated debt. Effective rate A measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding. Effective sale A sale based on the most recent round-lot price, which determines the price of the next odd lot. The difference created between the last round-lot price and the odd-lot price is referred to as the odd-lot differential. Effective spread The gross underwriting spread adjusted for the impact that a common stock offering's announcement has on the firm's share price. Effective tax rate The net rate a taxpayer pays on income that includes all forms of taxes. It is calculated by dividing the total tax paid by taxable income. Efficiency The degree and speed with which a market accurately incorporates information into prices. Efficient capital market A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share prices. Efficient diversification The organizing principle of modern portfolio theory, which maintains that any risk-averse investor will search for the highest expected return for any particular level of portfolio risk. Efficient frontier The combinations of securities portfolios that maximize expected return for any level of expected risk, or that minimizes expected risk for any level of expected return. Pioneered by Harry Markowitz. Efficient Market Hypothesis States that all relevant information is fully and immediately reflected in a security's market price, thereby assuming that an investor will obtain an equilibrium rate of return. In other words, an investor should not expect to earn an abnormal return (above the market return) through either technical analysis or fundamental analysis. Three forms of efficient market hypothesis exist: weak form (stock prices reflect all information on past prices), semistrong form (stock prices reflect all publicly available information), and strong form (stock prices reflect all relevant information including insider information). Efficient portfolio A portfolio that provides the greatest expected return for a given level of risk (i.e., standard deviation), or, equivalently, the lowest risk for a given expected return. Efficient set Graph representing a set of portfolios that maximize expected return at each level of portfolio risk. Eighth[-ed] Used in the context of general equities. A specialist or another broker is bidding higher or offering lower than we are, often topping or undercutting us by an eighth. Either/or facility An agreement permitting a bank customer to borrow either domestic dollars from the bank's head office or Eurodollars from one of its foreign branches. Either-or order Used in the context of general equities. See: Alternative order. Either-way market In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid and offered rates are identical. Elasticity of demand and supply The degree of buyers' responsiveness to price changes. Elasticity is measured as the percent change in quantity divided by the percent change in price. A large value (greater than 1) of elasticity indicates sensitivity of demand to price, e.g., luxury goods. Goods with a small value of elasticity (less than 1) have a demand that is insensitive to price, e.g., food. Elasticity of an option Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the option's underlying stock. Elect The conversion of a conditional order into a market order. Electronic data interchange (EDI) The direct exchange of information electronically, from one firm's computer to another firm's computer in a structured format. Electronic depository transfers The transfer of funds between bank accounts through the Automated Clearing House (ACH) system. Elephants A term used to refer to large institutional investors. Eleven bond index An index based on the average yield of 11 municipal bonds that mature in 20 years and carry an average AA rating. The eleven bonds used to calculate the index are also found in the 20 bond index, which serves as a benchmark in tracking municipal bond yields. Eligible bankers' acceptances In the BA market, an acceptance may be referred to as eligible because it is acceptable by the Fed as collateral at the discount window and/or because the accepting bank can sell it without incurring a reserve requirement. Elliott Wave Theory Technical market timing strategy that predicts price movements on the basis of historical price wave patterns and their underlying psychological motives. Robert Prechter is a famous Elliott Wave theorist. Elves A term the host uses to refer to guests on the PBS television show, "Wall Street Week", who are technical analysts attempting to predict the direction of stock prices over the next six months. Embedded option An option that is part of the structure of a bond that gives either the bondholder or the issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades separately from any underlying security. Emergency fund A reserve of cash kept available to meet the costs of any unexpected financial emergencies. Emergency Home Finance Act of 1970 The federal legislation creating the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, a partially government-run program initiated to stimulate the development of a secondary mortgage market and expand mortgages available to veterans and other groups. Emerging Company Marketplace (ECM) A service once offered by the American Stock Exchange to help small growth companies fulfill special listing requirements. The service is no longer available. Emerging markets The financial markets of developing economies. Emerging Markets Free index (EMF) A Morgan Stanley Capital International index created to track stock markets in selected emerging markets that are open to foreign investment like Argentina, Chile, Jordan, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, and Thailand. Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) The law that regulates the operation of private pensions and benefit plans. Employee stock fund A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's common stock on a preferential basis. Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of employees. Empty head and pure heart test Securities and Exchange Commission rule that allows only the bidder of a tender offer to trade in the stock while possessing inside information. Encumbered A property owned by one party on which a second party reserves the right to make a valid claim, e.g., a bank's holding of a home mortgage encumbers property. End-of-year convention Treating cash flows as if they occur at the end of a year as opposed to the date convention. Under the end-of-year convention, the present is time 0, the end of year 1 occurs one year hence; and so on. Endogenous variable A value determined within the context of a model. Related: Exogenous variable. Endorse Transfering asset ownership by signing the back of the asset's certificate. Endowment Gift of money or property to a specified institution for a specified purpose. Endowment funds Investment funds established for the support of institutions such as colleges, private schools, museums, hospitals, and foundations. The investment income may be used for the operation of the institution and for capital expenditures. Energy mutual fund Mutual fund investing in energy stocks only, e.g., oil and gas companies. Enhanced indexing Also called indexing-plus, an indexing strategy whose objective is to exceed or replicate the total return performance of some predetermined index. Enhancement An innovation that has a positive impact on one or more of a firm's existing products. Enterprise A business firm. Entrepreneur A person starting a new company who takes on the risks associated with starting the enterprise, which may require venture capital to cover start-up costs. Environmental fund A mutual fund that invests strictly in stocks of companies that are environmentally friendly and/or have the goal of environmental betterment. The investors are trying to support and profit from opportunities related to the environmental movement. EPS See: Earnings per share Equal dollar swap Selling common stock/convertibles in one company and reinvesting the proceeds in as many shares of (1) another type of security issued by the company, or (2) another security of the same type but of another company -- as can be bought with the proceeds of the sale. See: Equal shares swap. Equal shares swap Applies mainly to convertible securities. Selling the underlying common and reinvesting the proceeds in as much of the convertible as can be converted into the number of shares of common just sold. See equal dollar swap. Equalizing dividend Special dividends received by investors of a firm for income the investor lost because the firm altered the dividends payment schedule. Equilibrium market price of risk The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the C.M.L. represents the expected return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional expected return needed to compensate for a unit change in risk. The equation of the CML is defined by the capital asset pricing model. Equilibrium price The price when the supply of goods matches demand. Equilibrium rate of interest The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the trade-clearing interest rate. Equipment leasing partnership A limited partnership that receives income and tax benefits such as depreciation costs by purchasing equipment and leasing it to other parties. Equipment trust certificates Certificates issued by a trust that is formed to purchase an asset and lease it to a lessee. When the last of the certificates has been repaid, title and ownership of the asset transfers to the lessee. Equitable owner The beneficiary of a property held in a trust. Equity Ownership interest in a firm. Also, the residual dollar value of a futures trading account, assuming its liquidation is at the going trade price. In real estate, dollar difference between what a property could be sold for and debts claimed against it. In a brokerage account, equity equals the value of the account's securities minus any debit balance in a margin account. Equity is also shorthand for stock market investments. Equity cap An agreement in which one party, for an up-front premium, agrees to pay the other at specific time periods if a designated stock market benchmark tops a predetermined level. Equity claim Also called a residual claim; a claim to a share of earnings after debt obligations have been satisfied. Equity collar The simultaneous purchase of an equity floor and sale of an equity cap. Equity contribution agreement An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified conditions. Equity floor An agreement in which one party agrees to pay the other at specific time periods if a specific stock market benchmark falls below a predetermined level. Equity funding An investment consisting of a life insurance policy and a mutual fund. The insurance policy is paid by the collateral value of fund shares, give the investor the advantages of insurance protection with the growth potential of a mutual fund. Equity kicker Stock warrants issued attached to privately placed bonds. Equity-linked policies Related: Variable life Equity market Related: stock market Equity multiplier Total assets divided by total common stockholders' equity; the total assets per dollar of stockholders' equity. Equity options Securities that give the holder the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock. Equity REIT A Real Estate Investment Trust that assumes ownership status in the property it invests in enabling investors of the REIT to earn dividends on rental income from the property and appreciation in property resale. Antithesis of a Mortgage REIT. Equity swap A swap in which the cash flows exchanged are based on the total return on some stock market index and an interest rate (either a fixed rate or floating rate). Related: Interest rate swap. Equityholders Stockholders; those holding shares of the firm's equity. Equivalent annual annuity The amount per year for some number of years that has a present value equal to a given amount. Equivalent annual benefit The annual annuity with the same value as the net present value of an investment project. Equivalent annual cash flow Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment. Equivalent annual cost The cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life. Equivalent bond yield Annual yield on a short-term, noninterest-bearing security calculated for comparison to yields quoted on coupon securities. Equivalent loan Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting. Equivalent taxable yield The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax yield as a tax-exempt issue. Erosion A negative impact on one or more of a firm's existing assets. Escalator clause Provision in a contract allowing cost increases to be passed on. In an employment contract, for example an escalator clause may call for wage increases in line with inflation. Escrow Property or money held by a third party until the agreed upon obligations of a contract are met. Escrow receipt A document provided by a bank in options trading to guarantee that the underlying security is on deposit and available for potential delivery. Escrowed to Maturity (ETM) Holding of the proceeds from a new bond issue to pay off an existing bond issue at its maturation date. Essential purpose (or function) bond See: Public purpose bond Estate tax A federal or state tax imposed on an individual's assets inherited by heirs. Ethical fund See: Social conscious mutual fund. Ethics Standards of conduct or moral judgment. Euro Originally for a deposit outside one's home country but in the home country currency. This terminology is confusing now since the new European currency unit, also called the Euro, was introduced on January 1, 1999. Euro CDs CDs issued by a U.S. bank branch or foreign bank located outside the U.S. Almost all Euro CDs are issued in London. Euro lines Lines of credit granted by banks (foreign or foreign branches of U.S. banks) for Eurocurrencies. Euro straight A fixed-rate coupon Eurobond. Eurobank A bank that regularly accepts foreign currency-denominated deposits and makes foreign currency loans. Eurobond A bond that is (1) underwritten by an international syndicate, (2) issued simultaneously to investors in a number of countries, and (3) issued outside the jurisdiction of any single country. Euroclear One of two principal clearing systems in the Eurobond market. It began operations in 1968, is located in Brussels, and is managed by Morgan Guaranty Bank. Applies mainly to international equities. European clearing organization that functions much like the DTC Euro-commercial paper Short-term notes with maturities up to 360 days that are issued by companies in international money markets. Eurocredits Intermediate-term loans of Eurocurrencies made by banking syndicates to corporate and government borrowers. Eurocurrency Instrument issued outside your country, but denominated in your currency. A Eurodollar is a Certificate of Deposit in U.S. dollars in some other country (though mainly traded in London). A Euroyen is a CD in yen outside Japan. Eurocurrency deposit A short-term fixed-rate time deposit denominated in a currency other than the local currency (i.e., U.S. dollars deposited in a London bank). Eurocurrency market The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of deposits in banks located outside the countries where the currencies are issued as legal tender. Eurodollar Refers to a certificate of deposit in U.S. dollars in a bank that is not located in the U.S. Most of the Eurodollar deposits are in London banks, but Eurodeposits may be anywhere other than the U.S. Similarly, a Euroyen or Euro DM deposit represents a CD in yen or DM outside Japan and Germany, respectively. Eurodollar bonds Eurobonds denominated in U.S.dollars. Eurodollar certificate of deposit A certificate of deposit paying interest and principal in dollars, but issued by a bank outside the United States, usually in Europe. Euroequity issues Securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors simultaneously in several national markets by an international syndicate. Related: External market. Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN) A nonunderwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are under five years. Euro.NM Created on March 1, 1996, Euro.NM is a pan-European network of regulated markets dedicated to growth companies, regardless of their sector of activity or country of origin. Euro.NM member exchanges and their respective new markets consist of the Paris Stock Exchange (Le Nouveau Marché), the Deutsche Börse AG (Neuer Markt), the Amsterdam Exchanges (NMAX), and the Brussels Stock Exchange (Euro.NM Belgium). Euro-note Short- to medium-term debt instrument sold in the Eurocurrency market. Euroyen bonds Eurobonds denominated in Japanese yen. Europea, Australia, and Far East index (EAFE index) Stock index, computed by Morgan Stanley Capital International. European Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (EASDAQ) European equivalent of NASDAQS. European Central Bank (ECB) Bank created to monitor the monetary policy of the 11 countries that have converted to the Euro from their local currencies. The 11 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. European Currency Unit (ECU) An index of foreign exchange consisting of European currencies, originally devised in 1979. See also: Euro. European Monetary System (EMS) An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that governs the currencies of European Union member countries. European option Option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: American option. European Options Exchange (EOE) Now AEX-Optiebeurs. See: Amsterdam Exchanges (AEX). European-style exercise A method of exercising options contracts in which the buyer can exercise the contract on the last day before expiration. European-style option An option contract that can be exercised only on the expiration date. European Union (EU) An economic association of European countries founded by the Treaty of Rome in 1957 as a common market for six nations. It was known as the European Community until January 1, 1994 and currently comprises 15 European countries. Its goals are a single market for goods and services without any economic barriers, and a common currency with one monetary authority. Evaluation period The time interval over which funds assess a money manager's performance. Evening up Buying or selling to offset an existing market position. Event risk The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because of rare, discontinuous, and very large, unanticipated changes in the market environment such as (1) a natural or industrial accident or some regulatory change or (2) a takeover, or corporate restructuring. Event study A statistical study that examines how the release of information affects prices at a particular time. Events of default Contractually specified events that allow lenders to demand immediate repayment of a debt. Evergreen credit Revolving credit without maturity. Evergreen funding A British term referring to the gradual injection of capital into a new or existing enterprise. Ex-all The sale of a security without the privileges associated with the security such as dividends, voting rights, or warrants. Ex ante return The expected return or anticipated return of an asset or portfolio. Ex-dividend This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend is not entitled to receive a declared dividend. It is the interval between the record date and the payment date during which the stock trades without its dividend-the buyer of a stock selling ex-dividend does not receive the recently declared dividend. Antithesis of cum dividend (with dividend). Ex-dividend date The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to the most recently announced dividend payment. The date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other U.S. exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is denoted by an x in newspaper listings on that date. Ex-legal A municipal bond offered without a law firm's legal opinion. As the majority of bonds are issued with legal opinions. Ex-pit transaction The purchase of commodities off the exchange's floor. Ex post return Related: Holding-period return Ex-rights Shares of stock that are trading without rights attached. Ex-rights date The date on which a share of common stock begins trading ex-rights. Ex-stock dividends The time period between the announcement of a stock dividend and its actual payment. The buyer of shares during this time period does is not entitled to the dividend. Ex-warrants Describes a stock sale in which the buyer is not entitled to the warrant accompanying the stock. Exact interest Interest paid based on the basis of a 365-day/year schedule by a bank or other financial institution as opposed to a 360-day basis (ordinary interest). Difference can be material when large principal sums of money are involved. Exact matching A bond portfolio management strategy that involves finding the lowest cost portfolio generating cash inflows exactly equal to cash outflows that are being financed by investment. Except for opinion An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor is unable to audit certain areas of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the auditor's control. Excess kurtosis Kurtosis measures the "fatness" of the tails of a distribution. Excess kurtosis means that distribution has fatter tails than a normal distribution. Fat tails means there is a higher than normal probability of big positive and negative returns realizations. Excess margin Equity present in an individual's account above the legal minimum required for a margin account or the maintenance requirement at a brokerage firm. Excess profits tax Additional federal taxes placed on the earnings of a business, used only in time of national emergency such as war. Excess reserves Actual reserves that exceed required reserves. Excess return on the market portfolio Difference between the return on the market portfolio and the riskless rate. Excess returns Difference between asset return and riskless rate. Sometimes confused with abnormal returns, returns in excess of those required by some asset pricing model. Exchange A marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities, and indexes are traded. Principal U.S. stock exchanges are: New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System (NASDAQS). Exchange, The A nickname for the New York Stock Exchange. Also known as the Big Board, where more than 2000 common and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the oldest in the United States, founded in 1792, and the largest. It is located on Wall Street in New York City. Exchange of assets Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock. Exchange controls Government restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or on the purchase of the local domestic currency by foreigners. Exchange distribution A sale on an exchange floor of a large block of stock in a single transaction. A broker bunches a large number of buy orders and sells the block all at once. The broker receives a special commission from the seller. Exchange fund (also known as swap fund) Investment vehicle introduced in 1999 that appeals to wealthy investors with large holdings in a single stock who want to diversify without paying capital gains taxes. These funds allow investors to exchange their stock for shares in the diversified portfolio of stocks in a tax-free transaction. Exchange members See: Member firm; seat Exchange offer An offer by a firm to give one security, such as a bond or preferred stock, in exchange for another security, such as shares of common stock. Exchange privilege A mutual fund shareholder's right to switch from one fund to another within one fund family, usually at no additional charge. Exchange rate The price of one country's currency expressed in another country's currency. Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The methodology by which members of the EMS maintain their currency exchange rates within an agreed-upon range with respect to other member countries. Exchange rate risk Also called currency risk; the risk that an investment's value will change because of currency exchange rates. Exchange risk The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes, or the extent to which the present value of a firm is expected to change as a result of a given currency's appreciation or depreciation. Exchange of stock Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares. Exchangeable Applies mainly to convertible securities. Means the issuer, if so stated, may substitute a convertible debenture for an existing convertible preferred with identical terms. Most often used when a corporation has an immediate need for equity capital and a low tax rate, and expects either or both conditions to change. This would make the debenture less attractive if the interest tax-deductibility is lost. Exchangeable instrument Applies mainly to convertible securities. Bond or preferred stock that may be exchangeable into the common stock of a different public corporation. Exchangeable Security Investment instrument that grants its holder the right to exchange it for the common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the instrument. Excise tax Federal or state tax placed on the sale or manufacture of a commodity, typically a luxury item e.g., alcohol. Exclusionary self-tender A firm's offer to buy a given amount of its own stock while excluding targeted stockholders. Exclusive In the context of general equities, having sole possession of the customer order/indication; not in competition with other dealers. Execution The process of completing an order to buy or sell securities. Once a trade is executed, it is reported by a Confirmation Report; settlement (payment and transfer of ownership) occurs in the U.S. between one (mutual funds) and five (stocks) days after an order is executed. Settlement times for exchange-listed stocks are in the process of being reduced to three days in the U. S. The time varies greatly across countries. In France, for example settlements are only once per month. Execution costs The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing costs. Exempt securities Instrumentsexempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 or the margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis, commercial paper, and private placements. Exemption Direct reductions from gross income allowed by the IRS. Exercise To implement the right of the holder of an option to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) the underlying security. Exercise limit Cap on the number of option contracts of any one class of contract. that can be exercised within a five-day period contract. Stock option's exercise limit is typically 2000 contracts. Exercise notice A broker's notification a client want to exercise a right to buy or sell (depending on the type of contract) the underlying security of the option contract. Exercise price The price at which the security underlying a future or options contract may be bought or sold. Exercise value The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money option. Exercising the option The act of buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract. Exhaust price The low price at which a broker must liquidate a client's holding in a stock purchased in a margin account in order to meet a margin call when the client cannot meet the call. Exim bank See: Export-Import Bank Exit fee See: Back-end load Exogenous variable A variable whose value is determined outside the model in which it is used. Related: Endogenous variable Exotic option Refers to options that are more complex than simple puts or call options. For example, a Caput is a call option on a put option. Expectations hypothesis theories Theories of the term structure of interest rates, which include the pure expectations theory; the liquidity theory of the term structure, and the preferred habitat theory. These theories hold that each forward rate equals the expected future interest rate for the relevant period. These three theories differ, however, on whether other factors also affect forward rates, and how. Expectations theory of forward exchange rates A theory of foreign exchange rates that states that the expected future spot foreign exchange rate t periods from now equals the current t-period forward exchange rate. Expected dividend yield Total amount of dividends received during the life of a futures contract or total dividends received for holding a particular stock one year. See: Current yield. Expected future cash flows Projected future cash flows associated with an asset. Expected future return The return that is expected to be earned on an asset in the future. Also called the expected return. Expected return The expected return on a risky asset, given a probability distribution for the possible rates of return. Expected return equals some risk-free rate (generally the prevailing U.S. Treasury note or bond rate) plus a risk premium (the difference between the historic market return, based upon a well diversified index such as the S&P 500 and the historic U.S. Treasury bond) multiplied by the assets beta. The conditional expected return varies through time as a function of current market information. Expected return-beta relationship Implication of the CAPM that security risk premiums will be proportional to beta. Expected return on investment The return one can expect to earn on an investment. See: Capital asset pricing model. Expected value The weighted average of a probability distribution. Also known as the mean value. Expected value of perfect information The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known minus the expected value with no additional information. Expense ratio The percentage of the assets that are spent to run a mutual fund (as of the last annual statement). This includes expenses such as management and advisory fees, overhead costs, and 12b-1 (distribution and advertising) fees. The expense ratio does not include brokerage costs for trading the portfolio, although these are reported as a percentage of assets to the SEC by the funds in a Statement of Additional Information (SAI). The SAI is available to shareholders on request. Neither the expense ratio nor the SAI includes the transactions costs of spreads, normally incurred in unlisted securities and foreign stocks. These two costs can add significantly to the reported expenses of a fund. The expense ratio is often termed an Operating Expense Ratio (OER). Expensed Charged to an expense account, fully reducing reported profit of that year, as is appropriate for expenditures for items with useful lives under one year. Experience rating A technique insurance companies use to determine the correct price of a policy premium. Expiration The time an option contract lapses. Expiration cycle Dates on which options on a particular security expire. A given option will be placed in one of three cycles; the January cycle, the February cycle, or the March cycle. At any time, an option has contracts with four expiration dates outstanding: two in near-term months and two in far-term months. Last day on which an option may be exercised. Expiration date The last day (in the case of American-style) or the only day (in the case of European-style) on which an option may be exercised. For stock options, this date is the Saturday immediately following the thrid Friday of the expiration month; brokerage firms may set an earlier deadline for notification of an option holder's intention to exercise. If Friday is a holiday, the last trading day will be the preceding Thursday. Exploding term sheet Venture capital jargon. Often a proposed term sheet, might explode or be null and void in a fixed period set to negotiate the final contract. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) The U.S. federal government agency that extends trade credits to U.S. companies to facilitate the financing of U.S. exports. Exposure netting Offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency, when exchange rates are expected to move in such a way that losses or gains on the first exposed position should be offset by gains or losses on the second currency exposure. Expropriation The official seizure by a government of private property. Any government has the right to seize such property, according to international law, if prompt and adequate compensation is given. Expunge Used in the context of general equities. Remove any trace of an Autex indication's existence at any time. See: Cancel. Extendable bond Bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer. Extendable notes Note with maturity that can be extended by mutual agreement between the issuer and investors. Extension Voluntary arrangements to restructure a firm's debt, under which the payment date is postponed. Extension date The day on which the first option either expires or is extended. Extension swap Extending maturity through a swap, e.g. selling a 2-year note and buying one with a slightly longer current maturity. External efficiency Related: Pricing efficiency External finance Funding that is not generated by a firm's operations: new borrowing or a stock issue. External funds Funds originating from a source outside the corporation to increase cash flow and to aid in expansion efforts, e.g., bank loan or bond offering. External market Also referred to as the international market, the offshore market, or, more popularly, the Euromarket. A mechanism for trading securities that at issuance (1) are offered simultaneously to investors in a number of countries and (2) are issued outside the jurisdiction of any single country. Related: Internal market. Extinguish Retire or pay off debt. Extraordinary call Early redemption of a revenue bond because the revenue source paying the interest on the bond has been eliminated or has disappeared. Extraordinary item An unusual and unexpected one-time event that must be explained to shareholders in an annual or quarterly report, e.g., employee fraud, a lawsuit, etc. Extra or special dividends A dividend that is paid in addition to a firm's established or expected quarterly dividend. Extraordinary positive value A positive net present value. Extrapolative statistical models Models that apply a formula to historical data and project results for a future period. Such models include the simple linear trend model, the simple exponential model, and the simple autoregressive model. F Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is a foreign company. FASB See: Financial Accounting Standards Board FCIA See: Foreign Credit Insurance Association FCM See: Futures commission merchant FDI See: Foreign direct investment FDIC See: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FFO See: Funds from operations FIRREA See: Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 FOK See: Fill or kill order FRA See: Forward rate agreement FRN See: Floating-rate note FSC See: Foreign Sales Corporation Face-amount certificate A debt security issued by face amount. The holder makes payments periodicaly to the issues, and the issuer promies to pay the purchaser the face value at maturity or the surrended value if the security is presented by the maturity specified in the certificate. Face value See: Par value Factor A financial institution that buys a firm's accounts receivable and collects the accounts. Factor analysis A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a common stock, in terms of the behavior of a set of predictive factors. Factor model A way of decomposing the forces that influence a security's rate of return into common and firm-specific influences. Factor portfolio A well-diversified portfolio constructed to have a beta of 1.0 on one factor and a beta of zero on any other factors. Factoring Sale of a firm's accounts receivable to a financial institution known as a factor. Fade Refers to over-the-counter trading. Fill another OTC dealer's bid for or offer of stock. Fail A deal is said to fail if on the settlement date either the seller does not deliver securities in proper form or the buyer does not to deliver funds in proper form. Fair-and-equitable test A set of requirements for a plan of reorganization to be approved by the bankruptcy court. Fair game An investment prospect that has a zero risk premium. Fair market price Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, that both have knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price. Fair price The equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval. Fair price provision See:Appraisal rights Fair rate of return The rate of return that state governments allow a public utility to earn on its investments and expenditures. Utilities then use these profits to pay investors and provide service upgrades to their customers. Fair value In the context of futures, the equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval. More generally, fair value for any asset simply refers to the perception that it is neither underpriced (too cheap) nor overpriced (too expensive). Fairness opinion An investment banker's professional opinion as to the price an acquiring firm is offering in a takeover or merger. Fall Down In the context of general equities, may not be able to produce as indicated in one's advertised market, due to less help (than anticipated) from other parties or due to changing market conditions. Fall out of bed A sudden drop in a stock's price resulting from failed or poor business deals gone bad or falling through. Fallen angels Bonds that at the time of issue were considered investment grade but that have dropped below that rating over time. Fallout risk A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be originated are set at the same time the sale terms are established. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline. Fama, Eugene F. Finance professor at the University of Chicago. Developer of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis. Far month Used in the context of option or futures to refer to the trading month of the contract that is farthest away. Antithesis of nearest month. Farther out; farther in Used in the context of options to refer to the relative length of option contract maturities. FASB No. 8 U.S. accounting standard that requires U.S. firms to translate their foreign affiliates' accounts by the temporal method; that is reporting gains and losses from currency fluctuations in current income. It was in effect between 1975 and 1981 and became the most controversial accounting standard in the U.S. It was replaced by FASB No. 52 in 1981. FASB No. 52 The U.S. accounting standard that replaced FASB No. 8. U.S. companies are required to translate foreign accounts in terms of the current rate and report the changes from currency fluctuations in a cumulative translation adjustment account in the equity section of the balance sheet. Fast market Excessively rapid trading in a specific security that causes a delay in the electronic updating of its last sale and market conditions, particularly in options. Favorable trade balance Condition that total exports of a nation exceed total imports, creating a net export. Feasible portfolio A portfolio that an investor can construct, given the assets available. Feasible set of portfolios The collection of all feasible portfolios. Feasible target payout ratios Payout ratios that are consistent with the level of excess funds available to make cash dividend payments. FED Pass A Federal Reserve action adding more reserves to the banking system, increasing the money available for lending, and making credit easier to attain. Federal agency securities Securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government, such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae. Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac) A federal agency chartered in 1988 to provide a secondary market for farm mortgage loans. Federal credit agencies Agencies of the federal government set up to supply credit to various classes of institutions and individuals, e.g., S&Ls, small business firms, students, farmers, and exporters. Federal deficit (surplus) When federal government expenditures are exceeded by federal government revenue. Federal Farm Credit Bank An institution created by the government with the purpose of uniting the financing activities of the federal land banks, the federal intermediate credit banks, and the banks for cooperatives. See: Federal Farm Credit System. Federal Farm Credit System A system chartered in 1971 through the farm credit act providing farmers with credit services through a federal land bank, a federal intermediate credit bank, and a bank for cooperatives. See: Federal Farm Credit Bank. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) A federal institution that insures bank deposits. Federal Financing Bank A federal institution that lends to a wide array of federal credit agencies funds it obtains by borrowing from the U.S. Treasury. Federal funds Noninterest-bearing deposits held in reserve for depository institutions at their district Federal Reserve Bank. Also, excess reserves lent by banks to each other. Federal funds market The market in which banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily short of their required reserves to borrow reserves from banks that have excess reserves. Federal funds rate The interest rate that banks with excess reserves at a Federal Reserve district bank charge other banks that need overnight loans. The Fed funds rate, as it is called, often points to the direction of U.S. interest rates. The most sensitive indicator of the direction of interest rates, since it is set daily by the market, unlike the prime rate and the discount rate. Federal gift tax A federal tax imposed on assets conveyed as gifts to individuals. Federal Home Loan Banks The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The Federal Home Loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-à-vis member commercial banks. Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC) See: Freddie Mac Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Federally sponsored agency chartered in 1934 whose stock is currently owned by savings institutions across the United States. The agency buys residential mortgages that meet certain requirements, sells these mortgages in packages, and insures the lenders against loss. Federal Housing Finance Board (FHFB) U.S. government agency chartered in 1989 to assume the responsibilities formerly held by the Federal Home Loan Bank system. Federal Intermediate Credit Bank A bank sponsored by the federal government to provide funds to institutions making loans to farmers. Federal Land Bank A bank administered under the U.S. Farm Credit Administration that provides long-term mortgage credit to farmers for agriculture-related expenditures. Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) A publicly owned, government-sponsored corporation chartered in 1938 to purchase mortgages from lenders and resell them to investors. Known by the nickname Fannie Mae, it packages mortgages backed by the Federal Housing Administration, but also sells some nongovernment-backed mortgages. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) The body that is responsible for setting the interest rates and credit policies of the Federal Reserve System. Federal Reserve Bank One of the 12 member banks constituting the Federal Reserve System that is responsible for overseeing the commercial and savings banks of its region to ensure their compliance with regulation. Federal Reserve Board (FRB) The seven-member governing body of the Federal Reserve System, which is responsible for setting reserve requirements, and the discount rate, and making other key economic decisions. Federal Reserve System The monetary authority of the U.S., established in 1913, and governed by the Federal Reserve Board located in Washington, D.C. The system includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks and is authorized to regulate monetary policy in the U.S. as well as to supervise Federal Reserve member banks, bank holding companies, international operations of U.S. banks, and U.S. operations of foreign banks. Federal Savings and Loan Association An institution chartered by the federal government whose primary function is to collect savings deposits and to provide mortgage loans. Federally related institutions Arms of the federal government exempt from SEC registration whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the Tennessee Valley Authority). Fedwire A wire transfer system for high-value payments operated by the Federal Reserve System. FHA prepayment experience The percentage of loans in a pool of mortgages outstanding at the origination anniversary, based on annual statistical historic survival rates for FHA-insured mortgages. Fiat money Nonconvertible paper money. FICO See: Financing corporation Fictitious credit A margin account's credit balance. Fictitious credit exists after the proceeds from a short sale are accounted for with respect to the margin requirement. The proceeds from the short sale are reflected as a credit, but must stay in the account to serve as security for the loan of securities made in a short sale, and are therefore inaccessible to the client for withdrawal. Fidelity bond See: Blanket fidelity bond Field warehouse Warehouse rented by a company on another firm's premises. FIFO See: First in, first out Figure Refers to details about price including the bid and ofter. See: Handle Figuring the tail Calculating the yield at which a future money market (one available some period hence) is purchased when that future security is created by buying an existing instrument and financing the initial portion of its life with a term repo. Fill The price at which an order is executed. Fill or kill order (FOK) A trading order that is cancelled unless executed within a designated time period. A market or limited price order that is to be executed in its entirety as soon as it is represented in the trading crowd, and, if not so executed, is to be treated as cancelled. For purposes of this definition, a stop is considered an execution. Equivalent to AON and IOC simultaneously. Filter A rule that stipulates when a security should be bought or sold according to its price action. Finance A discipline concerned with determining value and making decisions. The finance function allocates resources, including the acquiring, investing, and managing of resources. Finance charge The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. Finance company A company whose business and primary function is to make loans to individuals, while not receiving deposits like a bank. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Board composed of independent members who create and interpret Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Financial adviser A professional offering financial advice to clients for a fee and/or commission. Financial analysis Analysis of a company's financial statement, often by financial analysts. Financial analysts Also called securities analysts and investment analysts,. Pofessionals who analyze financial statements, interview corporate executives, and attend trade shows, in order to write reports recommending either purchasing, selling, or holding various stocks. Financial assets Claims on real assets. Financial control The management of a firm's costs and expenses in relation to budgeted amounts. Financial distress Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts. Financial distress costs Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs). Financial engineering Combining or carving up existing instruments to create new financial products. Financial future A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange for the selling price at some specified future date. Financial guarantee insurance Insurance created to cover losses from specified financial transactions. Financial institution An enterprise such as a bank whose primary business and function is to collect money from the public and invest it in financial assets such as stocks and bonds. Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) Legislation that established the Office of Thrift Supervision, which was created in the wake of the savings and loan crisis of the late 1980s. Financial intermediaries Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or traders. Financial lease Long-term, noncancellable rental agreement. Financial leverage Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. Financial leverage is measured by the ratio of debt to debt plus equity. Financial leverage clientele A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to a particular financial leverage policy. Financial leverage ratios Common ratios are debt divided by equity a debt divided by the sum of debt plus equity. Related: capitalization ratios. Financial market An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets. Financial needs approach A method of establishing the amount of life insurance required by an individual by estimating the financial needs of dependents in the event of the individual's death. Financial objectives Goals related to returns that a firm will strive to accomplish during the period covered by its financial plan. Financial plan A blueprint relating to the financial future of a firm. Financial planning Evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. Planning includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against that plan. Financial position The account status of a firm's or individual's assets, liabilities, and equity positions as reflected on its financial statement. Financial press Media devoted to reporting financial news. Financial public relations Public relations division of a company charged with cultivating positive investor relations and proper disclosure information. Financial pyramid A risk structure that spreads investor's risks across low-, medium-, and high-risk vehicles. The bulk of the assets are in safe, low-risk investments that provide a predictable return (base of the pyramid). At the top of the pyramid are a few high-risk ventures that have a modest chance of success. Financial ratio The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret financial statements by focusing on specific relationships. Financial risk The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations. Also referred to as the additional risk that a firm's stockholder bears when the firm uses debt and equity. Financial structure The way in which a company's assets are financed, such as short-term borrowings, long-term debt, and ownership equity. Financial structure differs from capital structure in that capital structure accounts for long-term debt and equity only. Financial supermarket A company offering a wide variety of financial services such as a combination of banking services, stock, and insurance brokerage. Financial tables Tables found in newspapers listing prices, dividends, yields, price-earnings ratios, trading volume, and other important data on stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and futures contracts. Financial Times (F-T)-Actuaries indexes Share price indexes for U.K. companies The denominator in the index formula is the market capitalization at the base date, adjusted for all capital changes affecting the particular index since the base date. See: Footsie (FTSE) (procounced footsie). Financing Corporation (FICO) A government agency chartered in 1987 to bail out the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) by issuing bonds. Financing decisions Decisions concerning the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the firm's balance sheet, such as a decision to issue bonds. Finder's fee A fee a person or company charges for service as an intermediary in a transaction. FINEX The financial futures and options division of the New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE), with a trading floor in Dublin, FINEX Europe, creating a 24-hour market in most FINEX contracts. Finish Used in the context of general equities. See: Fill. Finite-Life Real Estate Investment Trust (FREIT) A Real Estate Investment Trust whose priority is to sell its holdings within a specified period to realize capital gains. Firewall The legal barrier between banking and broker/dealer operations within a financial institution created to prevent the exchange of inside information. Firm Refers to an order to buy or sell that can be executed without confirmation for some fixed period. Also, a synonym for company. Firm commitment underwriting An underwriting in which an investment banking firm commits to buy and sell an entire issue of stock and assumes all financial responsibility for any unsold shares. Firm market In the context of general equities, prices at which a security can actually be bought or sold in decent sizes, as compared to an inside market with very little depth. See: Actual market. Firm order In the context of general equities, (1) order to buy or sell for the proprietary account of the broker-dealer firm; (2) buy or sell order not conditional upon the customer's confirmation. Firm quote A definite price on a round-lot bid or offer declared by a market maker on a given security and not identified as a nominal quotation (therefore is not negotiable). Firm-specific risk See: Diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk Firm's net value of debt Total firm value minus total firm debt. First board The Chicago Board of Trade's established dates for delivery on futures contracts. First call With collateralized mortgage obligation (C.M.O.s), the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window. First call date A date stated in an indenture, that is the first date on which the issuer may redeem a bond either partially or completely. First In, First Out (FIFO) An accounting method for valuing the cost of goods sold that uses the cost of the oldest item in inventory first. First mortgage A type of mortgage that through a lien gives precedence to the lender of the first mortgage over all other lenders in case of default. First notice day The first day, varying by contracts and exchanges, on which notices of intent to deliver actual financial instruments or physical commodities against futures are authorized. First-pass regression A time series regression to estimate the betas of securities portfolios. First preferred stock A type of preferred stock that has priority over other preferred issues and common stock when claiming dividends and assets. Fiscal agency agreement An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as a representative of the borrower. Fiscal policy Government spending and taxing for the specific purpose of stabilizing the economy. Fiscal year (FY) Accounting period covering 12 consecutive months over which a company determines earnings and profits. The fiscal year serves as a period of reference for the company and does not necessarily correspond to the calendar year. Fisher effect A theory that nominal interest rates in two or more countries should be equal to the required real rate of return to investors plus compensation for the expected amount of inflation in each country. Fisher's separation theorem Thte notion that a firm's choice of investments is separate from its owner's attitudes toward investments. Also referred to as portfolio separation theorem. Fit The matching of the investor's requirements and needs such as risk tolerance and growth potential preference with a specific investment. Fitch sheet Used in the context of general equities. Chronological listing of trades in a security showing the price, size, exchange, and time (to the second) of the trades; obtained by hitting "#M" on Quotron. Five Cs of credit Five characteristics that are used to form a judgment about a customer's creditworthiness: character, capacity, capital, collateral, and conditions. Five hundred dollar rule A rule of the Federal Reserve that excludes deficiencies of $500 or less in margin requirements as a necessary reason for the firm to liquidate the client's account to cover a margin call. Five percent rule A rule of the National Association of Securities Dealers providing ethical guidelines for spreads created by market makers and commissions charged by brokers. Fixation The process of setting a price of a commodity, whether in the present or the future. See: Gold fixing. Fixed asset Long-lived property owned by a firm that is used by a firm in the production of its income. Tangible fixed assets include real estate, plant, and equipment. Intangible fixed assets include patents, trademarks, and customer recognition. Fixed asset turnover ratio The ratio of sales to fixed assets. Fixed annuities Contracts in which an insurance company or issuing financial institution pays a fixed dollar amount of money per period. Fixed benefits Payments to a beneficiary that are paid in fixed preset amounts and are not variable. Fixed-charge coverage ratio A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of (net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments). Fixed cost A cost that is fixed in total for a given period of time and for given production levels. Fixed dates In the Euromarket, the standard periods for which Euros are traded (one month out to a year out) are referred to as the fixed dates. Fixed-dollar obligations Conventional bonds for which the coupon rate is set at a fixed percentage of the par value. Fixed-dollar security A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds. Fixed exchange rate A country's decision to tie the value of its currency to another country's currency, gold (or another commodity), or a basket of currencies. Fixed income equivalent Also called a busted convertible. Convertible security that is trading like a straight security because the optioned common stock is trading well below the conversion price. Fixed income instruments Assets that pay a fixed dollar amount, such as bonds and preferred stock. Fixed income market The market for trading bonds and preferred stock. Fixed premium Payments of a fixed, equal amounts paid to an insurance company for insurance or an annuity. Fixed price basis An offering of securities at a fixed price. Fixed-price tender offer A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price, usually at a premium over the current market price. Fixed-rate loan A loan whose rate is fixed for the life of the loan. Fixed-rate payer In an interest rate swap, the counterparty who pays a fixed rate, usually in exchange for a floating-rate payment. Fixed-term reverse mortgage A mortgage in which the lending institution provides payments to a homeowner for a fixed number of years. Fixed trust A unit investment trust consisting of securities that were agreed upon at the time of investment and do not change. Flag A pattern reflecting price fluctuations within a narrow range, generating a rectangular area on a graph both prior to and after sharp rises or declines. Flash Value of a security displayed, or flashed across the tape, when the tape display cannot keep up with volume on an exchange and lags the current price is lagged more than approximately five minutes. Flat Convertibles: Earning interest on the date of payment only. General: Having neither a short nor a long position in a stock. Clean. Market: Characterized by horizontal price movement, usually the result of low activity. Equities: To execute without commission or markup. Flat benefit formula Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by multiplying months of service by a flat monthly benefit. Flat price (also clean price) The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest. The price paid by the purchaser is the full price. Flat price risk Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading. Flat scale The pattern for new issues where shorter- and longer-term yields display very little difference over the bond's maturity range. Flat tax A tax which is levied at the same rate on all levels of income. Antithesis of progressive tax. Flat trades A bond in default trades flat; that is, the price quoted covers both principal and unpaid accrued interest. Any security that trades without accrued interest or at a price that includes accrued interest is said to trade flat. Flattening of the yield curve A change in the yield curve when the spread between the yield on long-term and short-term Treasuries has decreased. Compare steepening of the yield curve and butterfly shift. Flexible budget A budget that shows how costs vary with different rates of output or at different levels of sales volume and projects revenue based on these different output levels. Flexible expenses Expenses for an individual or corporation that can be adjusted or completely dispessed with, e.g., luxury goods. Flexible mutual fund Fund that invests in a variety of securities in varying proportions in order to maximize shareholder returns while maintaining a low level of risk. Flight to quality The tendency of investors to move toward safer investments (often government bonds) during periods of high economic uncertainty. Flip-flop note Note that allows investors to switch between two different types of debt. Flip side In the context of general equities, opposite side to a proposition or position (buy, if sell is the proposition and vice versa). Flipping Buying shares in an initial public offering (IPO), and then selling the shares immediately after the start of public trading to turn an immediate profit. Float Currency: Exchange rate policy that does not limit the range of the market rate. Equities: Number of shares of a corporation that are outstanding and available for trading by the public, excluding insiders or restricted stock on a when-issued basis. A stock's volatility is inversely correlated to its float. Floater A bond whose interest rate varies with the interest rate of another debt instrument, e.g., a bond that has the interest rate of the Treasury bill +.25%. Floating debt Short-term debt that is renewed and refinanced contantly to fund capital needs of a firm or institution. Floating exchange rate A country's decision to allow its currency value to change freely. The currency is not constrained by central bank intervention and does not have to maintain its relationship with another currency in a narrow band. The currency value is determined by trading in the foreign exchange market. Floating lien General attachment against a company's assets or against a particular class of assets. Floating-rate contract An guaranteed investment instrument whose interest payment is tied to some variable (floating) interest rate benchmark, such as a specific-maturity Treasury yield. Floating-rate note (FRN) Note whose interest payment varies with short-term interest rates. Floating-rate payer In an interest rate swap, the counterparty who pays a rate based on a reference rate, usually in exchange for a fixed-rate payment. Floating-rate preferred Preferred stock paying dividends that vary with short-term interest rates. Floating securities Securities bought in a broker's name and resold quickly to attain a profit in a short amount of time. Floating supply The aggregate of securities believed to be available for immediate purchase, that is, in the hands of dealers and investors wanting to sell. Floor The area of a stock exchange where active trading occurs. Also the price at which a stop order is activated (when the price drops low enough to activate such an order). Floor broker Member of an exchange who is an employee of a member firm and executes orders, as agent, on the floor of the exchange for clients. Floor official An employee of a stock exchange who settles disputes related to the auction process on the floor of the stock exchange. Floor picture Details of the trading crowd for a stock, such as the major players, their sizes, and the outside market +/- an eighth. Floor planning Arrangement used to finance inventory. A finance company buys the inventory, which is then held in trust for the user. Floor ticket Summary of a stock or commodities exchange order ticket by the registered representative on receipt of a buy or sell order from a client; gives the floor broker the information needed to execute a securities transaction. Floor trader A stock exchange member who generally trades only for his own account or for an account controlled by him, or who has such a trade made for him. Also referred to as a "local." Flotation (roatation) cost The costs associated with creating capital through the issue of new stocks or bonds, including the compensation earned by the investment banker plus legal, accounting and printing expenses. Flow of funds In the context of municipal bonds, refers to the statement displaying the priorities by which municipal revenue will be applied to the debt. In the context of mutual funds, refers to the movement of money into or out of a mutual funds or between or amoung various fund sectors. Flow-through basis An account for an investment credit to show all income statement benefits of the credit in the year of acquisition, rather than spreading them over the life of the asset. Flow-through method The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation but using accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to financial statements prepared for shareholders. Flower bond Government bonds that when owned at the time of death are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes. Fluctuation A price or interest rate change. Fluctuation limit The limit created by the commodity exchange that halts trading on a future if the price of the future changes, in either direction, more than a previously set amount. Flurry A drastic volume increase in a specific security. Focus list Used in the context of general equities. Investment banks published list of buy and sell recommendations from its research department; signified by a flashing "F" on Quotron. Footsie (FTSE) Financial Times (F-T)-Actuaries 100 index: "Dow average" of London. For/At Used in the context of general equities. Conjunctions used in an order, market summary, or trade recap that signify a bid or an offer, respectively. See: On. For a number Used in the context of general equities. Implies that the quantity mentioned is not his total but instead is only approximate, and to open him up more will obligate one to participate. For your information (FYI) A prefix to a security price indicating that the quote is for information purposes only, and not an offer to trade. Forbes 500 Forbes magazine's list of the largest publicly owned corporations in the United States according to sales, assets, profits, and market value. Force majeure risk The risk that there will be prolonged interruption of operations for a project finance enterprise due to fire, flood, storm, or some other factor beyond the control of the project's sponsors. Forced conversion Occurs when a convertible security is called in by the issuer, usually when the underlying stock is selling well above the conversion price. The issuer thus assures the bonds will be retired without requiring any cash payment. Upon conversion into common, the carrying value of the bonds becomes part of a corporation's equity, thus strengthening the balance sheet and enhancing future debt capability. Forecasting Making projections about future performance on the basis of historical and current conditions data. Foreclosure Process by which the holder of a mortgage seizes the property of a homeowner who has not made interest and/or principal payments on time as stipulated in the mortgage contract. Foreign banking market That portion of domestic bank loans supplied to foreigners for use abroad. Foreign bond A bond issued on the domestic capital market of another company. Foreign bond market In the domestic bond market Issues floated by foreign companies or government. Foreign corporation A corporation conducting business in another country from the one it is chartered in and that abides by the laws of another country. See: Alien corporation. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act An amendment to the Securities Exchange Act created to sanction bribery of foreign officials by publicly held U.S. companies. Foreign Credit Insurance Association (FCIA) A private consortium of U.S. insurance companies that offers trade credit insurance to U.S. exporters in conjunction with the U.S. Export-Import Bank. Foreign crowd NYSE members who trade in foreign bonds on the floor. Foreign currency Money of another country from one's own. Foreign currency forward contract Agreement that obligates its parties to exchange given quantities of currencies at a prespecified exchange rate on a certain future date. Foreign currency futures contract Standardized and easily transferable obligation between two parties to exchange currencies at a specified rate during a specified delivery month; standardized contract on specified underlying currencies, in multiples of standard amounts. Purchased and traded on a regulated exchange on which margins are posted. Foreign currency option An option that conveys the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign currency at a specified price within a specified time period. Foreign currency translation The process of restating foreign currency accounts of subsidiaries into the reporting currency of the parent company in order to prepare consolidated financial statements. Foreign direct investment (FDI) The acquisition abroad of physical assets such as plant and equipment, with operating control residing in the parent corporation. Foreign equity market Issues floated by foreign companies in the domestic equity market. Foreign exchange Currency of another country. Abbreviated Forex. Foreign exchange controls Various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents. Foreign exchange dealer A firm or individual that buys foreign exchange from one party and then sells it to another party. The dealer makes the difference between the buying and selling prices, or the spread. Foreign exchange risk The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out at a loss due to an adverse movement in exchange rates. Foreign exchange swap An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency at one or more future dates. Foreign market Part of a nation's internal market, representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading securities of entities domiciled outside that nation. Compare external market and domestic market. Foreign market beta A measure of foreign market risk that is derived from the capital asset pricing model. Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods. Foreign tax credit Home country credit against domestic income tax. Received in return for foreign taxes paid on foreign derived earnings. Forex See: Foreign exchange Forfaiter Purchaser of promises to pay issued by importers. Forfeiture The loss of rights to an asset outlined in a legal contract if a party fails to fulfill obligations of the contract. Form 8-K The form required by the SEC when a publicly held company incurs any event that might affect its financial situation or the share value of its stock. Form 4 The form required by the SEC for a change in the holdings of an individual owning 10% or more of the outstanding stock or in the holdings of a company officer. Form T The form required by the NASD to report equity transactions after the market's regular hours. Form 10-K A report required by the SEC from exchange-listed companies that provides for annual disclosure of certain financial information. Form 3 A form required by the SEC and the stock exchange from all holders of 10% or more of a company's stock and all directors and officers, which details securities owned. Formula basis A method of selling a new issue of common stock in which the S.E.C. declares the registration statement effective on the basis of a price formula rather than on a specific range. Formula investing A formula-based investment technique in which investment decisions are made using predetermined timing or asset allocation models, e.g., dollar cost averaging. Fortune 500 Fortune magazine's listing of the top 500 U.S. corporations determined by an index of 12 variables. 48-hour rule PSA Unifor Practices requirement that all pool information in a to be announced (T.B.A.) transaction be communicated by the seller to the buyer before 3 p.m. EST on the business day 48 hours prior to the agreed-upon trade date. Forward See: Forward contract Forward contract A contract that specifies the price and quantity of an asset to be delivered on in the future. Forward contracts are not standardized and are not traded on organized exchanges Forward cover The purchase in the cash market of the difference between what you are obligated to deliver in a forward contract and the amount of the asset you own. For example, if you agreed to sell 100,000 bushels of corn in September in a forward contract, but you only have 60,000, you need to purchase 40,000 to cover your obligation. Forward delivery A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price agreed upon on the trade date. Forward differential Annualized percentage difference between spot and forward rates. Forward discount A currency trades at a forward discount when its forward price is lower than its spot price. Forward exchange rate Exchange rate fixed today for exchanging currency at some future date. Forward exchange transaction Foreign currency purchase or sale at the current exchange rate but with payment or delivery of the foreign currency at a future date. Forward Fed funds Fed funds traded for future delivery. Forward forward contract In Eurocurrencies, a contract under which a deposit of fixed maturity is agreed to at a fixed price for future delivery. Forward interest rate Interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date. Forward-looking multiple A truncated expression for a P/E ratio that is based on forward (expected) earnings rather than on trailing earnings. Forward market A market in which participants agree to trade some commodity, security, or foreign exchange at a fixed price for future delivery. Forward premium A currency trades at a forward premium when its forward price is higher than its spot price. Forward pricing Practice mandated by the SEC that open-end investment companies establish all incoming buy and sell orders on the next net asset valuation of fund shares. Forward rate A projection of future interest rates calculated from either spot rates or the yield curve. Forward rate agreement (FRA) Agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate that is fixed today. Forward sale A method for hedging price risk that involves an agreement between a lender and an investor to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time. Forward trade A transaction for which settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price agreed upon on the trade date. Fourth market Refers to the practice of institutional investors trading large blocks of securities directly to avoid brokerage commissions. See: Instinet. Fractional discretion order A type of order that gives the broker discretion to alter the price, up or down, within a specific fractional range in order to guarantee an execution. Fractional share Stocks ammounting to less than one full share, usually resulting from splits, acquisitions, exchanges, or dividend reinvestment programs. Frankfurt Stock Exchange The largest of Germany's eight securities exchanges, operated by Deutsche Borse AS. Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) A Congressionally chartered corporation that purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and securitizes these mortgages for sale in the capital markets. Free on board (FOB) Implies that distribution services like transport and handling performed on goods up to the customs frontier (of the economy from which the goods are classed as merchandise.) are included in the price. Free box A bank vault or other suitable storage place for the securities of a firm's customer. Free cash flows Cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before interest (often obtained from the operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the change in working capital. In terms of a formula: Free cash flows = Sales (Revenues from operations) - COGS (Cost of goods sold-labor, material, book depreciation) - SG&A (Selling, general administrative costs) EBIT (Earnings before interest and taxes or Operating Earnings) - Taxes (Cash taxes) EBIAT (Earnings before interest after taxes) + DEP (Book depreciation) - CAPX (Capital expenditures) - ChgWC (Change in working capital) C (Free cash flows) Free delivery Securities industry procedure whereby delivery of securities sold is made to the buying customer's bank without requiring immediate payment; thus a credit agreement of sorts. Antithesis of delivery vs. payment. Free float An exchange rate system characterized by the absence of government intervention. Also known as clean float. Free reserves Excess reserves minus member bank borrowings at the Fed. Free rider A follower who avoids the cost and expense of finding the best course of action simply by mimicking the behavior of a leader who made these investments. Free-riding A forbidden practice in which the member of an underwriting syndicate retains a portion of an initial public offering (IPO) and resells the securities at a higher price determined by the market at a later time. Also forbidden is a brokerage customer's rapid buying and selling of a security without putting up money for the purchase. Free right of exchange An investor's right to transfer securities from one name to another name without paying charges that accompany a sales transaction. Free stock A stock that is paid for in full and is not pledged in any way as collateral. Free to trade Used in the context of general equities. Not subject to any internal (restricted list) or external restrictions on trading; hence, the trader is free to solicit interest. Freed up A term used to indicate that an underwriting syndicate's members are no longer restricted to the fixed price agreed upon in the agreement among underwriters and are permitted to trade the security on a free market basis. Freeze out The action of pressurizing shareholders with relatively minor amounts of stock to sell their shares after a takeover. FREIT See: Finite-Life Ral Estate Investment Trust Frequency distribution The organization of data to show how often certain values or ranges of values occur. Fresh picture Updated estimation of a stock or market, usually following recent trading activity or news that has changed the previous look. Fresh signal Piece of information (fundamental or technical) leading one to believe a stock will move in a certain manner. Friction costs Costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort, money, and associated tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction. Frictional cost The difference between an index fund return and the index it represents. The typically lower rate of return from the fund results from transactions costs. Frictions The "stickiness" involved in making transactions; the total process including time, effort, money, and tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction such as buying a stock or borrowing money. Friendly takeover Merger when the target firm's management and board of directors is in favor of the takeover. Antithesis of hostile takeover. Front-end load The fee applied to an investment at the time of initial purchase, e.g., on a mutual fund purchased from a broker or mutual fund company. Front fee The fee initially paid by the buyer upon entering a split-fee option contract. Front office Refers to revenue generating sales personnel in a brokerage, insurance, or other financial services operation. Front running Entering into options or futures contracts with advance knowledge of a block transaction that will influence the price of the underlying security to capitalize on the trade. This practice is expressly forbidden by the SEC. Frozen account A disciplinary action taken by the Federal Reserve Board for some violation of Regulation T, an individual investor cannot sell securities until they are paid for in full and certificates delivered. Fry a bigger fish Used in the context of general equities. Work on a trade of larger size than a trade just disclosed. Full Handle. Full coupon bond A bond with a coupon equal to the going market rate; the bond is therefore selling at par. Full disclosure Describes exchange and government regulations providing for the release and free exchange of all information pertinent to a given security. Full faith-and-credit obligations The security pledges for larger municipal bond issuers, such as states and large cities that have diverse funding sources. Full-payout lease See: Financial lease Full price Also called dirty price; the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: Flat price. Full-service broker A broker who provides clients an all-inclusive selection of services such as advice on security selection and financial planning. Full-service lease Also called rental lease. Arrangement in which lessor promises to maintain and insure the equipment leased. Full trading authorization Indication that a broker with a discretionary account can operate free of all trading guidelines from the client. Fully depreciated An asset that has already been charged with the maximum amount of depreciation allowed by the IRS for accounting purposes. Fully diluted earnings per shares Earnings per share expressed as if all outstanding convertible securities and warrants have been exercised. Fully distributed A new stock issue that has been completely resold to the investing public and is no longer held by dealers. Fully invested Used to describe an investor whose assets are totally committed to investments, typically stock. Fully modified pass-throughs Agency pass-throughs that guarantee the timely payment of both interest and principal. Related: Modified pass-throughs. Fully valued Used in the context of general equities. Said of a stock that has reached a price at which analysts think the underlying company's fundamental earnings power has been fully recognized by the market. Functional currency As defined by FASB No. 52, an affiliate's functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the affiliate generates and expends cash. Fund family Set of funds with different investment objectives offered by one management company. In many cases, investors may move their assets from one fund to another within the family at little or no cost. Fund of funds A mutual fund or hedge fund that invests in other funds. Fund manager The person whose responsibility it is to oversee the allocation of the pool of money invested in a particular mutual fund. The fund manager is charged with investing the money to attain the returns and level of risk of the mutual fund investors. Fund switching Moving money within a mutual fund family from one mutual fund to another. Fun money Money that can be used to invest in risky investments with high potential return. Fundamental analysis Security analysis that seeks to detect misvalued securities through an analysis of the firm's business prospects. Research often focuses on earnings, dividend prospects, expectations for future interest rates, and risk evaluation of the firm. Antithesis of technical analysis. In macroeconomic analysis, information such as interest rates, GNP, inflation, unemployment, and inventories is used to predict the direction of the economy, and therefore thestock market. In microeconomic analysis, information such as balance sheet, income statement, products, management, and other market items is used to forecast a company's imminent success or failure, and hence the future price action of the stock. Fundamental beta The product of a statistical model to predict the fundamental risk of a security using not only price data but also other market-related and financial data. Fundamental descriptors In the model for calculating fundamental beta, ratios in risk indexes other than market variability, which rely on financial data other than price data. Funded debt Debt maturing after more than one year. Funded pension plan A pension plan in which all liabilities, including payments to be made to pensioners in the immediate future, are completely funded. Funding Used to describe the refinancing of a debt prior to its maturity (the same as refunding). In corporate finance refers to the floating of bonds to raise finance and levels of capital. See also: refunding. Funding ratio The ratio of a pension plan's assets to its liabilities. Funding risk Related: Interest rate risk Funds From Operations (FFO) Used by real estate and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from trust operations; earnings with depreciation and amortization added back. A similar term increasingly used is funds available for distribution (FAD), which is FFO less capital investments in trust property and the amortization of mortgages. Fungibility The substitutability of listed options, which is dependent upon their common expiration dates and strike prices. The congruence of expiration dates and strike prices lets investors close positions by offsetting transactions through the options clearing corporation. Furthest month Used in the context of commodities or options trading to refer to the month that is away from the contract's date of settlement. FUTOP The Danish derivatives market, merged with the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in 1997. Future A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange. Future investment opportunities The identification of additional, more valuable, investment opportunities in the future that result from a current opportunity or operation. Futures A term used to designate all contracts covering the sale of financial instruments or physical commodities for future delivery on a commodity exchange. Futures commission merchant (FCM) A firm or person engaged in soliciting or accepting and handling orders for the purchase or sale of futures contracts, subject to the rules of a futures exchange and, who, in connection with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money or securities to provide margin for any resulting trades or contracts. The FCM must be licensed by the CFTC. Related: Commission house, omnibus account. Futures contract Agreement to buy or sell a set number of shares of a specific stock in a designated future month at a price agreed upon today by the buyer and seller. The contracts themselves are often traded on the futures market. A futures contract differs from an option because an option is the right to buy or sell, while a futures contract is the promise to actually make a transaction. A future is part of a class of securities called derivatives, so named because such securities derive their value from the worth of an underlying investment. Futures contract multiple A constant set by an exchange, which when multiplied by the futures price gives the dollar value of a stock index futures contract. Futures market A market where contracts for future delivery of a commodity or a security are bought or sold. Futures option An option on a futures contract. Related: Options on physicals. Futures price The price at which parties to a futures contract agree to transact upon the settlement date. Future value The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified sum today. FVO (for valuation only) See: For your information G Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is the first convertible bond of the company. GAAP See: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GDP See: Gross Domestic Product GIC See: Guaranteed Investment Contract GNP See: Gross National Product GMC See: Guaranteed Mortgage Certificate GPM See: Graduated Payment Mortgages GTC See: Good 'til cancelled order Gaijin Japanese term used to describe a nonJapanese investor in Japan. Gain A profit on a securities transaction recognized by selling a security for more than the security originally cost. The gain is the difference between the cost and the sale. Gamma The ratio of a change in the option delta to a small change in the price of the asset on which the option is written. Gap Financing that is required, but for which no provision has been made. The difference in total funding needed for a proposal and the amount of funding already made available. Gap opening In the context of general equities, opening price that is substantially higher or lower than the previous day's closing price, usually because of some extraordinarily positive or negative news. Garage The floor of the NYSE, which is situated on the north side of the main trading floor. Garbatrage Rising stock prices and increased market activity in an entire sector caused by a psychology change stemming from a major takeover involving two companies in the sector. Speculators feel other takeovers are likely in the sector. See: Rumortrage. Garman-Kohlhagen option pricing model A model widely used to price foreign currency options. Gather in the stops A market strategy in which investors sell stocks to drive prices to a level that breaks through stop orders known to exist. Once the price is low enough, the stop orders become market orders and are executed, to create snowballing. GDP implicit price deflator An economic technique used to account for inflation by comparing the current-dollar gross domestic product GDP to constant-dollar GDP as a ratio. The ratio accounts for price changes of goods and services that make up GDP and changes in the composite of GDP. Gearing Financial leverage. GEM (growing equity mortgage) Mortgage in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to reduce outstanding principal and to shorten the term of the loan. General account Federal Reserve Board's term for a margin account provided to a customer by a brokerage firm. Governed by Regulation T of the FED. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) A treaty adopted by the United Nations aimed at elimination of international trade barriers between member countries. General cash offer A public offering made to investors at large. General ledger Accountint records that show all the financial statement accounts of a business. General lien An attachment that gives the lender the right to seize the personal property of a borrower who has not fulfilled the obligations of the loan, but prevents the lender from seizing real property. General loan and collateral agreement The agreement governing the broker-dealer's borrowing against listed securities from a bank for the purpose of carrying on business and making transactions. See: Broker loan rate. General mortgage A type of obligation that covers all a borrower's mortgageable properties, not just one specific property. General obligation bonds Municipal securities secured by the issuer's pledge of its full faith, credit, and taxing power. General partner A participant who has unlimited liability for the obligations of a partnership. General partnership A partnership in which all participants are general partners. General revenue The sum of taxes, charges, and miscellaneous income taken in at the state and local level while neglecting overlapping revenue which may be erroneously counted twice. Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP) The overall conventions, rules, and procedures that define accepted accounting practice at a particular time in the U.S. Generation-skipping transfer or trust A trust in which a principal amount is placed in a trust on the death of person A and is transferred to A's grandchildren when A's children die. The income from the trust goes to the children of person A while they survive. Generic Describes the characteristics and/or experience of the total universe of a coupon of MBS sector type; that is, in contrast to a specific pool or collateral group, as in a specific CMO issue. Geographic risk Risk that arises when an issuer issues policies concentrated within certain geographic areas, such as the risk of damage from a hurricane or an earthquake. Geometric mean return Also called the time-weighted rate of return, a measure of the compound rate of growth of the initial portfolio market value during the evaluation period, assuming that all cash distributions are reinvested in the portfolio. It is computed by taking the geometric average of the portfolio subperiod returns. Gestation repo A reverse repurchase agreement between mortgage firms and securities dealers. Under the agreement, the firm sells federal agency-guaranteed MBS and simultaneously agrees to repurchase them at a future date at a fixed price. Get hit Go lower in price, when bids in the stock or market are hit, causing those bids to vanish and be replaced by lower ones. Come in. Antithesis of on the take. Get out Used in the context of general equities. Sell interest ("We could get out big size in Humana.") Ghosting The illegal practice that one firm drives a stock's price higher or lower, while other conspiring firms follow its lead to influence up the price of the stock. Gift splitting A technique used to avoid a gift tax in which a large sum of money to be given by two parents to a child is halved and given to the child separately For example, a husband and wife each donate $10,000 to their child rather than one parent donating $20,000. Gift tax A tax assessed on the giver of a property or asset as a gift. A $10,000 federal gift tax exemption exists per recipient. See: Gift splitting. Gift inter vivos A piece of property or asset given from one living person to another. Gilt-edged securities British and Irish government securities. Blue Chip. Gilts British and Irish government securities. Blue Chip. Ginnie Mae See: Government National Mortgage Association Ginnie Mae pass-through A security guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association that is backed by a collection of mortgages, in which the investor receives the interest and principal payments of participating homeowners. Give up Used for listed equity securities. (1) Term used in a securities transaction involving three brokers, as follows: Broker A, a floor broker, executes a buy order for broker B (a member firm broker who has too much business at the time to execute the order). The broker with whom broker A completes the transaction (the sell-side broker) is broker C. Broker A "gives up" the name of broker B, so that the record shows a transaction between broker B and broker C even though the trade is actually executed between broker A and broker C; (2) distribution of commissions to brokerage houses not participating in a trade. This is a grey area of the law governing reimbursement of a broker for services (e.g., research). See: Directed brokerage. Glamor stock A popular stock characterized by high earnings growth rate and a price that rise is faster than the market average in a bull market. Global Depository Receipt A receipt denoting ownership of foreign-based corporation stock shares which are traded in numerous capital markets around the world. Glass-Steagall Act 1933 legislation prohibiting commercial banks to own, underwrite, or deal in corporate stock and corporate bonds. Global bonds Bonds designed to qualify for immediate trading in any domestic capital market and in the Euromarket. Global fund A mutual fund that can invest anywhere in the world, including the U.S. Globalization Tendency toward a worldwide investment environment, and the integration of national capital markets. GNMA-I Mortgage-backed securities (M.B.S.) on which registered holders receive separate principal and interest payments on each of their certificates, usually directly from the servicer of the M.B.S. pool. GNMA-I mortgage-backed securities are single-issuer pools. GNMA-II Mortgage-backed securities (M.B.S.) on which registered holders receive an aggregate principal and interest payment from a central paying agent on all their certificates. Principal and interest payments are disbursed on the 20th day of the month. GNMA-II M.B.S. are backed by multiple-issuer pools or custom pools (one issuer but different interest rates that may vary within one percentage point). Multiple-issuer pools are known as "jumbos." Jumbo pools are generally longer and offer certain mortgages that are more geographically diverse than single-issuer pools. Jumbo pool mortgage interest rates may vary within one percentage point. GNMA Midget A GNMA pass-through certificate backed by fixed-rate mortgages with a 15-year maturity. GNMA Midget is a dealer term and is not used by GNMA in the formal description of its programs. Gnomes Freddie Mac's 15-year fixed-rate pass-through securities issued under its cash program. Go along Used for listed equity securities. Buy or sell at prices that randomly occur on the floor, participating in what trades the specialist and other players will allow. Go around Describes the N.Y. Federal Reserve Bank's trading desk practice of communicating with primary dealers to establish a market of bids and offers on behalf of the Federal Open Market Committee. Goal An individual's or institution's financial objective. Godfather offer An aggressive takeover technique in that the proposed offer of the acquiring company is so large that management of the target company cannot refuse, out of fear of lawsuits or shareholder revolt. Go-go fund A type of mutual fund in highly aggressive growth stocks. The fund has high levels of risk and potential return. Go to Used in the context of general equities. Sell interest ("we've got 50 IBM to go".). Goes Used in the context of general equities. (1) Trades ("10 IBM goes on at 115 "); see Print; (2) indicates a change in the stock's inside market ("Apple goes 3/4 bid"). Going ahead A broker-dealer trades in a personal account prior to filling the orders of his or her clients. Prohibited by the NASD rules of fair practice. Going away The type of bond purchased by dealers for immediate resale to investors, as opposed to purchasing bond, to hold for some amount of time, and then reselling it at a future date. Going-concern value The value of a company to another company or individual in terms of an operating business. The difference between a company's going-concern value and its asset or liquidation value is deemed goodwill and plays a major role in mergers and acquisitions. Going long The investor's purchase of a security for investment or speculation that the price will rise resulting in a profit once the security is sold. See:: long position. Antithesis of going short. Going out Used in the context of general equities. Soliciting/advertising over the SS1, NASDSAQ, or Autex. Going private When publicly owned stock in a firm is replaced with complete equity ownership by a private group. The firm is delisted on stock exchanges and can no longer be purchased in the open markets. Going public When a private company first offers shares to the public market and investors. See: IPO. Going short Selling stock that an investor does not own by borrowing shares from a broker. The assumption is that the price will fall. The investor then buys (covers the short) the shares at a lower price than what they were sold for, recognizing the difference as a profit. Antithesis of going long. Going into the trade Used in the context of general equities. 1) Condition of the traders position in the security and expectations of stock placement with accounts just prior to taking an order to the exchange floor for execution; 2) On the way in. Antithesis of come out of the trade. Gold bars Bars with a minimum content of 99.5% gold, which may be held by central banks or traded by investors. Gold bond Bonds issued by gold-mining companies and backed by gold. The bonds make interest payments based on the level of gold prices. Gold bullion Investment-grade, pure gold, which may be smelted into gold coins or gold bars. Gold certificate Certificate of an investor, that shows proof of ownership of gold bullion. Gold coins Coin minted in gold, such as the American Eagle or the Canadian Maple Leaf. Gold exchange standard A fixed exchange rate system adopted in the Bretton Woods agreement. It required the U.S. to peg the dollar to gold and other countries to peg their currencies to the dollar. Gold fixing The process of determining the price of gold based on supply and demand forces of the market; which occurs twice daily in London. Gold mutual fund A mutual fund that primarily invests in gold-mining companies' stock. Gold standard An international monetary system in which currencies are defined in terms of their gold content, and payment imbalances between countries are settled in gold. It was in effect from about 1870 to 1914. Goldbug Analysts who recommends gold as an investment/hedge. Golden handcuffs A contract that binds a broker to a brokerage firm by offering the broker commissions and bonuses, but penalizes the broker if he or she goes to work for another firm. Golden handshake A large payment to a senior employee who is forced into retirement or fired as a result of a takeover or simular development. Golden hello A bonus a securities firm pays to attract an employee from a competing firm. Golden parachute Compensation paid to top-level management by a target firm if a takeover occurs. Goldilocks economy A term developed in the mid 1990s to describe the positive performance of the economy as "not too hot, not too cold; just right." Good delivery A delivery in which everything - order-endorsement, any necessary attached legal papers. Good delivery and settlement procedures Refers to PSA Uniform Practices such as cutoff times on delivery of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement. Good faith deposit Used in the context of commodities. Refers to the initial margin account deposit needed when buying or selling a futures contract; approximately 2%-10% of the contract value. Used in the context of securities to describe the deposit required by securities firms engaged in transactions on behalf of a new client. Also used to refer to the deposit with a municipal bond issuer by firms competing for the underwriting business. Good money Federal funds that clear on the same day, unlike clearinghouse funds, which require three days to clear. Good-this-Month order (GTM) An order to buy or sell securities that continues to be a valid order until the end of the current month. Good through/until date order Used in the context of general equities. Market or limited price order that remains viable for a stated period of time unless cancelled, executed, or changed, after which such order or the portion thereof not executed is to be treated as cancelled. Good 'til cancelled order (GTC) An order to buy or sell stock that is good until you execute or cancel it. Brokerages usually set a limit of 30-60 days, at which the G.T.C. order expires if not restated. (Different from a day order.) Goodwill Excess of purchase price over fair market value of net assets acquired under the purchase method of accounting. Government bond See: Government securities Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae) A wholly owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VA-guaranteed, or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages. Government obligations U.S. government-backed debt instruments, which are considered among the safest investments possible, including Treasury bonds, bills, and notes, and savings bonds. Government securities Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities. Government sponsored enterprises Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the economy including farmers, homeowners, and students. Governments U.S. government-issued securities, such as Treasury bills, bonds, and notes, and savings bonds. Governments are considered among the safest investments available as they are backed by the U.S. government. Also used to refer to debt issues of federal agencies, which are not directly backed by the U.S. government. Grace period The time period stipulated in most loan contracts and insurance policies during which a late payment will not result in default or cancellation. Graduated call writing Selling covered call options at incrementally rising exercise prices, so that as the price of the underlying stock rises and the options are exercised, the seller receives a higher average price than the original exercise price. Graduated lease A type of long-term lease whose payments are variable rather than fixed, and depend upon a benchmark rate, such as changes in the consumer price index. Graduated-payment mortgage (GPM) A type of stepped-payment loan in which the borrower's payments are initially lower than those on a comparable level-rate mortgage. The payments gradually increase over a predetermined period (usually 3, 5, or 7 years), and then are fixed at a level-pay schedule, which will be higher than the level-pay amortization of a level-pay mortgage originated at the same time. The difference between what the borrower actually pays and the amount required to fully amortize the mortgage is added to the unpaid principal balance. Graduated security A security that has moved from listing on an exchange of less prominence to one of more prominence. Graham and Dodd method of investing An investment strategy based on security analysis and identification. Investors buy stocks with undervalued assets speculating that these assets will appreciate to their true value. Graham-Harvey Measure 1 Performance measure developed by John Graham and Campbell Harvey. The idea is to lever a fund's portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the S&P 500. The difference between the fund's levered return and the S&P 500 return is the performance measure. Graham-Harvey Measure 2 Performance measure developed by John Graham and Campbell Harvey. The idea is to lever the S&P 500 portfolio to exactly match the volatility of the fund. The difference between the fund's return and the levered S&P 500 return is the performance measure. Grandfather clause A provision included in a new rule or regulation that exempts a business that is already conducting business in the area addressed by the regulation from penalty or restriction. Grantor A trader in the options market who makes premium income by selling options. Grantor Retained Income Trust (GRIT) A tax-saving trust in which a grantor transfers property to a beneficiary, but receives income until termination, at which time the beneficiary begins receiving the income. Grantor trust A mechanism of issuing MBS wherein the mortgages' collateral is deposited with a trustee under a custodial or trust agreement. Graveyard market Bear market in which investors who sell are faced with substantial losses, while potential investors prefer to stay liquid; that is, to keep their money in cash or cash equivalents until market conditions improve. Gray knight In a merger or acquisitions, a gray knight is an acquiring company that outbids a white knight in pursuit of its own best interests, although it is friendlier than a hostile bidder. Gray list Formal roster of stocks that can be traded by the block desks, but not in risk arbitrage because an investment bank is involved with the company on nonpublic activity (e.g., mergers and acquisitions defense). A stock's presence on this list should never be conveyed to anyone outside the trading area, much less outside the firm. See: Restricted list. Gray market Describes the sale of securities that have not officially been issued to firms other than the underwriting syndicate. This type of market serves as a good indicator of demand for a new issue in the public market. Great call Used in the context of general equities. Potential customer who may have an interest in participating in a particular trade if customer's past inquiry or activity is any indication. Greater fool theory An investment notion that even when a stock is fully valued by conventional standards, there is room for upward movement because there are enough buyers to push prices farther upward purely on speculation or hype. Greenmail The holding of a large block of stock of a target company by an unfriendly company, with the object of forcing the target company to repurchase the stock at a substantial premium to prevent a takeover. Greenshoe option Option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares. Gross per broker The dollar amount of commissions generated by a broker or registered representative over a specific period. Gross domestic product (GDP) The market value of goods and services produced over time including the income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S. residents and corporations overseas. Gross earnings A person's total taxable income prior to adjustments. See: adjusted gross income. Gross estate The total value of a person's property and assets before accounting for debts, taxes, and liabilities. Gross income - A person's total income prior to exclusions and deductions. Gross interest Interest earned before taxes are deducted. Gross lease A type of property lease in which the lessor (owner of the property being leased) pays expenses associated with ownership such as damages, taxes, and insurance. Gross National Product (GNP) Measures and economy's total income. It is equal to G.D.P. plus the income abroad accruing to domestic residents minus income generated in domestic market accruing to non-residents. Gross parity Applies mainly to convertible securities and international equities. Antithesis of net parity. For the price of a convertible, including accrued interest. For the price of international security, including commissions, fees, stamp duty, and other transaction costs, translated into U.S. dollar amounts. Gross profit Sales minus the cost of goods sold. Gross profit margin Gross profit divided by sales, which is equal to each sales dollar left over after paying for the cost of goods sold. Gross sales Total sales calculated by summing all sales at invoice values, neglecting any adjustments such as customer discounts or returns. Gross spread The fraction of the gross proceeds of an underwritten securities offering that is paid as compensation to the underwriters of the offering. Ground lease A lease of land, as opposed to a lease of a building. Group insurance Insurance coverage for a group, which can usually be obtained at a cheaper rate than insurance for an individual. Group of Eight (G-8) The G-7 countries plus Russia. Group of Five (G-5) The five leading countries (France, Germany, Japan, the U.K., and the U.S.) that meet periodically to achieve some cooperative effort on international economic issues. When currency issues are discussed, the monetary authorities of these nations hold the meeting. Group of Seven (G-7) The G-5 countries plus Canada and Italy. Group of Ten A group of the ten major industrialized countries whose mission is to create a more stable world economic trading environment through monetary and fiscal policies. The ten are Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Group rotation The tendency of stocks in one sector of the market to outperform and then underperform other industries, usually as a result of economic cycles or the conditions in a particular industry. Group rotation manager A top-down manager who deduces the phases of the business cycle and allocates assets accordingly. Group sales Block sale (of large amounts) of securities to institutional investors. Group Universal Life Policy (GULP) Universal life insurance on a group basis. See: Group insurance. Growing Equity Mortgage (GEM) Mortgage with a fixed interest rate and payments that increase throughout the term of the mortgage. Growing perpetuity A constant stream of cash flows without end that is expected to rise indefinitely. Growth fund A mutual fund that invests primarily in stocks with a history of and future potential for capital gains. Growth and income fund A mutual fund that invests primarily in stocks with a history of capital gains (growth) and consistent dividend payments (income). Growth manager A money manager who seeks to buy stocks that typically sell at relatively high P/E ratios due to high earnings growth, with the expectation of continued high or higher earnings growth. Growth opportunity Opportunity to invest in profitable projects. Growth phase A phase of development during which a company experiences rapid earnings growth as it produces new products and expands market share. Growth rates Compound annual growth rate for the number of full fiscal years shown. If there is a negative or zero value for the first or last year, the growth is N.M. (not meaningful). Growth stock Common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the opportunity cost of capital. Guarantee The assumption of responsibility for payment of a debt or performance of some obligation if the liable party fails to perform to expectations. Guarantee letter A commercial bank's letter assuring payment of the exercise price of a client's put option. Guaranteed bond A type of bond for which a firm other than the issuer guarantees its interest and principal payments. Guaranteed insurability A life and health insurance policy feature that enables the insured to add coverage at future times and at fixed and agreed-upon rates regardless of health conditions. Guaranteed insurance contract A contract promising a stated nominal interest rate over some specific time period, usually several years. Guaranteed investment contract (GIC) A pure investment product in which a life company agrees, for a single premium, to pay at a maturity date the principal amount of a predetermined annual crediting (interest) rate over the life of the investment. Guaranteed Mortgage Certificates (GMC) First issued by Freddie Mac in 1975, G.M.C.s, like PCs, represent undivided interest in specified conventional whole loans and participations previously purchased by Freddie Mac. Guaranteed renewable policy insurance A type of insurance policy that requires the insurer to renew the policy to an individual regardless of health changes. No changes may be made to an individual policyholder unless the same change is applied to all policyholders. Guaranteed replacement cost coverage insurance A policy that covers the full cost of replacing damaged property without any allowances or deductions, e.g., depreciation. Guarantor program Under the Freddie Mac program, the aggregation by a single issuer (usually an S&L) for the purpose of forming a qualifying pool to be issued as PCs under the Freddie Mac guarantee. Gun jumping In the context of securities trading, refers to trading in a security on the basis of information that has not been made available to the public. The illegal solicitation of buy orders in an underwriting before completion and finalization of Securities and Exchange Commission registration. Gunslinger An aggressive portfolio manager who makes risky investments, typically in margin accounts, in search of high returns. H Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is the second preferred bond of the company. HEX See: Helsinki Exchange HKFE See: Hong Kong Futures Exchange HLT See: Highly leveraged transaction Haircut The margin or difference between the actual market value of a security and the value assessed by the lending side of a transaction). Half-life The point in the life of a mortgage-backed security guaranteed or issued by the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal National Mortgage Association or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation when half the principal has been repaid. Half-stock Stock, common or preferred, with a $50 par value. Hammering the market Heavy selling of stocks by speculators who think that the stock is overvalued and is about to drop. Handle The whole-dollar price of a bid or offer is referred to as the handle (e.g., if a security is quoted at 101.10 bid and 101.11 offered, 101 is the handle). Traders are assumed to know the handle. See: Full. Hands-off investor An investor who has a large stake in a company, but does not wish to play an active role in the management of the corporation. Hands-on investor An investor who has a large stake in a corporation and takes an active role in its management. Antithesis of hands-off investor. Hang Seng index The major index in Hong Kong. Hard capital rationing A capital budget that under no circumstances can be violated. Hard currency A freely convertible currency that is not expected to depreciate in value in the foreseeable future. Hard dollars Actual separate payments made by a customer for services, including research, provided by a brokerage firm. Antithesis of soft dollars. Harmless warrant Warrant that allows the user to purchase a bond only by surrendering an other bond with similar terms. Hart-Scott-Rodino Act Often used in risk arbitrage. Antitrust act administered by U.S. Department of Justice and the FTC that requires an investor to file a form with the government before he acquires an economic interest in the lesser amount of $15 million or 15% of the capitaliation of a specific security. The government has thirty days to respond to the filer. Harvey, Campbell R. Author of this glossary. Finance professor at Duke University. Author of research on international finance, asset allocation, and emerging markets. Head & shoulders In technical analysis, a pattern that results where a stock price reaches a peak and declines; rises above its former peak and again declines; and rises a third time but not to the second peak, and then again declines. The first and third peaks are shoulders, while the second peak is the formation's head. Technical analysts generally consider a head and shoulders formation to be a very bearish indication. Heavy An equities market now dominated by sellers, or oversupply, resulting in falling prices. See: Overbought, resistance level, tired. Hedge A transaction that reduces the risk of an investment. Hedge clause A clause in a research report or any published document, that attempts to absolve the writer of responsibility for the accuracy of information provided. Hedge fund A fund that may employ a variety of techniques to enhance returns, such as both buying and shorting stocks according to a valuation model. Hedge ratio (delta) For options, ratio between the change in an option's theoretical value and the change in price of the underlying stock at a given point in time. For convertibles, percentage of a convertible bond representing the number of underlying common shares sold against the shares into which bonds are convertible. If a preferred is convertible into 2000 common shares, a 75% hedge ratio would be short (long) 1500 common for every 1000 preferred long (short). See: Delta. Hedge wrapper An options strategy in which an investor with a long position in an underlying stock buys an out-of-the-money put and sells an out-of-the-money call. The hedge wrapper defines a range where the stock will be sold at expiration of the option, which way the stock moves. Hedged portfolio A portfolio consisting of a long position in the stock and a long position in the put option on the stock, so as to be riskless and produce a return that equals the risk-free interest rate. Hedged tender An investor sells a portion of a stock holding short a tender offer in the event all shares tendered are not accepted. For example, investor Q has 5000 shares of XYZ. An acquiring company makes a tender offer of $100 a share when the shares are currently worth $80. Investor Q short-sells 2500 shares after the announcement and the price of the stock has approached $100. Company XYZ purchases only 2500 of the original shares at $100. Investor Q has sold all shares at $100 even as the price of the stock drops on a post-news dip. Hedgie Slang for a hedge fund. Hedging A strategy designed to reduce investment risk using call options, put options, short-selling, or futures contracts. A hedge can help lock in profits. Its purpose is to reduce the volatility of a portfolio by reducing the risk of loss. Hedging demands Demands for securities to hedge particular sources of consumption risk, beyond the usual mean-variance diversification motivation. Held at the opening Used for listed equity securities. Not open for trading because specialists or regulators are not allowing trading to occur until imbalances dissipate or news is disseminated. Held order Order that must be executed without hesitation (Hit the bid or take the offer in line) or if the stock can be bought or sold at that price (held limit order) in sufficient quantity. Hell-or-high-water contract A contract that obligates a purchaser of a project's output to make cash payments to the project in all events, even if no product is offered for sale. Helsinki Exchanges (HEX) The Helsinki Exchanges (HEX Ltd., Helsinki Securities and Derivatives Exchange and Clearing House) was formed at the beginning of 1998 following the merger of the Helsinki Stock Exchange Ltd. and SOM Ltd., the Securities and Derivatives Exchange, and the Clearing House. Hemline theory A theory that stock prices move in the same direction as the hemlines of women's dresses. For example, short skirts (1920s and 1960s) are symbolic of bullish markets and long skirts (1930s and 1940s) are symbolic of bearish markets. Herstatt risk The risk of loss in foreign exchange trading that one party will deliver foreign exchange but the counterparty financial institution will fail to complete its end of the contract. This is also referred to as settlement risk. H-H page Quotron display page that shows new listed inquiries/orders received after the block call. HIBOR Hong Kong Interbank Offer Rate, the annualized offer rate banks pay to attain Hong Kong three-month deposits in denominated dollars. Hidden load A sales charge that is not explicitly disclosed or is buried in the fine print of a mutual fund prospectus or life insurance policy and therefore is not immediately apparent. Hidden values Valuable assets owned by a company, that are not accurately reflected in its stock price at a particular time. High-coupon bond refunding Replace a high-coupon bond with a new, lower-coupon bond. High credit The maximum amount of outstanding loans for a particular customer on a bank's record. High current income mutual fund A mutual fund whose primary goal is to produce a high level of income by making higher-risk investments in instruments such as junk bonds. High flyer High-priced and highly speculative stock that moves up and down sharply over a short period. Generally glamorous in nature due to the capital gains potential associated with them; also used to describe any high-priced stock. Antithesis of sleeper. High-grade bond A bond with Triple-A or Double-A rating in Standard & Poor's, or Moody's rating system. High price The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits. High-premium convertible debenture A bond with a long-term, high-premium, common stock conversion feature. It also offers a competitive interest rate. This type of investment vehicle is aimed at bond investors who want to be able to convert into stock to hedge against inflation. High-tech stock Stocks of companies operating in high-technology fields. High-yield bond See: Junk bond Highjacking Japanese term for a takeover. Highly confident letter An investment banking firm's letter indicating that the firm is highly confident it will be able to arrange financing for a securities deal. Highly leveraged transaction (HLT) Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm. Highs Stocks that have hit an all-time high for the current 52-week time period. Historical cost Describes the accounting cost carried in the books for a current cost of the item. Historical exchange rate An accounting term that refers to the exchange rate in effect at the time an asset or liability is acquired. Historical trading range The range of price over which a security or a commodity has traded since listing on a exchange. Historical yield A measure of a mutual fund's yield over a specific period of time, e.g., 1 year, 2 year, 5 year, or year to date. Hit the bid A dealer who agrees to sell at the bid price quoted by another dealer is said to "hit" that bid. Antithesis of take the offer. Hit the ribbon Used in the context of general equities. See: Print. Hold To maintain ownership of a security over a long period of time. "Hold" is also a recommendation of an analyst who is not positive enough on a stock to recommend a buy, but not negative enough on the stock to recommend a sell. Holder of record date The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Also called date of record. Holding company A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors. Holding the market The illegal practice of maintaining and/or placing a sufficient number of buy orders to create price support for a security or commodity in an amount to of stabilize a downward trend. Holding period Length of time a security is held. Holding-period return Rate of return on an investment over a given period. Home run Large capital gain in a stock in a short period of time. Homemade dividend Sale of some shares of stock to get cash in an amount similar to that of a cash dividend. Homemade leverage Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can duplicate the effects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms. Homeowner's equity account A credit line offered by mortgage lenders allowing a homeowner a second mortgage that uses the equity present in the customer's account as collateral. Homeowner's insurance policy An insurance policy protecting a homeowner against damage or loss to property. Homogeneity The degree to which items are similar. Homogeneous Exhibiting a high degree of homogeneity. Homogeneous expectations assumption An assumption of Markowitz portfolio construction that investors have the same expectations with respect to the inputs that are used to derive efficient portfolios: asset returns, variances, and covariances. Hong Kong Futures Exchange (HKFE) Established in 1976, the Hong Kong Futures Exchange (H.K.F.E.) operates futures and options markets in index, stock, interest rate, and foreign exchange products. Horizon analysis An analysis of returns using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon. Horizon return Total return over a given horizon. Horizontal acquisition Merger between two companies producing similar goods or services. Horizontal analysis The process of dividing each expense item of a given year by the same expense item in the base year. It allows assement of changes in the relative importance of expense items over time and the behavior of expense items as sales change. Horizontal merger A merger involving two or more firms in the same industry that are both at the same stage in the production cycle; that is, two or more competitors. Horizontal price movement Stock price movement within a narrow price range over an extended period of time which creates the appearance of a relatively straight line on a graph of the stock's price. Horizontal spread The simultaneous purchase and sale of two options that differ only in their exercise dates. Hospital revenue bond A bond issued to finance construction of a hospital by a municipal or state agency. Host security The security to which a warrant is attached. Hostile takeover A takeover of a company against the wishes of the current management and the board of directors by an acquiring company or raider. Hot Used in the context of general equities. Active, usually with positive price implications. Hot money Money that moves across country borders in response to interest rate differences and that moves away when the interest rate differential disappears. House Firms that conduct business as broker-dealers in securities or in the investment banking field are charaterized as houses. House account A type of account at a brokerage firm that is given a high level of priority and is handled by the main office or an executive, rather than a traditional salesperson. House call Notification by a brokerage house that a customer's margin account is below the minimum maintenance level. The client must provide more cash or equity, or the account will be liquidated. House of issue An investment banking firm whose business it is to underwrite stock or bond issues and offer the securities to the public. House maintenance requirement The internal rules of a brokerage house that govern the minimum amount of equity that must be present in a customer's margin account. House poor People who are short on cash because most of their money is tied up in their homes are "house poor." House rules Internal rules of broker-dealer firm that govern the handling of its customers' accounts. Housing bond Bonds issued by a local housing authority to finance housing projects. "How are you making XXX?" "What is your market in a particular stock?" See: Quotation. Hubris An arrogance due to excessive pride and an insolence toward others. A classic character flaw of a trader or investor. Hulbert rating A rating by Hulbert Financial Digest, a service of CBS MarketWatch, of how well the recommendations of various investment advisory newsletters have performed. Human capital The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals. Hung up Used to describe the position of an investor whose stocks or bonds have dropped in value below their original purchase price. Hunkering down A term used to describe a trader selling off a big position in a stock. Hurdle rate The required return in capital budgeting. For example, if a project has an expected rate of return higher than the hurdle rate, the project may be accepted. Hybrid A package of two or more different kinds of risk management instruments that are usually interactive. Hybrid annuity A type of insurance company investment that combines the benefits of both a fixed annuity and a variable annuity. Hybrid security A convertible security whose optioned common stock is trading in a middle range, causing the convertible security to trade with the characteristics of both a fixed income security and a common stock instrument. Hyperinflation See: Inflation J Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying the issue is the voting stock of the company. Jasdaq See: Japanese Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System JSE See: Johannesburg Stock Exchange J-curve Theory that says a country's trade deficit will initially worsen after its currency depreciates because higher prices on foreign imports will more than offset the reduced volume of imports in the short run. January barometer A statistic from "The Stock Traders Alamanac" reflecting, with 88% accuracy, that the overall stock market rises in a year when the S&P is up in the month of January and drops when the index for that month is down. January effect Refers to the historical pattern that stock prices rise in the first few days of January. Studies have suggested this holds only for small-capitalization stocks. In recent years, there is less evidence of a January effect. Japanese Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (Jasdaq) Japanese equivalent of Nasdaq. Jeep See: Graduated payment mortgage Jensen index An index that uses the capital asset pricing model to determine whether a money manager outperformed a market index. The alpha of an investment or investment manager. Jobber A term for a market maker used on the London Stock Exchange. Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) Established in 1886, the Johannesburg Stock Exchange is the only stock exchange in South Africa. Gold and mining stocks form the majority of shares listed. Joint account An agreement between two or more firms to share risk and financing responsibility in purchasing or underwriting securities, or an account owned jointly by two or more persons at a bank or brokerage house. Joint and survivor annuity A type of annuity opened by and intended for two people, that makes payments for the entire lifetime of both beneficiaries, even if one of them dies. Joint bond A bond that is guaranteed by the issuer and a party other than the issuer. Joint clearing members Firms that clear on more than one exchange. Joint stock company A form of business organization that falls between a corporation and a partnership. The company sells stock, and its shareholders are free to sell their stock, but shareholders are liable for all debts of the company. Jointly and severally Municipal bond underwriting in which the account is undivided and syndicate members are responsible for unsold bonds in proportion to their participation, regardless of how many bonds they may have already sold. A firm with 20% of the account is responsible for selling 20% of the unsold bonds even if has already sold 25% of the total debt issue, for example. See: Severally but not jointly. Joint tax return Tax return filed by two people, usually spouses. Joint tenants with right of survivorship In the case of a joint account, on the death of one account holder, ownership of the account assets is transferred to the remaining account holder or holders. Joint venture An agreement between two or more firms to undertake the same business strategy and plan of action. Jonestown defense An extreme defensive tactic employed by the management of a target corporation to prevent a hostile takeover. The defensive tactics are so extreme that they typically lead to the destruction of the target corporation. See: Suicide. Jumbo certificate of deposit A certificate of deposit in increments of $100,000. Jumbo loan Loans of $1 billion or more. Or, loans that exceed the statutory size limit eligible for purchase or securitization by the federal agencies. Jump ball Used in the context of general equities. (1) Deal in which no trading house has exclusivity (each firm is in direct competition for a piece of business); (2) no preference in picking a particular side (buy/sell) of a stock as profile, indicated during the block call, indicate that the salesforce could have the stock either way. Junior debt (subordinate debt) Debt whose holders have a claim on the firm's assets only after senior debtholder's claims have been satisfied. Subordinated debt. Junior issue A debt or equity issue from one corporation over which the issue of another firm takes precedence with respect to dividends, interest, principal, or security in the event of liquidation. Junior mortgage A mortgage that will be satisfied only after more senior mortgages have been satisfied. e.g., a first mortgage will be satisfied prior to a second or a third mortgage. Junior refunding Issuing of new securities to refinance government debt that matures in one to five years. Junior security A security that has a lower-priority claim on a company's assets and income than a senior security. For example common stock is junior to preferred stock. Junk bond A bond with a speculative credit rating of BB (S&P) or Ba (Moody's) or lower. Junk or high-yield bonds offer investors higher yields than bonds of financially sound companies. Two agencies, Standard & Poors and Moody's Investor Services, provide the rating systems for companies' credit. I Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that it is the third preferred bond of the company. IBES See: Institutional Brokers Estimate System IBF See: International Banking Facility IBRD See: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IC See: Information Coefficient IDR See: International Depository Receipt IFC See: International Finance Corporation IMF See: International Monetary Fund IMM See: International Monetary Market IO See: Interest-only strip IOC order See: Immediate or cancelled order IOM See: Index and Option Market IPL See: Investment Product Line IPO See: Initial Public Offering IRB See: Industrial Revenue Bond IRR See: Internal rate of return ISDA See: International Swap Dealers Association ISMA See: International Security Market Association ITS See: Intermarket Trading System IBC's money fund report average Report giving the average yield of all major money market funds. I-bonds Treasury savings bonds with a 30-yeat maturity indexed to account for inflation. Identified shares Stock or mutual fund whose purchase date and price may be identified for capital gains and tax purposes when shares sold. Idiosyncratic Risk Unsystematic risk or risk that is uncorrelated to the overall market risk. In other words, the risk that is firm-specific and can be diversified through holding a portfolio of stocks. I-I page In over-the-counter trading, same as H-H page, but exclusively for OTC stocks. Illegal dividend A corporation's dividend that is declared in violation of its charter and/or of state laws, typically because of the way it is calculated. Illiquid In the context of finance. absence of cash flow needed to fulfill financial debts and meet obligations. In the context of investments, describes a lightly traded investment such as a stock or bond that is not easily converted into cash. Imbalance of orders Used for listed equity securities. Too many market orders of one kind-buy or to sell or limit orders to buy up or sell down, without matching orders of the opposite kind. An imbalance usually follows a dramatic event such as a takeover, research recommendation, or death of a key executive, or a government ruling that will significantly affect the company's business. If it occurs before the stock exchange opens, trading in the stock is delayed. If it occurs during the trading day, the specialist halts and thensuspends trading (with floor governor's approval) until enough matching orders can be found to make an orderly market. Immediate or cancelled order (IOC order) Market or limited price order that is to be executed in whole or in part as soon as such order is represented in the trading crowd. The portion not executed is to be treated as cancelled. A stop is considered an execution in this context. See: AON order, FOK order. Immediate family Term used in the NASD rules of fair practice to refer to one's parents, brothers, sisters, children, relatives supported financially, father-in-law, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, and brother-in-law. Immediate payment annuity An annuity contract paid by a single payment and with a specified payment plan the starts immediately after the contract is purchased. Immediate settlement Delivery and settlement of securities within five business days. Immunization The construction of an asset and a liability match that benefits from offsetting changes in value. Immunization strategy A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to eliminate the portfolio's risk, in case of a general change in the rate of interest, through the use of duration. Impaired capital When a company's total capital is less than the par value of all its capital stock. Impaired credit Result of a borrower's reduced credit rating. Implied call The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, a mortgage at any time. Implied repo rate The rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date. Related: Cheapest to deliver issue. Implied volatility The expected volatility in a stock's return derived from its option price, maturity date, exercise price, and riskless rate of return, using an option pricing model such as Black-Scholes. Import substitution development strategy A development strategy followed by many Latin American countries and other L.D.C.s that emphasize import substitution-accomplished through protectionism-as the route to economic growth. Imputation tax system Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for corporate taxes that the firm has paid. Imputed interest Used in accounting to refer to interest that has effectively been paid to a bondholder, even though no money has actually been paid. Imputed value Refers to the value of an asset, service, or company that is not physically recorded in any accounts but is implicit in the product, e.g., the opportunity cost of cash remaining in a savings account and not invested. In between Used in the context of general equities. Priced higher than the bid price but lower than the offer price. See: In the middle In the box Means that a dealer has a wire receipt for securities, indicating that effective delivery on them has been made. In competition Indication that the customer has revealed trading interest to multiple brokers and that the trade will take place with the firm having the highest bid or lowest offer. Antithesis of exclusive. In hand Used in the context of general equities. Firm indicating control of a bid, offer, or order. In the hole Used in the context of general equities. Below the inside market when one is attempting to sell the stock; at a significant discount. Antithesis of premium. In-house In the context of general equities, keeping an activity within the firm. For example, rather than go to the marketplace and sell a security for a client to anyone, an attempt is made to find a buyer to complete the transaction with the firm. Although a listed trade must be taken to the floor of the stock exchange, matching supply with demand within the confines of the firm results in higher commissions for the firm. In-house processing float The time it takes the receiver of a check to process a payment and deposit it in a bank for collection. In-line Used in the context of general equities. (1) An order or market in a specific security within the inside market; 2) any announcement (earnings) that adheres closely to Wall Street analysts' expectations. In the middle Used in the context of general equities. At a price exactly in between the bid and offer prices. In-the-money A put option that has a strike price higher than the underlying futures price, or a call option with a strike price lower than the underlying futures price. For example, if the March COMEX silver futures contract is trading at $6 an ounce, a March call with a strike price of $5.50 would be considered in the money by $0.50 an ounce. Related: Put. Antithesis of out-of-the-money. In play Often used in risk arbitrage. Company that has become the target of a takeover, and whose stock has now become a speculative issue. In & out Refers to over-the-counter trading. Trade in which the trader has both the buyers and sellers lined up for a clean trade. See: Cross In-and-out trader A daytrader, or a speculator who buys and sells the same security on the same day. In the tank Used in the context of general equities. Slang expression meaning market prices are dropping rapidly. In touch with Used in the context of general equities. Having a sell inquiry in a stock (not a firm customer sell order), often entailing a capital commitment. Antithesis of looking for. In-substance defeasance Process through which debt is removed from the balance sheet but not cancelled. Inactive asset Asset not used in a productive manner at all times. Inactive post Trading post on NYSE floor where inactive, lightly traded stocks are traded in 10-share lots as opposed to 100-share lots. Inactive stock/bond A security that trades in very small volume on a daily basis. See:: Illiquid. Incentive fee Compensation paid to commodities trading advisers or to any practitioner who achieves above-average returns. Sometimes called performance fee. Incestuous share dealing Trading of shares between companies in order to create a tax or financial benefit for the companies involved. Income beneficiary One who receives income from a trust. Income bond A bond whose payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business. Income dividend Any payout to mutual fund shareholders resulting from interest, dividends, or other income. Income exclusion rule The IRS rule that excludes certain types of income from taxation, e.g., welfare payments. Income fund A mutual fund that seeks to provid to liberal current income from investments. Income investment company A management company focused on managing a mutual fund whose primary purpose is income generation, typically investing in bonds and high dividend yielding stocks. Income limited partnership A limited partnership whose main goal is income generation, e.g., real estate, oil equipment. Income property Real estate purchased for the reasons of income generation. Income statement (statement of operations) A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time. Income stock Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities. Income tax A state or federal government's levy on individuals as personal income tax and on the earnings of corporations as corporate income tax. Incontestability clause Clause in a life insurance contract preventing the insurer from revoking the policy after it has been in force for a year or two if the life insurance company discovers any important facts that the policyholder may have concealed, such as experiencing a stroke. Incorporation A legal process through which a company receives a charter and the state in which it is based allows it to operate as a corporation. Incremental cash flows Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project. Incremental cost of capital Average cost applicable to the issue of each additional unit of debt and equity. Incremental costs and benefits Costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action is taken, compared to those that would have obtained if that course of action had not been taken. Incremental internal rate of return Internal rate of return (I.R.R.) on the incremental investment from choosing a larger instead of a smaller project. Indemnify Used in insurance policy agreements as to compensation for damage or loss. Hold harmless Indenture Agreement between lender and borrower that details specific terms of the bond issuance. Specifies legal obligations of bond issuer and rights of bondholders. An indenture spells out the specific terms of a bond, as well as the rights and responsibilities of both the issuer of the security and the holder. Independent auditor A certified public accountant operating outside the company who can provide an accountant's opinion. Independent broker NYSE member who executes orders for floor brokers and firms other than its own. Independent project A project whose acceptance or rejection is independent of the acceptance or rejection of other projects. Index Statistical composite that measures changes in the economy or in financial markets, often expressed in percentage changes from a base year or from the previous month. Indexes measure the ups and downs of stock, bond, and some commodities markets, in terms of market prices and weighting of companies the index. Index arbitrage An investment/trading strategy that exploits divergences between actual and theoretical futures prices. An example is the simultaneous buying (selling) of stock index futures (i.e., S&P 500) while selling (buying) the underlying stocks of that index, capturing as profit the temporarily inflated basis between these two baskets. Often, the point at which profitability exists is expressed at the block call as the number of points the future must be over or under the underlying basket for an arbitrage opportunity to exist. See: Program trading. Index fund Investment fund designed to match the returns on a stock market index. Mutual fund whose portfolio matches that of a broad-based index such as the S&P 500 and whose performance therefore mirrors the market as represented by that index. Index model A model of stock returns using a market index such as the S&P 500 to represent common or systematic risk factors. Index option A call or put option based on a stock market index. Index and Option Market (IOM) A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index products and options. Index warrant A stock index option issued by either a corporate or a sovereign entity as part of a security offering, and guaranteed by an option clearing corporation. Indexed bond Bond whose payments are linked to an index, e.g., the consumer price index. Indexing A passive instrument strategy calling for construction of a portfolio of stocks designed to track the total return performance of an index of stocks. Indexing plus See: Enhanced indexing Indicated dividend Total amount of dividends that would be paid on a share of stock over the next 12 months if each dividend were the same amount as the most recent dividend. Usually represented by the letter "e" in stock tables. Indicated yield The yield, based on the most recent quarterly rate times four. To determine the yield, divide the annual dividend by the price of the stock. The resulting number is represented as a percentage. See: Dividend yield. Indication (1) Notice given by a dealer (through Autex) or customer of an interest in buying or selling stock, sometimes including specific volume and price; (2) approximation of where a specialist sees buy and sell interest to tighten the range to an opening price. Indication of interest A dealer's or investor's interest in purchasing (not commitment to buy) securities that are still in the underwriting stage and are being registered by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Indicator Used in the context of general equities. Technical or fundamental measurement that securities analysts use to forecast the market's direction, such as investment advisory sentiment, volume of stock trading, direction of interest rates, and buying or selling by corporate insiders. Indifference curve The expression in a graph of a utility function, where the horizontal axis measures risk and the vertical axis measures expected return. The curve connects all portfolios with the same utility. Indirect quote For foreign exchange, the number of units of a foreign currency needed to buy one U.S. dollar. Individual Retirement Account (IRA) A retirement account that may be established by an employed person. IRA contributions are tax deductible according to certain guidelines, and the gains in the account are tax-deferred. Individual Retirement Account (IRA) rollover A provision of the law governing IRA's that enables a retiree or anyone receiving a lump-sum payment from a pension, profit-sharing, or salary reduction plan to transfer the amount into an IRA. Individual tax return A tax return filed by an individual to account for their personal income and taxes payable. Inductive reasoning The attempt to use information about a specific situation to draw a conclusion. Industrial production A statistic determined by the Federal Reserve Board focusing on the total output of all U.S. factories and mines on a monthly basis. Used as an economic indicator. Industrial revenue bond (IRB) A bond issued by local government agencies on behalf of corporations. Industrials General term used in the financial markets to refer to companies manufacturing, producing, or distributing goods and services. Industry The category describing a company's primary business activity. This category is usually determined by the largest portion of revenue. Infant industry argument Argument that industries in the developing and emerging sectors of the economy need protection against international competition in order to establish themselves. Inflation The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising. Inflation accounting Accounting practices allowing for the effects of inflation. Inflation-escalator clause A clause in a contract providing for increases or decreases in inflation depending on fluctuations in the cost of living, production costs, and so forth. Inflation hedge Investments designed to hedge against inflation and the loss of purchasing power associated with it. Inflation-indexed securities Securities such as bonds or notes that guarantee a return higher than the rate of inflation if the security is held to maturity. Inflation risk Also called purchasing power risk, the risk that changes in the real return the investor will realize after adjusting for inflation will be negative. Inflation uncertainty The fact that future inflation rates are not known. It is a possible contributing factor to the makeup of the term structure of interest rates. Inflexible expenses Expenses that cannot be adjusted or eliminated such as car payments or rental payments. Antithesis of flexible expenses. Information asymmetry Condition that information is known to some, but not all, participants. Information Coefficient (IC) The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to measure the contribution of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship. Information content effect The rise in the stock price following a dividend signal, or publication of some other related news. Information costs Transactions costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset. Related: Search costs. Information-motivated trades Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent information not currently reflected in the stock's price. Information services Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as information that helps a firm monitor its cash position. Informational efficiency The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information. Informationless trades Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an investment strategy that acts only on existing information. Infrastructure A country's fundamental system of transportation, communications, and other aspects of its physical capabilities. Ingot A bar of metal such as the type that the Federal Reserve System uses to store gold reserves. Inheritance tax return Tax form required to determine the amount of state tax due on an inheritance. Initial filing Has various meanings. It could refer to a form that is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in advance of a major event, such as a public offering or a share repurchase. It could also refer to filings that occur before legal inside transactions. Initial margin (1) Amount of money deposited by both buyers and sellers of futures contracts to ensure performance of the terms of the contract; (2) amount of cash or eligible securities required to be deposited with a broker before engaging in margin transactions. Initial margin requirement When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by the exchange. Initial public offering (IPO) A company's first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept considerable risks for the possibility of large gains. IPOs by investment companies (closed-end funds) usually include underwriting fees that represent a load to buyers. Initiate coverage (1) Firm is now followed by analysts at a particular securities house; (2) Indication to cover short position by purchasing the underlying stock (this cancels out the short position). Input-output tables Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output. Inquiry Used in the context of general equities. In-line expression of interest in a particular stock, usually asking the firm to bid for or offer stock. Inside market Refers to over-the-counter trading. Best (highest) bid and best (lowest) offer, often used in the O.T.C. Market. See: In-line. Insider information Material information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received. Insider trading Trading by officers, directors, major stockholders, or others who hold private inside information allowing them to benefit from buying or selling stock. Insider Trading Sanctions Act of 1984 Act imposing civil and criminal penalties for insider trading violations. Insiders These are directors and senior officers of a corporation-in effect, those who have access to inside information about a company. An insider also is someone who owns more than 10% of the voting shares of a company. Insolvency risk The risk that a firm will be unable to satisfy its debts. Also known as bankruptcy risk. Insolvent A firm that is unable to pay debts (its liabilities exceed its assets). Installment sale The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments). Instinet (Institutional Networks Corporation) Computerized subscriber service that serves as a vehicle for the fourth market. "Instinet" is registered with the SEC As a stock exchange it numbers among its subscribers a large number of mutual funds and other institutional investors linked to each other by computer terminals. The system permits subscribers to display bids and offers (which are exposed system wide for whatever length of time the initiating party specifies) and to consummate trades electronically. Instinet is largely used by market makers, but, nonmarket makers and customers have equal access. Institutional broker A broker who buys and sells securities for institutional investors such as banks, and mutual funds, pensions. Institutional Brokers' Estimate System (IBES) Service that assembles analysts' estimates of future earnings for thousands of publicly traded companies, detailing how many estimates are available for each company and the high, low, and average estimates for each. Institutional investors Organizations that invest, including insurance companies, depository institutions, pension funds, investment companies, mutual funds, and endowment funds. Institutionalization The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world. Instrumentality Notes issued by a federal agency whose obligations are guaranteed by the full-faith-and-credit of the government, even though the agency's responsibilities are not necessarily those of the U.S. government. Instruments Financial securities, such as money market instruments or capital market instruments. Insurable interest An insurance term referring to the relationship between a policy's insured person or property and the potential beneficiary. The beneficiary must have an insurable interest in the insured person or property to receive payment of the policy if the insured died while the policy was in force. Insurance Guarding against property loss or damage making payments in the form of premiums to an insurance company, which pays an agreed-upon sum to the insured in the event of loss. Insurance agent The insurance company representative and adviser who sells insurance policies. Insurance broker A broker, independent of any insurance company, who represents the interests of the buyer in searching for insurance coverage at the lowest cost and providing the highest benefit to the buyer. Insurance claim A claim for reimbursement from the insurance company when the insured has suffered a loss that is covered under an insurance policy. Insurance dividend Money paid annually to policyholders participating in cash value life insurance policies. Insurance policy A contract detailing an insurance policy and outlining what risks are insured, what insurance premiums are to be paid by the policyholder, what deductibles prevail, and all the details associated with a policy. Insurance premium Payments calculated by the insurance company based on risk factors that must be made by the insured to guarantee protection of property loss under an insurance policy. Insurance principle The law of averages. The average outcome for many independent trials of an experiment will approach the expected value of the experiment. Insurance settlement The payment of proceeds by an insurance company to the insured to settle an insurance claim within the guidelines stipulated in the insurance policy. Insured The property or persons covered by an insurance policy. Insured account A bank or financial account that is insured for the benefit of the depositor, protecting against loss in the event that the savings institution becomes insolvent. See: FDIC. Insured bond A municipal bond backed both by the credit of the municipal issuer and by commercial insurance policies. Insured plans Defined benefit pension plans that are guaranteed by life insurance products. Related: Non-insured plans Intangible asset A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Goodwill, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, and trademarks are examples of intangible assets. Integer programming Variant of linear programming in which the solution values must be integers. Interbank rate See: LIBOR Intercommodity spread In the commodities market, a spread consisting of a long position and a short position in different but related commodities for example, speculating that the price relationship between the two commodities will change, e.g., platinum and gold. Intercompany loan Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation. Intercompany transaction Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation. Interdelivery spread Used in futures or options market to refer the purchase of one month of a contract and selling another month in the same contract, in the hope that the price difference will widen or narrow, depending on the investment. Interest The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property. Interest coverage ratio The ratio of earnings before interest and taxes to annual interest expense. This ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest. Interest coverage test A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum. Interest deduction An interest expense, such as interest on a margin account, that is allowed as a deduction for tax purposes. Interest equalization tax Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974. Interest expense Interest expense is the money the corporation or individual pays out in interest on loans. Interest on interest Interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested. See: compound interest. Interest-only loan A loan in which payment of principal is deferred and interest payments are the only current obligation. Interest-only strip (IO) A security based solely on the interest payments from a pool of mortgages, Treasury bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop, and the value of the IO falls to zero. Interest payments Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount. Interest rate The monthly effective interest rate. For example, the periodic rate on a credit card with an 18% annual percentage rate is 1.5% per month. Interest rate agreement An agreement whereby one party, for an up-front premium, agrees to compensate the other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined level (the strike rate). Interest rate cap An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate. Also called an interest rate ceiling. Interest rate on debt The firm's cost of debt capital. Interest rate ceiling See: Interest rate cap Interest rate floor An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls below the strike rate. Related: Interest rate cap. Interest rate futures contract A futures contract based on an interbank deposit rate or an underlying debt security. The value of the contract rises and falls inversely to changes in interest rates. Interest rate parity theorem Expression that the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate. Interest rate risk The chance that a security's value will change due to a change in interest rates. For example, a bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk: The risk that spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates. Interest rate swap A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party will pay fixed and receive variable. Interest-sensitive insurance policy A cash value life insurance policy whose insurance dividend rates vary with respect to inflation, enabling the policyholder to avoid the loss of purchasing power associated with inflation. Interest-sensitive stock Stocks whose earnings are dependent upon and change with the interest rate, e.g., bank stocks. Interest subsidy The value of a firm's deduction of the interest payments on its debt from its earnings before calculation of its tax bill under current tax law. Interest tax shield The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments. Interim dividend The declaration and payment of a dividend prior to annual earnings determination. Interim financing A short-term loan made to a company on the condition that a takeout will follow with long-term or intermediate financing. Interim statement A financial statement that reflects only a limited period of a company's financial statement, not the entire fiscal year. Interlocking directorate Describes cross-memberships of directors on each other's company Board of Directors. Intermarket sector spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for issues of the same maturity. Intermarket spread swaps An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market. Intermarket Surveillance Information System (ISIS) A database that distributes information from all the major stock exchanges in the United States. Intermarket Trading System (ITS) Electronic communications network linking the trading floors of seven registered exchanges to permit trading among them in stocks listed on either the NYSE or AMEX and one or more regional exchanges. Through ITS, any broker or market maker on the floor of any participating exchange can reach other participants for an execution whenever the nationwide quote shows a better price available. A floor broker on the exchange can enter an ITS order to assure excecution of all of an offering or bid, instead of splitting it with competing brokers. Intermediary See: Financial intermediary Intermediate-term Typically one-ten years. Intermediation Investment through a financial institution. Related: Disintermediation. Internal auditor An employee of a company who analyzes the company's accounting records to that the company is following and complying with all regulations. Internal expansion Growth of assets resulting from internal financing or internally generated cash flow. Internal finance Finance generated within a firm by retained earnings and depreciation. Internal growth rate Maximum rate a firm can expand without outside sources of funding. Growth generated by cash flows retained by company. Internal market The mechanisms for issuing and trading securities within a nation, including its domestic market and foreign market. Compare: External market. Internal measure The number of days that a firm can finance operations without additional cash income. Internal rate of return (IRR) Dollar-weighted rate of return. Discount rate at which net present value (NPV) investment is zero. The rate at which a bond's future cash flows, discounted back to today, equal its price. Internal Revenue Code The various statutes and regulatilons making up federal tax law. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) The federal agency responsible for the collection of federal taxes, including personal and corporate income taxes, Social Security taxes, and excise and gift taxes. Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 The legislation targeted at IRS reform, particularly related to the time period required for capital gains and taxpayer protection and rights. Internally efficient market See: Operationally efficient market International arbitrage Simultaneous buying and selling of foreign securities and A.D.R.s to capture the profit potential created by time, currency, and settlement inconsistencies that vary across international borders. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) IBRD or World Bank makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high economic priority. International Banking Facility (IBF) A branch that an American bank establishes in the United States to do Eurocurrency business. International bonds A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds. International Depository Receipt (IDR) A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more shares of the underlying stock of a foreign corporation that the bank holds in trust. The advantage of the IDR structure is that the corporation does not have to comply with all the issuing requirements of the foreign country where the stock is to be traded. The U.S. version of the IDR is the American Depository Receipt (ADR). International diversification The attempt to reduce risk by investing in more than one nation. By diversifying across nations whose economic cycles are not perfectly correlated, investors can typically reduce the variability of their returns. International Finance Corporation (IFC) A corporation owned by the World Bank that produces a number of well-known stock indexes for emerging markets. Its major role is to provide financing for projects in less developed countries. International finance subsidiary A subsidiary incorporated in the U.S., usually in Delaware, whose sole purpose once was to issue debentures overseas and invest the proceeds in foreign operations, with the interest paid to foreign bondholders not subject to U.S. withholding tax. Elimination of the corporate withholding tax has ended the need for this type of subsidiary. International Fisher effect States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate. International fund A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States. International market Related: External market International market index An index listed on the American Stock Exchange tracking the performance of 50 American Depository Receipts traded on the AMEX, NYSE, and NASDAQ. International Monetary Fund (IMF) An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment problems. International Monetary Market (IMM) A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) International mutual fund A mutual fund that invests strictly in securities markets throughout the world, excluding the United States. A global fund, on the other hand, invests in both foreign and domestic securities. International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) Energy futures and options exchange based in London. International Security Market Association (ISMA) Swiss law association located in Zurich that regroups all the participants on the Eurobond primary and secondary markets. Establishes uniform trading procedures in the international bond markets. International Stock Exchange of the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland (ISE) Organization that replaced the London stock exchange after its merger with the International Securities Regulatory Organization (ISRO). International Swap Dealers Association (ISDA) Formed in 1985 to promote uniform practices in the writing, trading, and settlement of swaps and other derivatives. Interpolation A method of approximating a price or yield that is unknown by using numbers that are known. Interpositioning The practice of using a second broker in a securities transaction, which is considered illegal it is if used to generate additional commission. Inter vivos trust A trust created between living persons. Antithesis of a testamentary trust. Intracommodity spread Used in the context of futures trading to refer to a trader holding, buying, and selling contracts in the same commodity on the same exchange, but for different months. Intraday Term meaning "within the day," often to refer to the high and the low price of a stock. Intramarket sector spread The spread between two issues of the same maturity within a market sector. For instance, the difference in interest rates offered for five-year industrial corporate bonds and five-year utility corporate bonds. Intrastate offering A securities offering limited to just one state in the United States. Intrinsic value of an option The amount by which an option is in the money. An option that is not in the money has no intrinsic value. Intrinsic value of a firm The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the required rate of return. Inventory For companies: Raw materials, items available for sale or in the process of being made ready for sale. They can be individually valued by several different means, including cost or current market value, and collectively by FIFO (First in, first out), LIFO (Last in, first out) or other techniques. The lower value of alternatives is usually used to preclude overstating earnings and assets. For securities firms: Securities bought and held by a broker or dealer for resale. Inventory financing Used in the context of factoring and general finance to refer to loans to consumer product producers that use inventory as collateral. See also: Inventory loan. Inventory loan A secured short-term loan to purchase inventory. The three basic forms are a blanket inventory lien, a trust receipt, and field warehousing financing. Inventory turnover The ratio of annual sales to average inventory, which measures the speed at which inventory is produced and sold. Low turnover is an unhealthy sign, indicating excess stocks and/or poor sales. Inverse floater A derivative instrument whose coupon rate is linked to the market rate of interest in an inverse relationship. Inverse floating-rate note A variable-rate security whose coupon rate increases as a benchmark interest rate declines. Inverted market A futures market in which the nearer months are selling at price premiums to the more-distant months. Related: Premium. Inverted scale A serial bond offering whose bonds with earlier maturity dates have higher yields than bonds with later maturity dates. Inverted yield curve When short-term interest rates are higher than long-term rates. Antithesis of positive yield curve. Investment The creation of more money through the use of capital. Investment Advisers Act Legislation passed in 1940 requiring financial advisers to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The measure was enacted to protect the public from fraud or misrepresentation by investment advisers. Investment advisory service A business that specializes in providing investment advice for a fee. All advisers of an advisory service must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Investment analysts Related: Financial analysts Investment bank Financial intermediaries who perform a variety of services, including aiding in the sale of securities, facilitating mergers and other corporate reorganizations, acting as brokers to both individual and institutional clients, and trading for their own accounts. See: Underwriters. Investment certificate A document that serves as proof that an individual has an investment in a savings and loan association. Investment climate Factors such as economic, monetary, and other conditions that affect the performance of investments. Investment club A group of people who combine their money into a larger pool, then invest collectively in stocks and bonds, making decisions as a group. Investment company A firm that that invests the funds of investors in securities appropriate for their stated investment objectives in return for a management fee. See also: Mutual fund. Investment Company Act of 1940 Legislation that requires investment companies to register with the SEC and that outlines standards by which they must operate. Investment decisions Decisions concerning the asset side of a firm's balance sheet, such as the decision to offer a new product. Investment-grade bonds A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit rating companies. S&P classifies investment-grade bonds as BBB or higher, and Moody's classifies investment grade bonds as Ba or higher. Related: High-yield bond. Investment history The history of a member firm that establishes certain norms in respect of its investment practice. Investment income The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets. Investment letter A letter of intent between the issuer of new securities and the buyer, in the private placement of these new securities. The letter of intent establishes that the securities are being bought for a minimum time period and are treated as an investment, not for resale. If no such letter exists, the securities must be registered with Securities and Exchange Commission. Investment management The process of managing money. Also called portfolio management and money management. Investment manager The individual who manages a portfolio of investments. Also called a portfolio manager or a money manager. Investment objective The financial objective of an investor. Whether the investor requires income or capital appreciation, for example. The investor's objective governs the investment strategy. Investment philosophy The style and general ideology of investment practiced by an investor. Certain investors favor small-capitalization stocks, while others prefer large blue-chip stocks, for example. Investment product line (IPL) The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta (nondiversifiable risk). Investments As a discipline, the study of financial securities, such as stocks and bonds, from the investor's viewpoint. Investment software Computer software that helps investors make investment decisions by identifying situations that meet programmed parameters. Investment strategy A strategy, or plan of attack, an investor uses when deciding how to allocate capital among several options including stocks, bonds, cash equivalents, commodities, and real estate. The strategy should take into account the investor's tolerance for risk as well as future needs for capital. Investment strategy committee A committee within a brokerage firm that conducts research and makes recommendations on the firm's stated investment strategy. Investment Tax Credit Proportion of new capital investment that could be used to reduce a company's tax bill (abolished in 1986). Investment trust A closed-end fund regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940. These funds have a fixed number of shares that are traded on the secondary markets, like corporate stock. The market price may exceed the net asset value per share, in which case shares are selling at a premium. When the market price falls below the (NAV)/share, shares are selling at a discount. Many closed-end funds are of a specialized nature; the portfolio represents a particular industry or, country. These funds are usually listed on U.S. and foreign exchanges. Investment value Applies mainly to dealer securities. Fixed income value of a convertible, the price at which the convert would have to sell as a straight debt instrument relative to the yield of other bonds of like maturity, or size, and quality; represents a presumed floor to the bond, assuming the continued creditworthiness of the issuer and the general level of interest rates. Bond value. See: conversion value. Investor The owner of a financial asset. Investor fallout In the mortgage pipeline, risk that occurs when the originator commits loan terms to the borrowers and gets commitments from investors at the time of application, or if both sets of terms are made at closing. Investor relations The process by which the corporation communicates with its investors. Investor's equity The balance of a margin account. Related: Buying on margin, initial margin requirement. Investors service bureau NYSE service that deals with all general inquiries concerning securities investments. Invoice Bill written by a seller of goods or services and submitted to a purchaser for payment. Invoice billing Billing system in which invoices are sent off at the time of customer orders and are all separate bills to be paid. Invoice date Usually the date when goods are shipped. Payment dates are set relative to the invoice date. Invoice price The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury bond is delivered. Involuntary liquidation preference A premium that must be paid to preferred or preference stockholders if the issuer of the stock is forced into involuntary liquidation. IRA/Keogh accounts Special accounts that allow saving taxes deferred until money is withdrawn. These plans are subject to frequent changes in law with respect to the deductibility of contributions. Withdrawals of tax-deferred contributions are taxed as income, including the capital gains from such accounts. Irredeemable bond A bond lacking a call feature or a right of redemption. Also refers to a perpetual bond. Irrational call option The implied call imbedded in a MBS. Irrational because the call is sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance), and sometimes exercised when it is not in the money. Option exercise like this affects payments on the MBS. Irrelevance result The Modigliani and Miller theorem that a firm's capital structure is irrelevant to the firm's value. Issue A particular financial asset. Issued share capital Total amount of shares that have been issued. Related: Outstanding shares. Issuer An entity that puts a financial asset in the marketplace. Italian Derivatives Market (IDEM) A derivatives market operated by the Italian Stock Exchange Council. It trades futures and options on the 30 index and individual stock options. See: Italian Stock Exchange. Italian Stock Exchange (ISE) The Milan-based stock exchange, which came into effect after the unification of Italy's ten national exchanges in 1991. All listed securities are traded electronically. The main indexes are the MIB and the MIBTEL, based on the prices of all listed shares, and the MIB 30, based on a sample of the 30 most liquid and highly capitalized shares. Itemized deduction Specific deductions allowed by the IRS outlined in the tax return. "It's us," Used in the context of general equities. "The firm, and not a customer, is the party involved." Jury of executive opinion A method of forecasting using a composite forecast prepared by a number of individual experts. The experts form their own opinions initially from the data given, and revise their opinions according to the others' opinions. Finally, the individuals' final opinions are combined. "Just me asking" Used in the context of general equities. "Not a customer request for information." Just-in-time inventory systems Systems that schedule materials to arrive exactly when they are needed in the production process. Just title See: Clear title Justified price The fair market price of an asset. K Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying the issue has no voting rights. KCBT See: Kansas City Board of Trade KLCE See: Kuala Lumpur Commodities Exchange KLOFFE See: Kuala Lumpur Options and Financial Futures Exchange KLSE See: Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Kaffirs South African gold mining shares that trade on the London Stock Exchange. Kangaroos Australian stocks. Kansas City Board of Trade (KCBT) The U.S.-based futures and options exchange for no. 2 red wheat futures and, options, Value Line Index futures and Mini Value Line futures and options. Kappa The ratio of the dollar price change in the price of an option to a 1% change in the expected volatility. Keiretsu A network of Japanese companies organized around a major bank. Keogh plan A type of pension account in which taxes are deferred. Available to those who are self-employed. Key industry An industry that plays a critical role in a nation's economy. Key man (or woman) insurance A life insurance policy purchased by a company to insure the life of a key executive. The company is the beneficiary in case of the executive's death. Keynesian economics An economic theory of British economist, John Maynard Keynes that active government intervention is necessary to ensure economic growth and stability. "Kick it out" Used in the context of general equities. "Liquidate a position (sell a long/cover a short) without regard to price." Kickback In the context of finance, refers to compensation of dealers by sales finance companies for discounting installment purchase paper. In the context of contracts, refers to secret payments made to insure that the contract goes to a specific firm. Kicker An additional feature of a debt obligation that increases its marketability and attractiveness to investors. Kiddie tax Tax owed for the investment income of children if the amount is more than $1,400. Killer bees Those who aid a company in fending off a takeover bid, usually investment bankers who devise strategies to make the target less attractive or more difficult to acquire. Kiting Used in of banking to refer to the practice of depositing and drawing checks at two or more banks and taking advantage of the time it takes for the second bank to collect funds from the first bank. Also refers to illegally increasing the face value of a check by changing the numbers on the check. In the context of securities, refers to the manipulation and inflation of stock prices. Knock-out option An option that- is worthless at expiration if the underlying commodity or currency price reaches a specific price level. Know your customer An ethical foundation of securities brokers that an adviser who recommends the purchase or sale of any security to a customer, must believe that the recommendation is suitable for the customer, given the customer's financial situation. Kondratieff Wave An economic theory of the Soviet economist Kondratieff stating that the economies of the western world are susceptible to major up-and-down "supercycles" lasting 50 to 60 years. Kruggerand A gold coin minted by the republic of South Africa that typically sells for slightly higher prices than the market value of the gold it contains. Kuala Lumpur Commodities Exchange (KLCE) The Malaysian commodity exchange for trading futures in crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil, tin, rubber, and cocoa. Kuala Lumpur Options and Financial Futures Exchange (KLOFFE) Established in 1995, the Kuala Lumpur Options and Financial Futures Exchange offers equity derivative products based on underlying instruments traded on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) Established in 1973, the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) is the only stock exchange in Malaysia. Kurtosis. Measures the fatness of the tails of a probability distribution. A fat-tailed distribution has higher-than-normal chances of a big positive or negative realization. Kurtosis should not be confused with skewness, which measures the fatness of one tail. Kurtosis is sometimes refered to as the volatility of volatility. L Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is a class of stock such as third preferred class of warrants, foreign preferred, sixth class of preferred stock, or preferred when issued stock. LBO See: Leveraged buyout LDC See: Less developed countries LEAPS See: Long-Term Anticipation Securities LIBOR See: London Interbank Offered Rate LIFFE See: London International Financial Futures Exchange LIFO See: Last in, first out LOC See: Letter of credit LTV See: Loan-to-value ratio LYON See: Liquid yield option note Ladder strategy A bond portfolio construction strategy that invests approximately equal amounts in every maturity within a given range. Lady Macbeth Strategy Strategy in which a third party poses as a white knight in a takeover bid, and then joins forces with an unfriendly bidder. Laffer curve A curve conjecturing that economic output will increase if marginal tax rates are cut. Named after economist Arthur Laffer. Lag Payment of a financial obligation later than is expected or required, as in lead and lag. Also, the number of periods that an independent variable in a regression model is "held back" in order to predict the dependent variable. Lag response of prepayments A delay of typically about three months between the time the weighted-average coupon of an MBS pool crosses the threshold for refinancing and observation of an acceleration in prepayment speed is observed. Lagging indicators Economic indicators that follow rather than precede the country's overall pace of economic activity. See also: Leading indicators and coincident indicators. Laisse-faire Doctrine that a government should not interfere with business and economic affairs. Lambda The ratio of a change in the option price to a small change in the option volatility. It is the partial derivative of the option price with respect to the option volatility. Land contract A method of real estate financing; a mortgage-holding seller finances a buyer by taking a down payment and subsequent payments in installments, but holds the title until the mortgage is fully repaid. Landlord A property owner who rents property to a tenant. Lapsed option An option that no longer has any value because it has reached its expiration date without being exercised. Large-cap A stock with a high level of capitalization, usually at least $5 billion market value. Lagging indicators Economic indicators that follow rather than precede the country's overall pace of economic activity. See also: Leading indicators and coincident indicators. Last in, first out ? Last sale The most recent trade performed in a security. Last split After a stock split, the number of shares distributed for each share held and the date of the distribution. Last trading day The final day under an exchange's rules during which trading may take place in a particular futures or options contract. Contracts outstanding at the end of the last trading day must be settled by delivery of underlying physical commodities or financial instruments, or by agreement for monetary settlement, depending futures contract specifications. Late charge A fee a credit grantor charges a borrower for a late payment. Late tape A delay in the display of price changes on the tape of an exchange because of heavy trading. In severe instances the first digit of each price is intentionally deleted. Launder To move illegally acquired cash through financial systems so that it appears to be legally acquired. Law of large numbers The mean of a random sample approaches the mean (expected value) of the population as sample size increases. Law of one price An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price no matter how the security is created. If the payoff of a security can be synthetically created by a package of other securities, the implication is that the price of the package and the price of the security whose payoff it replicates must be equal. If it is unequal, an arbitrage opportunity would present itself. Lay off In the context of general equities, this eliminates all or part of a position by finding customers or other dealers to take the position. Layup Used in the context of general equities. Easily executed trade or order. See: Lead pipe. Lead Payment of a financial obligation earlier than is expected or required. Lead manager The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated bank credit or bond issued. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions. Lead pipe Used in the context of general equities. Virtually certain that trade will take place; lead pipe cinch. See: Layup. Lead regulator A leading self-regulatory organization that over sees compliance with a particular section of the law, such as the NYSE, ASE, or NASDAQ. Lead underwriter The head of a syndicate of financial firms that are sponsoring an initial public offering of securities or a secondary offering of securities. Could also apply to bond issues. Leader A stock or group of stocks that is the first to move in a market upsurge or downturn. Leading economic indicators Economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy. Leading the market In the context of general equities, this is a stock or group of stocks moving with the market as a whole, but moving in advance of the general market. Leakage Release of information selectively or not before official public announcement. Lease A long-term rental agreement, and a form of secured long-term debt. Lease acquisition cost The legal fees and other expenses incurred when acquiring a lease. Leasehold An asset providing the right to use property under a lease agreement. Leasehold improvement An improvement made to leased property. Lease-purchase agreement An agreement that allows for portions of lease payments to be used to purchase the leased property. Lease rate The payment per period stated in a lease contract. Leaseback A transaction that involves the sale of some property, and an agreement by the seller to lease the property back from the buyer after the sale. Leaves Used in the context of general equities. Remains to buy or sell of a previously entered order after a report of partial execution has been given. If the floor broker to buy 20M IBM at $115, and he then buys 6M at this price, his report would be, "You bought 6M IBM at $115; leaves 14." Ledger cash A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash. Leg A prolonged trend in stock market prices, such as a multiple-period bull market; or, an option that is one side of a spread transaction. See: Lifting a leg. Leg up Used in the context of general equities. (1)Have a portion of the offsetting side of a trade in your pocket (spoken for) so your capital risk in the transaction is reduced. (Purchase of 10,000 of a 50,000 buy order leaves the trader a "leg up".) (2) Complete one side of a two-sided transaction, as in a swap or contingency order. LEGAL A computerized database maintained by the NYSE to keep track of enforcement actions, audits, and complaints against member firms. This term is not an acronym but is referred to in capitals. Legal capital Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books. Legal bankruptcy A legal proceeding for liquidating or reorganizing a business. Legal defeasance The deposit of cash and permitted securities, as specified in the bond indenture, into an irrevocable trust sufficient to enable the issuer to fully discharge its obligations under the bond indenture. Legal entity A person or organization that can legally enter into a contract, and may therefore be sued for failure to comply with the terms of the contract. Legal investments Investments that a regulated entity is permitted to make under the rules and regulations that govern its conduct. Legal list A list of high-quality debt and equity securities chosen by a state agency that are acceptable holdings for fiduciary institutions. Legal monopoly A government-regulated firm that is legally entitled to be the only company offering a particular service in a particular area. Legal opinion A statement, usually written by a specialized law firm, required for a new municipal bond issue stating that the issue is legally acceptable. Legal transfer A stock transaction that requires special documentation in addition to standard stock or bond power to be legally valid. Legislative risk The risk that new or changed legislation will have a large positive or negative effect on an investment. Legitimate Used in the context of general equities. Real interest in trading as compared to a profile stance. See: Natural. Lemon An investment with poor results. Lend To provide money temporarily on the condition that it or its equivalent will be returned, often with an interest fee. Lender Businesses that provide loans to others. Lender of last resort Traditionally the Federal Reserve Bank in the U.S., which assists banks that face large withdrawals of funds and in so doing stabilizes the banking system. Lending agreement A contract regarding funds transferred between a lender and a borrower. Lending at a premium A loan from one broker to another of securities to cover a customer's short position, with a borrowing fee included. A fee is unusual since securities are normally lent freely between brokers. Lending at a rate Interest paid to a customer on the credit balance received from a short sale. Lending securities Securities borrowed from a broker's inventory, from another customer's margin account, or from another broker, when a customer is required to deliver on a short sale. Less-developed countries (LDCs) Also known as emerging markets. Countries who's per capita GDP is below a World Bank-determined level. Lessee An entity that leases an asset from another entity. Lessor An entity that leases an asset to another entity. Letter of comment A communication to the firm from the SEC that suggests changes to its registration statement. Letter of credit (LOC) A form of guarantee of payment issued by a bank on behalf of a borrower that assures the payment of interest and repayment of principal on bond issues. Letter of intent An assurance by a mutual fund shareholder that a certain amount of money will be invested monthly, in exchange for lower sales charges. In mergers, a preliminary merger agreement between companies after significant negotiations. Letter stock Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser stating that the stock is not intended for resale. Level Used in the context of general equities. Price measure of an indication. Level-coupon bond Bond with a stream of coupon payments that remain the same throughout the life of the bond. Level debt service A municipal charter provision that debt payments must be relatively equal from year to year so that required revenue projections are easier. Level load A mutual fund that charges a permanent sales charge, usually at some fixed percentage. See: Front-end loads and back-end loads. Level pay Scheduling principal and interest payments (P&I) due under a mortgage so that total monthly payment of P&I is the same. different from the typical mortgage for which the principal payment component of the monthly payment becomes gradually greater while the monthly interest component shrinks. Level term insurance A life insurance policy with a fixed face value and increasing premiums. Leverage The use of debt financing, or property of rising or falling at a proportionally greater amount than comparable investments. For example, an option is said to have high leverage compared to the underlying stock because a given price change in the stock may result in a greater increase or decrease in the value of the option. Leverage clientele A group of shareholders who, because of their personal leverage, seek to invest in corporations that maintain a compatible degree of corporate leverage. Leverage ratios Measures of the relative value of stockholders, capitalization, and creditors obligations, and of the firm's ability to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm (debt plus stockholder capitalization). Leverage rebalancing Making transactions to adjust (rebalance) a firm's leverage ratio to a target ratio. Leveraged beta The beta of a leveraged required return; that is, the beta as adjusted for the degree of leverage in the firm's capital structure. Leveraged buyout (LBO) A transaction used to take a public corporation private that is financed through debt such as bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment-grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or junk bonds. Investors can participate in an L.B.O. through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an L.B.O. fund that specializes in such investments. Leveraged company A company that has debt in its capital structure. Leveraged equity Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity experience the benefits and costs of using debt. Leveraged investment company An investment company or mutual fund entitled to borrow capital for its operations. Also, an investment company that issues both income shares and capital shares. Leveraged lease A lease arrangement under which the lessor borrows a large proportion of the funds needed to purchase the asset. The lender has a lien on the assets and a pledge of the lease payments to secure the borrowing. Leveraged portfolio A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed. Leveraged recapitalization Often used in risk arbitrage. A public company takes on significant additional debt with the purpose of either paying an extraordinary dividend or repurchasing shares, leaving the public shareholders with a continuing interest in a more financially leveraged company. Popular form of shark repellent See: Stub. Leveraged required return The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt. Leveraged stock Stocks financed with credit, such as that purchased on a margin account. Liability A financial obligation, or the cash outlay that must be made at a specific time to satisfy the contractual terms of such an obligation. Liability funding strategies Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed the client's obligations. Liability insurance Insurance guarding against damage or loss that the policyholder, may cause another person in the form of bodily injury or property damage. Liability swap An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's liabilities so as to provide a better match with its assets. Lien A security interest in one or more assets that lenders hold in exchange for secured debt financing. Life annuity An annuity that pays a fixed amount for the lifetime of the annuitant. Life cycle The lifetime of a product or business, from its creation to its demise or transformation. Life expectancy The length of time that an average person is expected to live, which is used by insurance companies use to make projections of benefit payouts. Life insurance An insurance policy that pays a monetary benefit to the insured person's survivors after death. Life insurance in force The dollar amount of life insurance that a company has issued, measured as the sum of policy face values and dividends paid. Life insurance policy The contract that sets out the terms of life insurance coverage. Lifetime reverse mortgage A type of mortgage in which a homeowner borrows against the value a home, while retaining title, and making no payments while residing in the home. When the owner ceases living in the house, the property is sold, and the loan repaid. Lift An increase in securities prices, as shown by some economic indicator. Lifted Refers to over-the-counter trading. Having an offer taken in a stock, followed by the market maker raising the offer price. Lifting a leg Closing out one side of a long-short arbitrage before the other is closed. Lighten up Selling some part of a stock or bond position in a portfolio to realize capital gains or to losses or increase cash assets. Limit on close order An order to buy or sell stock at the closing price only if the price is at a predetermined level or better. Limit order An order to buy a stock at or below a specified price, or to sell a stock at or above a specified price. For instance, you could tell a broker "buy me 100 shares of XYZ Corp at $8 or less" or "sell 100 shares of XYZ at $10 or better" The customer specifies a price, and the order can be executed only if the market reaches or betters that price. A conditional trading order designed to avoid the danger of adverse unexpected price changes. Limit order book A record of unexecuted limit orders maintained by the specialist. These orders are treated equally with other orders in terms of priority of execution. Limit order information system The electronic system supplying information about securities traded on participating exchanges so that the best securities prices can be found. Limit price See: Maximum price fluctuation Limit up, limit down The maximum price change allowed for a commodity futures contract per trading day. Limitation on asset dispositions A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major assets. Limitation on conversion Applies mainly to convertible securities. Possible delay in convertibility. More frequently, the right to convert may be terminable prior to a redemption date, preventing the holder from receiving a final coupon or dividend. See: Accrued interest. Limitation on liens A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to grant liens on its assets. Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to merge or consolidate with another firm. Limitation on sale-and-leaseback A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into sale-and-leaseback transactions, financing techniques that could affect creditor thinness.. Limitation on subsidiary borrowing A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to borrow at the level of firm subsidiary. Limited company A form of business commonly used in the U.K. comparable to incorporation in the U.S. Limited discretion Permission by a client that allows a broker to make certain stock and option trades without first consulting the client about the trade. Limited liability Limitation of loss to what has already been invested. Limited-liability instrument A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can lose only the initial investment. Limited partner A partner who has limited legal liability for the obligations of the partnership. Limited partnership A partnership that includes one or more partners who have limited liability. Limited payment policy Life insurance providing full life protection but requiring premiums for only part of the customer's lifetime. Limited risk The risk inherent in options contracts, which is much lower than that of a futures contract, which has unlimited risk. The maximum loss in buying a call option, for example, is the premium paid for the option. Limited price order Used in the context of general equities. See: Limit order. Limited-tax general obligation bond A general obligation bond of a government backed by specified or constrained revenue sources. Limited warranty A warranty with certain conditions and limitations on the parts covered, type of damage covered, and/or time period for which the agreement is good. Line of credit An informal loan arrangement between a bank and a customer allowing the customer to borrow up to a prespecified amount. Linear programming Technique for finding the maximum value of some equation, subject to stated linear constraints. Linear regression A statistical technique for fitting a straight line to a set of data points. Lintner's observations John Lintner's work (1956) suggests that dividend policy is related both a target level, and to the speed of adjustment of change in dividends. Lipper Mutual Fund Industry Average The average level of performance for all mutual funds, as reported by Lipper Analytical Services. Liquid asset Asset that is easily and cheaply turned into cash-notably, cash itself and short-term securities. Liquid yield option note (LYON) Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond developed by Merrill Lynch & Co. Liquidating dividend Payment by a firm to its owners from capital rather than from earnings. Liquidation Occurs when a firm's business is terminated. Assets are sold, proceeds are used to pay creditors, and any leftovers are distributed to shareholders. Any transaction that offsets or closes out a long or short position. Related: Buy in, evening up, offset liquidity. Liquidation rights The rights of a firm's securityholders in the event the firm liquidates. Liquidation value Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt. Liquidator Person appointed by an unsecured creditor in the United Kingdom to oversee the sale of an insolvent firm's assets and the repayment of its debts. Liquidity A high level of trading activity, allowing buying and selling with minimum price disturbance. Also, a market characterized by the ability to buy and sell with relative ease. Antithesis of illiquidity. Liquidity diversification Investing in a variety of maturities to reduce the price risk to which holding long bonds exposes the investor. Liquidity Fund A California company that buys real estate limited partnership interests at 25% to 35% lower than the current value of the real estate assets. Liquidity preference hypothesis The argument that greater liquidity is valuable, all else equal. Also, the theory that the forward rate exceeds expected future interest rates. Liquidity premium Forward rate minus expected future short-term interest rate. Liquidity ratios Ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time, such as the ratio of current assets to current liabilities. Liquidity risk The risk that arises from the difficulty of selling an asset in a timely manner. It can be thought of as the difference between the "true value" of the asset and the likely price, less commissions. Liquidity theory of the term structure A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a liquidity premium. Lisbon Stock Exchange (LSE) Stock exchange trading stocks, bonds, and unit trusts. The BVL general index is the exchange's official index. Listed firm A company whose stock trades on a stock exchange, and conforms to listing requirements. Listed option An option that has been accepted for trading on an exchange. Listed security Stock or bond that has been accepted for trading by one of the organized and registered securities exchanges in the United States. Generally, the advantages of being listed are that exchanges provide: (1) an orderly marketplace; (2) liquidity; (3) fair price determination; (4) accurate and continuous reporting on sales and quotations; (5) information on listed companies; and (6) strict regulation for the protection of securityholders. Antithesis of OTC Security. Listed stocks Stocks that are traded on an exchange. Listing In the context of real estate, written agreement between a property owner and a real estate broker that gives the broker permission to find a buyer or tenant for some property. See: Listing broker. Listing broker In the context of equity, when a stock is traded in exchange it is said to be listed. A licensed real estate broker who completes a listing of a property for sale. Listing requirements Requirements, including minimum shares outstanding, market value, and income, that are laid down by an exchange for any stock to be listed for trading. Living benefits Life insurance benefits from which the insured can draw cash while still living, usually in the case of some high-cost illness. Lloyds of London A marketplace in London for underwriting syndicates. Load The sales fee charged to an investor when shares are purchased in a load fund or annuity. See: Bank-end load; front-end load; level load. Load fund A mutual fund that sells shares with a sales charge-typically 4% to 8% of the net amount indicated. Some no-load funds also levy distribution fees permitted by Article 12b-1 of the Investment Company Act; these are typically 0. 25%. A true no-load fund has neither a sales charge nor Load-to-load Arrangement whereby the customer pays for the last delivery when the next one is received. Load spread option A method of allocating the annual sales charge on load funds, often through percentage deductions from a customer's periodic fixed payments. Loan Temporary borrowing of a sum of money. If you borrow $1 million you have taken out a loan for $1 million. Loan amortization schedule The timetable for repaying the interest and principal on a loan. Loan commitment Assurance by a lender to make money available to a borrower on specific terms in return for a fee. Loan crowd The group of member firms that lend or borrow securities needed to cover the positions of customers who have sold short securities. Loaned flat Securities lent interest-free between brokers to cover customers' short sale positions. Loan syndication Group of banks sharing a loan. See: Syndicate. Loan value The maximum percentage of the value of securities that a broker can lend to a margin account customer, as dictated by the Federal Reserve Board in Regulation T. Loan-to-value ratio (LTV) The ratio of money borrowed on a property to the property's fair market value. Local A futures exchange member who trades securities for his or her own account. Local expectations theory A form of the pure expectations theory that suggests that the returns on bonds of different maturities will be the same over a short-term investment horizon. Local taxes Property, sewer, school, or other community paid to a locality. Local taxes are usually deductible for federal income tax purposes. Lock Used in the context of general equities. Make a market both ways (bid and offer) either on the bid, offering, or an in-between price only. Locking on the offering occurs to attract a seller, since the trader is willing to pay (and ask) the offering side when others only ask it. Locking on the bid side attracts buyers for similar reasons. Typically, the sell side requires a plus tick to comply with short sale rules. Lock in To ensure that an individual transacts all his or her business with a sole broker by providing superior services, such as accommodating block buy and sell needs or preparing excellent research (soft-dollar lock). This usually guarantees a certain volume of business. Lock-out With PAC bond CMO classes, the period before the PAC sinking fund becomes effective. With multifamily loans, the period of time during which prepayment is prohibited. Lock-up CDs CDs that are issued with the tacit understanding that the buyer will not trade the certificate. Quite often, the issuing bank will insist that it hold the certificate for safekeeping by it to ensure that the buyer holds the understanding. Lock-up option Often used in risk arbitrage. Privilege offered a white knight (friendly acquirer) by a target company to buy crown jewels or additional equity. The aim is to discourage a hostile takeover. See: Shark repellent. Lockbox A collection and processing service provided to firms by banks, which collect payments from a dedicated postal box to which the firm directs its customers to send payment to. The banks make several collections per day, process the payments immediately, and deposit the funds into the firm's bank account. Locked in When an investor is unable to take advantage of preferential tax treatment because of time remaining on a required holding period. Also, a commodities position in which the market has a limit up or limit down day and investors are unable to move in to or out of the market. Locked market A market is locked if the bid price equals the ask price. This can occur, for example, if the market is brokered and one side pays brokerage only, in over-the-counter trading the initiator of the transaction. Highly competitive market environment with inside bid and offering at the same price. Often occurs when an OTC dealer has not updated the market. Log-linear least-squares method A statistical technique for fitting a curve to a set of data points. One of the variables is transformed by taking its logarithm, and then a straight line is fitted to the transformed set of data points. Lognormal distribution Pattern of frequency of occurrence in which the logarithm of the variable follows a normal distribution. Lognormal distributions are used to describe returns calculated over periods of a year or more. Lombard rate Applies mainly to international equities. Interest rate the German Bundesbank uses as an upper limit to the day-to-day money rate, since no bank will pay higher rates in the money market than it has to pay for very short-term recourse to Lombard credit. London Commodity Exchange (LCE) Merged with the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange in 1996. London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) The rate of interest that major international banks in London charge each other for borrowings. Many variable interest rates in the U.S. are based on spreads off LIBOR. By contrast with the bid rate LIBID quoted by banks seeking such deposits. London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE) A London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded. London Metal Exchange (LME) A market for trading base metals, where traded options contracts are available against the underlying futures contract. London Stock Exchange (LSE) The U.K.'s six regional exchanges joined together in 1973 to form the stock exchange of Great Britain and Ireland, later named the LSE. The FTSE 100 index (known as the footsie) is its dominant index. Long One who has bought a contract to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position through an offsetting sale; the opposite of short. Long bonds Bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. Treasury bond. Long coupons (1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity. (2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period. Long hedge The purchase of a futures contract in anticipation of actual purchases in the cash market. Used by processors or exporters as protection against an advance in the cash price. Related: hedge, short hedge Long leg The part of an option spread in which an agreement to buy the underlying security is made. Long position Owning or holding options (i.e., the number of contracts bought exceeds the number of contracts sold). For equities, a long position occurs when an individual owns securities. An owner of 1,000 shares of stock is said to be "Long the stock." Related: Short position. Long run A period of time in which all costs are variable; longer than one year. Long straddle Taking a long position in both a put and a call option. Long-term In accounting terms, one year or longer. Long-term assets Value of property, equipment, and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an entry in the bookkeeping records of a company. It is usually established on a "cost" basis, and thus does not necessarily reflect the market value of the assets. Long-term debt An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also called funded debt. Long-term debt/capitalization Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and common stockholder's equity. Long-term debt-to-equity ratio A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity. Long-term debt ratio The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization. Long-Term Anticipation Securities (LEAPS) Long-term options. Long-term financial plan Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations. Long-term financing Liabilities repayable in more than one year plus equity. Long-term gain A profit on the sale of a capital assets held longer than 12 months, and eligible for long-term capital gains tax treatment. Long-term goals Financial goals expected to be accomplished in five years or longer. Long-term investor A person who makes investments for a period of at least five years in order to finance his or her long-term goals. Long-term liabilities Amount owed for leases, bond repayment, and other items due after 1 year. Long-term loss A loss on the sale of a capital asset held less than 12 months that can be used to offset a capital gain. Look Used for listed equity securities. See: Picture. Look-thru A method for calculating U.S. taxes owed on income from controlled foreign corporations that was introduced by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Lookback option An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. For a call option, the buyer will choose the minimum price; for a put option, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money. Looking for In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. Loophole A technicality in some legislation or regulation that makes it possible to avoid certain consequences or circumvent a rule without breaking the law, such as in the use of a tax shelter. Loose credit Policy by the Federal Reserve Board to make loans less expensive and more available by reducing interest rates through open market operations. Loss The opposite of profit. Loss-control activities Actions that an insured person or company takes at the instigation of an insurance company in order to prevent accidents or losses. Loss-of-income insurance Insurance coverage that will pay out income that a policyholder loses as a result of a disability, injury, or business disruption. Loss ratio The ratio of losses paid or accrued by an insurer to premiums collected over a year. Lots In the context of general equities, this blocks or portions of trades. Can express a specific transaction in a stock at a certain time, often implying execution at the same price (e.g., "I traded 40m in two lots of 10 and four lots of 5."). Low In the context of general equities, this is a specific minimum limit required by a seller in execution an order ("I'll sell 50 with an eighth low."); implies a not-held limit order. Antithesis of top. Low balance method A method of calculating interest on the basis of the lowest balance of an account over the applicable period. Low ball Slang for making an offer well below the fair value of an asset in hopes that the seller may be desperate to sell. Low-coupon bond refunding Refunding of a low-coupon bond with a new, higher-coupon bond. Low grade A bond with a rating of B or lower. Low price The day's lowest price of a security that has changed hands between a buyer and a seller. Low price-earnings ratio effect The tendency of portfolios of stocks with a low price-earnings ratio to outperform portfolios of stocks with high price-earnings ratios. Lump sum A large one-time payment of money. M Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is the company's fourth class of preferred shares. MBO See: Management buyout MBSCC See: Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation MDA See: Multiple discriminant analysis MHS See: Manufactured housing securities MIP See: Monthly income preferred security MIT See: Market-if-touched MLP See: Master limited partnership MMDA See: Money market demand account MNC See: Multinational corporation MSCI See: Morgan Stanley Capital International Macaroni defense A tactic used by a corporation that is the target of a hostile takeover bid involving the issue of a large number of bonds that must be redeemed at a higher value if the company is taken over. Macaulay duration The weighted-average term to maturity of the cash flows from a bond, where the weights are the present value of the cash flow divided by the price. Macroeconomics Analysis of a country's economy as a whole. Madrid Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Madrid) The largest of Spain's four stock exchanges. Magic of diversification The effective reduction of risk (variance) of a portfolio, achieved without reduction to expected returns through the combination of assets with low or negative correlations (covariances). Related: Markowitz diversification. Mail float Time period that checks for payment spend in the postal system. Maintenance call A call for additional money or securities when a margin account falls below its exchange-mandated required level. Maintenance fee A yearly charge to maintain brokerage accounts, such as asset management accounts or IRAs. Maintenance margin requirement A sum, usually smaller than but part of the original margin, that must be maintained on deposit at all times. If a customer's equity in any futures position drops to or below, the maintenance margin level, the broker must issue a margin call for the amount at money required to restore the customer's equity in the account to the original margin level. Related: Margin, margin call. Majority shareholder A shareholder who is part of a group that controls more than half the outstanding shares of a corporation. Majority voting Voting system under which corporate shareholders vote for each director separately. Related: Cumulative voting. Make a market Dealers are said to make a market when they quote bid and offered prices at which they stand ready to buy and sell. Make whole provision Related to the lump-sum payments made when a loan or bond is called, equal to the NPV of future loan or coupon payments not paid because of the call. The payment can be significant and negate the attractiveness of a call. Making delivery Refers to the seller's actually turning over to the buyer the assets agreed upon in a forward contract. Malaysia Commodity Exchange A subsidiary of the KLSE that trades interest rate futures on the three-month Kuala Lumpur Interbank offered rate. Maloney Act 1938 legislation amending the Securities Exchange Act that regulates the OTC market. Managed account An investment portfolio one or more clients entrusted to a manager who decides how to invest it. Managed float Also known as "dirty" float, this is a system of floating exchange rates with central bank intervention to reduce currency fluctuations. Management The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives. Management buying The acquisition of a controlling interest in a promising business by an outside investment group that retains existing management and places representatives on the board of directors. Management buyout (MBO) Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management. Management/closely held shares Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Part of these percentages often are included in "institutional holdings"--making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company. Management discussion and analysis (MD&A) A report from management to shareholders that accompanies the firm's financial statements in the annual report. It explains the period's financial results and enables management to discuss topics that may not be apparent in the financial statements in the annual report. Management fee An investment advisory fee charged by the financial adviser to a fund typically on the basis of the fund's average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases. Managerial decisions Decisions concerning the operation of the firm, such as the choice of firm size, firm growth rates, and employee compensation. Managing underwriter The leading firm in an underwriting group, which originates the deal and acts as an agent for the group. Mandatory convertibles A debt instrument that is exchangeable at some point for equity in the form of common stock or a new issue. Mandatory redemption schedule Schedule according to which bond sinking fund payments must be made. Manipulation Dealing in a security to create a false appearance of active trading, in order to bring in more traders. Illegal. Manufactured housing securities (MHS) Loans on manufactured homes-that is, factory-built or prefabricated housing, including mobile homes. Maple Leaf A gold, silver, or platinum coin minted in Canada that usually trades at slightly more than its current bullion value. Margin Allows investors to buy securities by borrowing money from a broker. The margin is the difference between the market value of a stock and the loan a broker makes. Related: Security deposit (initial). Margin account (stocks) A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock; if the value of the stock drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers. Margin agreement The agreement governing customers' margin accounts. Margin call A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin requirement, security deposit maintenance. Margin department The department in a brokerage firm that monitors customers' margin accounts, ensuring that all short sales, stock purchases, and other positions are covered by the margin account balance. Margin of profit Gross profit divided by net sales. Used to measure a firm's operating efficiency and pricing policies in order to determine how competitive the firm is within the industry. Margin requirement (options) The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intraday price changes. Margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between (1) the amount of long-term financing and (2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets. Margin security A security that may be bought or sold in a margin account as defined in Regulation T. Marginal Incremental. Marginal cost The increase or decrease in a firm's total cost of production as a result of changing production by one unit. Marginal efficiency of capital The percentage yield earned on an additional unit of capital. Marginal revenue The change in total revenue as a result of producing one additional unit of output. Marginal tax rate The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned. Marginal utility The change in total satisfaction as a result of consuming one additional unit of a specific good or service. Marital deduction A tax deduction that allow spouses to transfer unlimited amounts of property to one another. Mark-to-market Adjustment of the book value or collateral value of a security to reflect current market value. Marketability A negotiable security is said to have good marketability if there is an active secondary market in which it can easily be resold. Marketable securities Securities that are easily convertible to cash because there is high demand allowing them to be sold quickly. Marketable title A clear, reasonably incontestable title to a piece of real estate that is good for transaction purposes. Markdown The amount subtracted from the selling price of securities when they are sold to a dealer in the OTC market. Also, the discounted price of municipal bonds after the market has shown little interest in the issue at the original price. Mark-to-market Adjustment of the book value or collateral value of a security to reflect current market value. Marked-to-market An arrangement whereby the profits or losses on a futures contract are settled each day. Market Usually refers to the equity market. "The market went down today" means that the value of the stock market dropped that day. Market analysis An analysis of technical corporate and market data used to predict movements in the market. Market-book ratio Market price of a share divided by book value per share. Market break See: Break Market capitalization The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current market price. Capitalization is a measure of corporate size. Market capitalization rate Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate discount rate for a firm's cash flow. Market clearing Total demand for loans by borrowers equals total supply of loans from lenders. The market, any market, clears at the equilibrium rate of interest or price. Market conversion price Also called conversion parity price, the price that an investor effectively pays for common stock by purchasing a convertible security and then exercising the conversion option. This price is equal to the market price of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio. Market cycle The period between the two latest highs or lows of the S&P 500, showing net performance of a fund through both an up and a down market. A market cycle is complete when the S&P is 15% below the highest point or 15% above the lowest point (ending a down market). Market Eye A financial information service based in the U.K. sponsored by the ISE (International Stock Exchange of the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland) that provides current market and statistical information. Market impact costs The result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession. Also called price impact costs. Market index Market measure that consists of weighted values of the components that make up certain list of companies. A stock market tracks the performance of certain stocks by weighting them according to their prices and the number of outstanding shares by a particular formula. Market jitters Anxiety among many investors, causing them to sell stocks and bonds, pushing prices down. Market letter A newsletter analyzing the market that is written by an SEC-registered investment adviser who sells the letter to subscribers. See: Hulbert Rating. Market maker Used in the context of general equities. One who maintains firm bid and offer prices in a given security by standing ready to buy or sell round lots at publicly quoted prices. See: Agent, dealer, and specialist. Market model The market model says that the return on a security depends on the return on the market portfolio and the extent of the security's responsiveness as measured by beta. The return also depends on conditions that are unique to the firm. The market model can be graphed as a line fitted to a plot of asset returns against returns on the market portfolio. This relationship is sometimes called the single-index model. Market-on-Close (MOC) order An order to trade stocks, options, or futures as close as possible to the market close. Market opening The start of formal trading on an exchange. Market order Used in the context of general equities. Order to buy or sell a stated amount of a security at the most advantageous price obtainable after the order is represented in the trading crowd. You cannot specify special restrictions such as all or none (AON) or good 'til cancelled order (GTC) on market orders. See: Limit order. Market order go-along/participating Used for listed equity securities. See: Percentage order. Market out clause A clause that may appear in an underwriting firm commitment that releases it from its purchase requirement if there are negative securities market developments. Market overhang The theory that, in certain situations, institutions wish to sell their shares but postpone the sale because large orders under current market conditions would drive down the share price and that the consequent threat of securities sales will tend to retard the rate of share price appreciation. Support for this theory is largely anecdotal. Market penetration/share Used in the context of general equities. Percent of trading volume in a stock that a particular market maker trades. Market Performance Committee (MPC) A group of NYSE market oversight specialists who monitor specialists' efficiency in maintaining fair prices and orderly markets. Market portfolio A portfolio consisting of all assets available to investors, with each asset held in proportion to its market value relative to the total market value of all assets. Market price The last reported price at which a security was traded on an exchange. Market price of risk A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The reward-to-risk ratio of the market portfolio. Market prices The amount of money that a willing buyer pays to acquire something from a willing seller, when a buyer and seller are independent and when such an exchange is motivated by only commercial consideration. Market research A technical analysis of factors such as volume, price trends, and market breadth that are used to predict price movement. Market return The return on the market portfolio. Market risk Risk that cannot be diversified away. Related: Systematic risk Market sectors The classifications of bonds by issuer characteristics, such as state government, corporate, or utility. Market segmentation theory or preferred habitat theory A biased expectations theory that asserts that the shape of the yield curve is determined by the supply of and demand for securities within each maturity sector. Market share The percentage of total industry sales that a particular company controls. Market sweep A second offering following a tender offer, allowing institutional investors to obtain a controlling interest at a price higher than the original offer. Market timer A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down. Market timing Asset allocation in which investment in the equity market is increased if one forecasts that the equity market will outperform T-bills and is decreased when the market is anticipated to underperform. Market timing costs Costs that arise from price movement of a stock during a transaction period but attributable to other activity in the stock. Market tone The general state of well-being of a securities market, based mostly on trading activity. Market-if-touched (MIT) A price order, below market if a buy or above market if a sell, that automatically becomes a market order if the specified price is reached. Market value (1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold. (2) What investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the current market price of a firm's shares. Market value ratios Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial statement items. Market value-weighted index An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average of the returns on each security in the index, where the weights are proportional to outstanding market value. Marketed claims Claims that can be bought and sold in financial markets, such as those of stockholders and bondholders. Marketplace price efficiency The degree to which the prices of assets reflect the available marketplace information. Marketplace price efficiency is sometimes estimated as the difficulty faced by active management of earning a greater return than passive management would, after adjusting for the risk associated with a strategy and the transactions costs associated with implementing a strategy. Marking up or down The amount by which a securities dealer raises or lowers the price of a stock or bond due to changes in demand and supply. Markowitz, Harry Nobel laureate in economics. Father of modern portfolio theory. Markowitz diversification A strategy that seeks to combine in a portfolio assets with returns that are less than perfectly positively correlated, in an effort to lower portfolio risk (variance) without sacrificing return. Related: Naive diversification. Markowitz efficient frontier The graphical depiction of the Markowitz efficient set of portfolios representing the boundary of the set of feasible portfolios that have the maximum return for a given level of risk. Any portfolios above the frontier cannot be achieved. Any below the frontier are dominated by Markowitz efficient portfolios. Markowitz efficient portfolio Also called a mean-variance efficient portfolio, a portfolio that has the highest expected return at a given level of risk. Markowitz efficient set of portfolios The collection of all efficient portfolios, which can be graphed as the Markowitz efficient frontier. Marriage penalty A tax that has the effect of penalizing a married couple because they pay more tax on a joint tax return than they would if they file tax returns individually. Married put A put option bought at the same time as its underlying securities in order to hedge the price paid for the securities. Master limited partnership (MLP) A publicly traded limited partnership. Matador market The foreign market in Spain. Match-fund A bank is said to match-fund a loan or other asset when it does so by buying (taking) a deposit of the same maturity. The term is commonly used in the Euromarket. Matched book A bank runs a matched book when the of maturities of its assets and liabilities is distribution equal. Matched and lost The outcome of the flip of a coin used to determine which of two brokers who are locked in competition for equal trades may actually execute the trades. Matched maturities The coordination by a financial institution of the maturities of its assets (loans) and liabilities (deposits) in order to enable it to meet its obligations at the required times. Matched orders Used for listed equity securities. Participate in equal amounts of a trade at a certain price, particularly when two parties have the same level of priority on the exchange floor (this requires standing in the trading crowd). Matched sale transaction Applies mainly to convertible securities. Procedure whereby the Federal Reserve Bank of New York sells government securities to a nonbank dealer against payment in federal funds. The agreement requires the dealer to sell the securities back by a specified date, which ranges from 1 to 15 days. The Fed pays the dealer a rate of interest equal to the discount rate. These transactions, also called reverse repurchase agreements, decrease the money supply for temporary periods by reducing dealers' bank balances and thus excess reserves. Matching concept The accounting principle that requires the recognition of all costs that are associated with the generation of the revenue reported in the income statement. Materiality The importance of an event or information in influencing a company's stock price. Materials requirement planning Computer-based systems that plan backward from the production schedule to make purchases in order to manage inventory levels. Mathematical programming An operations research technique that solves problems in which an optimal value is sought subject to specified constraints. Mathematical programming models include linear programming, quadratic programming, and dynamic programming. Matif SA The futures exchange of France. Matrix trading Swapping bonds in order to take advantage of temporary differences in the yield spread between bonds with different ratings or different classes. Mature To cease to exist; to expire. Mature economy The economy of a nation with a stable population and slowing economic growth. Maturity For a bond, the date on which the principal is required to be repaid. In an interest rate swap, the date that the swap stops accruing interest. Maturity date Usually used for bonds. Date that the bond finishes and is paid off. Date on which the principal amount of a note, draft, acceptance, bond, or other debt instrument becomes due and payable. Maturity factoring An arrangement that provides collection and insurance of accounts receivable. Maturity phase A stage of company development in which earnings to grow at the rate of the general economy. Related: Three-phase DDM. Maturity spread The difference in returns between bonds of different time lengths. Maturity value Related: Par value Maximum capital gains mutual fund A mutual fund whose objective is to produce capital gains by investing in small or risky rapid-growth companies. Maximum price fluctuation The greatest amount by which the contract price can change, up or down, during one trading session, as fixed by exchange rules in the contract specification. Related: Limit price. May Day The date of May 1, 1975, after which brokers were allowed to charge any brokerage commission, rather than a mandatory rate. May expand Used in the context of general equities. Warning that the size of the order/total may be increased. See: "more behind it." MBS depository A book-entry depository for GNMA securities. The depository was initially operated by MBSCC and is now a separately incorporated, participant-owned, limited-purpose trust company organized under the State of New York Banking Law. MBS servicing The requirement that the mortgage servicer maintain payment of the full amount of contractually due principal and interest payments whether or not actually collected. Meals and entertainment expense A tax deduction allowed for meals and entertainment expenses incurred in the course of business. Mean The expected value of a random variable. Arithmetic average of a sample. Mean return See: Expected return Mean of the sample The arithmetic average; that is, the sum of the observations divided by the number of observations. Mean-variance analysis Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes. Mean-variance criterion The selection of portfolios based on the means and variances of their returns. The choice of the higher expected return portfolio for a given level of variance or the lower variance portfolio for a given expected return. Mean-variance efficient portfolio Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio Measurement error Errors in measuring an explanatory variable in a regression, which leads to biases in estimated parameters. Medium-term bond A bond maturing in two to ten years. Medium-term note A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from maturity bands of: 9 months to 1 year, more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years. Meff Renta Fija The derivatives exchange in Barcelona, Spain, listing futures and options on fixed interest securities and on interest rates, including the MIBOR (Madrid Interbank Offered Rate). Meff Renta Variable Spain's screen-based trading of stock index and equity derivatives market in Spain trading futures and options on the Iberian Exchange (IBEX)-35 index and on individual stocks. Member bank A national- or state-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. Member firm Used for listed equity securities. Brokerage firm that has at least one membership on a major stock exchange even though, by exchange rules, the membership is in the name of an employee and not the firm itself. Member short sale ratio The total shares sold short by NYSE members divided by total short sales, which is used to analyze market expectations and bullish or bearish trends. Membership or a seat on the exchange A limited number of exchange positions that enable the holder to trade for the holder's own accounts and charge clients for the execution of trades for their accounts. Related: Member firm. Menu Used in the context of general equities. Hierarchy of choices concerning price and volume of bids or offers proposed to a customer (e.g., menu of offerings to a customer buyer: (1) 10m @ 24 1/4; (2) 25m @ 24 1/2; or (3) 50m @ 24 3/4). The Merc Shorthand for Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Mercantile agency An organization that supplies credit ratings and reports on firms that are prospective customers. Mercato Italiano Futures (MIF) The Italian futures market trading Italian Treasury bond (BTF) futures. Merchandise All movable goods such as cars, textiles, or appliances. Merchant bank A British term for a bank that specializes not in lending its own funds, but in providing various financial services such as accepting bills arising out of trade, underwriting new issues, and providing advice on acquisitions, mergers, foreign exchange, or `portfolio management. Merger (1) Acquisition in which all assets and liabilities are absorbed by the buyer. (2) More generally, any combination of two companies. The firm's activity in this respect is sometimes called M&A (merger and acquisition) Mexican Stock Exchange The only stock exchange in Mexico. The Indice de Precios y Cotizaciones, or IPC index, consists of the 35 most representative stocks chosen every two months. Mezzanine bracket The members of an underwriting group with involvement large enough to be just below the top tier. Mezzanine financing The stage of financing that follows venture capital financing. Mezzanine level The period in a company's development just before it goes public. Microeconomics Analysis of the behavior of individual economic units such as companies, industries, or households. Midcap A stock with a capitalization of usually between $1 billion and $5 billion. Midcap SPDRs This is the same as a SPDR, except that the index it tracks is Standard & Poor's Midcap 400. This SPDR also trades on the AMEX, under the symbol MDY. Milan Stock Exchange The largest regional stock exchange in Italy, facilitating more than 90% of the country's trading volume. Miller, Merton Nobel Laureate and co-author of the famous Miller-Modigliani theorems. Finance professor at the University of Chicago. Mimic An imitation that sends a false signal. Mini-manipulation Trading in the underwriting security of an option contract in order to manipulate its price so that the options will become in the money. Minimum maintenance The lowest required equity level that must be held with a broker in a margin account. See: Margin call. Minimum price fluctuation Smallest increment of price movement possible in trading a given contract. Also called point or tick. Minimum purchases For mutual funds, the amount required to open a new account (minimum initial purchase) or to deposit into an existing account (minimum additional purchase). These minimums may be reduced for buyers participating in an automatic purchase plan Minimum-variance frontier Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given portfolio expected return. Minimum-variance portfolio The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance. Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for financial reporting purposes. Minus The symbol (-) that precedes the change figure in a stock table to indicate a closing sale lower than that of the previous day. Minus tick See: Downtick Misery index An index that sums the unemployment and inflation rates, used as a political rating or measure of consumer confidence. Mismatch bond Floating-rate note whose interest rate is reset at more frequent intervals than the rollover period (e.g., a note whose payments are set quarterly on the basis of the one-year interest rate). Miss the price/market Used for listed equity securities. (1) Have an order in hand but fail to execute a transaction on terms favorable to a customer and, thus, be negligent as a broker; (2) receive an order just after a print has transpired. Mixed account A brokerage account holding both long and short positioned securities. Mixed bag Used in the context of general equities. Group of stocks including some that are up, some down, and some neutral. Mob spread The yield spread between a tax-free municipal bond and a Treasury bond with the same maturity. Mock trading The simulated trading of securities used as a learning device in training investors and brokers. Modeling The process of creating a depiction of reality, such as a graph, picture, or mathematical representation. Modern portfolio theory Principles underlying the analysis and evaluation of rational portfolio choices based on risk-return trade-offs and efficient diversification. Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) A 1986 act that set out rules for the depreciation of qualifying assets, allowing for greater acceleration over longer periods of time. Modified duration The ratio of Macaulay duration to (1 + y), where y = the bond yield. Modified duration is inversely related to the approximate percentage change in price for a given change in yield. Modified pass-throughs Agency pass-throughs that guarantee (1) timely interest payments and (2) principal payments as collected, but no later than a specified time after they are due. Related: Fully modified pass-throughs. Modigliani and Miller Proposition I A proposition by Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller that states that a firm cannot change the total value of its outstanding securities by changing its capital structure proportions. Also called the irrelevance proposition. Modigliani and Miller Proposition II A proposition by Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller that states that the cost of equity is a linear function of the firm's debt/equity-ratio. Momentum The amount of acceleration of an economic, price, or volume movement. A trader who follows a movement strategy will purchase stocks that have recently risen in price. Momentum indicators Indicators used in market analysis to quantify the momentum of upward and downward price movements. M-1, M-2, and M-3 See: Money supply MONEP (Marche des Options Negociables de Paris) A subsidiary of the Paris Bourse that trades stock and index options. Monetarist An economist who believes that changes in the money supply are the most important determinants of economic activity and economic cycles. Monetary gold Gold held by government authorities as a financial asset. Monetary indicators Economic indicators of the effects of monetary policy, such as the condition of the credit market. Monetary/nonmonetary method Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are represented at the current rate, while nonmonetary items (e.g., inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are represented at historical rates. Monetary policy Actions taken by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to influence the money supply or interest rates. Monetize the debt Financing the national debt by printing new money, which causes inflation as a result of a larger money supply. Money Currency and coin that are guaranteed as legal tender by the government. Money base Composed of currency and coins outside the banking system plus liabilities to the deposit money banks. Money center banks Banks that raise most of their funds from the domestic and international money markets, relying less on depositors for funds. Money management Related: Investment management Money manager Related: Investment manager Money market Money markets are for borrowing and lending money for three years or less. The securities in a money market can be U.S. government bonds, Treasury bills and commercial paper from banks and companies. Money market demand account (MMDA) An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates. Money market fund A mutual fund that invests only in short-term securities, such as banker's acceptances, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, and government bills. The net asset value per share is maintained at $1.00. Such funds are not federally insured, although the portfolio may consist of guaranteed securities or the fund may have private insurance protection. Money market hedge The use of borrowing and lending transactions in foreign currencies to lock in the home currency value of a foreign currency transaction. Money market notes Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and mortgage backed securities (MBS). Money order A financial instrument backed by a deposit at a certain firm such as a bank that can be easily converted into cash. Money purchase plan A defined benefit contribution plan in which the participant contributes some part and the firm contributes at the same or a different rate. Also called an individual account plan. Money rate of return Annual money return as a percentage of asset value. Money supply M1-A: Currency plus demand deposits. M1-B: M1-A plus other checkable deposits. M2: M1-B plus overnight repos, money market funds, savings, and small (less than $100M) time deposits. M3: M-2 plus large time deposits and term repos. L: M-3 plus other liquid assets. Monitor To seek information about an agent's behavior; a mechanism that provides such information. Monopoly Market characterized by absolute control of all sales and distribution in the market by one firm, due to some barrier to entry of other firms, allowing the firm to sell at a higher price than the societally optimal price. Monopsony Market characterized by the existence of only one buyer in a market, forcing sellers to accept a lower price than the societally optimal price. Monte Carlo simulation An analytical technique for solving a problem by performing a large number of trail runs, called simulations, and deducing a solution from the collective results of the trial runs. Method for calculating the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Monthly income preferred security (MIP) Preferred stock issued by a subsidiary located in a tax haven. The subsidiary relends the money to the parent. Monthly investment plan A plan in which a certain amount is invested each month in order to benefit from dollar cost averaging. Montreal Exchange/Bourse de Montreal The oldest stock exchange in Canada trading stocks, bonds, futures, and options. The Canadian Market Portfolio Index (XXM) tracks the market performance of the 25 highest-capitalization stocks traded on at least two Canadian exchanges. Moody's investment grade A rating of one through four assigned by Moody's Investor Service to municipal short-term bonds. Moody's Investors Service A security and bond rating agency publishing bond manuals and a common stock handbook annually. Moral hazard The risk that the existence of a contract will change the behavior of one or both parties to the contract, e.g., an insured firm will take fewer fire precautions. Moral obligation bond A tax-exempt bond issued by a municipality or a state financial intermediary that is backed by the moral, but not legal, obligation of a state government to appropriate funds in case of default. "More behind it" Used in the context of general equities. More stock exists to be bought or sold by the same buyer or seller, respectively. Often, the buyer or seller does not disclose the full size of its buy or sell interest as not to affect the market adversely. See: May expand. Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) Publisher of a number of well-known benchmarks, such as the MSCI World Index. Morningstar Rating System A proprietary ranking of mutual funds and annuities issued by Morningstar Inc. of Chicago. Mortality tables Tables of probability that individuals of various ages will die within one year. Mortgage A loan secured by the collateral of some specified real estate property that obliges the borrower to make a predetermined series of payments. Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) Investment instruments backed by a pool of mortgage loans. Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation (MBSCC) A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed MBS transacted for forward delivery. Mortgage banker A company or individual that originates mortgage loans and sells them to investors, while taking care of borrowers' loan payments, records, taxes, and insurance. Mortgage bond A bond whose issuer has granted bondholders a lien against pledged assets. See: Collateral trust bonds. Mortgage broker A company or individual that places mortgage loans with lenders, but does not originate or service loans like a mortgage banker. Mortgage duration A modification of standard duration to account for the impact on duration of MBS of changes in prepayment speed resulting from changes in interest rates. Mortgage interest deduction A federal tax deduction for interest paid on a mortgage used to acquire, construct, or improve a residence. Mortgage life insurance A life insurance policy that pays off the remaining balance of the insured person's mortgage at death. Mortgage pass-through security Also called a pass-through, a security created when one or more mortgage holders form a collection (pool) of mortgages and sells shares or participation certificates in the pool. The cash flow from the collateral pool is "passed through" to the securityholder as monthly payments of principal, interest, and prepayments. This is the predominant type of MBS traded in the secondary market. Mortgage pipeline The period from the taking of applications from prospective mortgage borrowers to the marketing of the loans. Mortgage pipeline risk The risk associated with taking applications from prospective mortgage borrowers who may opt to decline to accept a quoted mortgage rate within a certain grace period. Mortgage pool A group of mortgages with similar class, interest rate, and maturity characteristics. Mortgage rate The interest rate on a mortgage loan. Mortgage REIT An REIT that invests in loans secured by real estate that derives income from mortgage interest and fees. Mortgage servicing The collection of monthly payments and penalties, record keeping, payment of insurance and taxes, and possible settlement of default, involved with a mortgage loan. Mortgagee The lender of a loan secured by property. Mortgager The borrower of a loan secured by property. Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICEX) Established in 1992, the most liquid and best organized financial exchange in Russia. Most active list The stocks with the highest volume of trading on a certain day. Most distant futures contract When several futures contracts are considered, the contract settling last. Related: Nearby futures contract. Moving average Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices constructed in a period as short as a few days or as long as several years, and showing trends for the latest interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted. MTN Medium-term notes issued by corporations, much like shorter-term commercial paper. MUD A municipal utility district, which is a political subdivision that administers utility-related services, sometimes requiring the issue of special assessment bonds. Multicurrency clause An agreement in the case of a Euro loan that permits the borrower to switch from one currency to another currency on a rollover date. Multicurrency loans Give the borrower the flexibility of drawing a loan in different currencies. Multifactor CAPM A version of the capital asset pricing model derived by Robert Merton that includes extra-market sources of risk referred to as factors. Related: Arbitrage pricing theory. Multifamily loans Loans usually represented by conventional mortgages on multifamily rental apartments. Multinational corporation (MNC) A firm that operates in more than one country. Multioption financing facility A syndicated confirmed credit line with attached options. Multiperiod immunization Creating a portfolio that will be capable of satisfying more than one predetermined future liability regardless of interest rate changes. Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA) Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the basis of their observed characteristics. Multiple-issuer pools Under the GNMA-II program, pools formed through the aggregation of individual issuers' loan packages. Multiple listing An agreement used by a broker who is a member of a multiple-listing organization, providing the exclusive right to sell, with the additional authority and obligation to distribute the listing to the other brokers in a multiple listing organization. Multiple peril insurance Insurance policy that covers a wide variety of property damage. Multiple rates of return More than one rate of return from the same project that makes the net present value of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a different rate of return. Multiple regression The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. Multiples Another name for price-earnings ratios. Multiplier In the case of an investment a factor that quantifies the overall effects of investment spending on total income. In the case of deposit, a factor that shows the effects of a change in bank deposits on the total amount of outstanding credit and the money supply. Multirule system A technical trading strategy that combines mechanical rules, such as the CRISMA (cumulative volume, relative strength, moving average) with other trading systems. Municipal bond Represents borrowing by state or local governments to pay for special projects such as highways or sewers. The interest that investors receive is exempt from some income taxes. Municipal bond insurance An insurance policy that guarantees payment on municipal bonds in the event the issuer defaults. Municipal improvement certificate A certificate used to finance local government projects and services that are financed by a special tax assessment. Its interest is tax-free. Municipal Investment Trust (MIT) A unit investment trust that buys municipal bonds and usually holds them until maturity, passing the bond income on to shareholders, usually tax-free. Municipal notes Short-term notes issued by municipalities in anticipation of tax receipts, proceeds from a bond issue, or other revenues. Municipal revenue bond A bond issued to finance a public project that is funded by receipts from the project's operation. Mutilated security A certificate on which the name of the issue, the issuer, or some other identifying detail cannot be read. Mutual association A savings and loan association organized as a cooperative. Members purchase shares, vote on association affairs, and receive income in the form of dividends. Mutual company A corporation that is owned by a group of members and that distributes income in proportion to the amount of business that members do with the company. Mutual exclusion doctrine The tenet that rules municipal bond interest is federal tax-free. In return for this federal tax exemption, states and localities cannot tax interest generated by federal government securities. Mutual fund Mutual funds are pools of money that are managed by an investment company and regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940. They offer investors a variety of goals, depending on the fund and its investment charter. Some funds seek to generate income on a regular basis. Others seek to preserve an investor's money. Still others seek to invest in companies that are growing at a rapid pace. Funds can impose a sales charge, or load, on investors when they buy or sell shares. No-load funds impose no sales charge. Related: Open-end fund, closed-end fund. Mutual fund cash-to-assets ratio The cash instruments portion of a mutual fund as a proportion of its total assets. Mutual fund custodian A commercial bank or trust company that holds securities owned by a mutual fund and sometimes acts as transfer agent for the mutual fund. Mutual fund theorem A result associated with the CAPM, asserting that investors will choose to invest their entire risky portfolio in a market index or mutual fund. Mutual offset A system, such as the arrangement between the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) and Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX), that allows trading positions established on one exchange to be offset or transferred on another exchange. Mutual savings bank A state-chartered savings bank that is owned by its depositors and managed by a fiduciary board of trustees. Mutually exclusive investment decisions Investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects. N Fifth letter in a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the issue is the company's third class of preferred shares. NASD See: National Association of Securities Dealers Nasdaq See: National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System NAV See: Net asset value NFA See: National Futures Association NMS See: National Market System NIF See: Note issuance facility NOW See: Negotiable Order of Withdrawal NPV See: Net present value NYSE See: New York Stock Exchange Naive diversification A strategy whereby an investor simply invests in a number of different assets in the hope that the variance of the expected return on the portfolio is lowered. In contrast, mathematical programming can be used to select the best possible investment weights. Related: Markowitz diversification. Naked option strategies An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Short call strategy (selling or writing call options), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the underlying security. Related: Covered option strategies. Antithesis of covered option. Naked strategies Writing an option without owning the underlying asset. Holder is naked because holder may have agreed to sell something not owned. Named perils insurance An insurance policy that names specific risks covered by the policy. NASD form FR-1 A form required by the NASD of foreign dealers to ensure that firms participating in a new distribution of securities make a bona fide public offering. Narrow market An inactive market, which displays large fluctuations in prices due to a low volume of trading. Narrowing the spread Reducing the difference between the bid and ask prices of a security. Nasdaq small-capitalization companies A group of 2000 companies with relatively small capitalization, which are listed separately and have at least two market makers. Nasdaq stock market The first electronic stock market listing over 5000 companies. The Nasdaq stock market comprises two separate markets, namely the Nasdaq National Market, which trades large, active securities and the Nasdaq Smallcap Market that trades emerging growth companies. National Association of Investors Corporation A Michigan-based association that helps groups establish investment clubs. National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) Nonprofit organization formed under the joint sponsorship of the investment bankers' conference and the SEC to comply with the Maloney Act, which provides for the regulation of the OTC market. National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System (Nasdaq) An electronic quotation system that provides price quotations to market participants about the more actively traded common stock issues in the OTC market. About 4000 common stock issues are included in the Nasdaq system. National bank A commercial bank approved by the U.S. Comptroller of the Currency, which is required to be a member of and purchase stocks in the Federal Reserve System. National Credit Union Administration Federal agency that oversees and insures the federal credit union system, and is funded by its members. National debt Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and other debt obligations that constitute the debt owed by the federal government. National Foundation for Consumer Credit A nonprofit organization that seeks to help consumers who have taken on too much debt by helping them work out payment plans and supplying credit counseling. National Futures Association (NFA) The futures industry self-regulatory organization established in 1982. National market Related: Internal market National Market Advisory Board Group that advises the SEC on establishing a national exchange market system, which is a highly automated, continuous national exchange, but that preserves the regional exchanges. National Market System (NMS) Refers to over-the-counter trading. System of trading OTC stocks under the sponsorship of the NASD. Must meet certain criteria for size, profitability and trading activity. More comprehensive information is available for N.M.S. stocks than for non-N.M.S. stocks traded OTC (high, low, and last-sale prices, cumulative volume figures, and bid and ask quotations throughout the day). This is due to the fact that market makers must report the actual price and number of shares in each transaction within 90 seconds verses nonreal-time reporting for non-NMS stocks (thus, last sale prices and minute-to-minute volume updates are not possible). National Quotation Bureau A service that publishes bid and offer quotes from market makers in OTC transactions. National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC) A clearing corporation that facilitates the settlement of accounts among brokerage firms, exchanges, and other clearing corporations. National Stock Exchange (NSE) Second-largest stock exchange based in India. Nationalization A government takeover of a private company. Natural Used in the context of general equities. Customer buyer or seller, versus a principal or profile interest. Legitimate, real. Natural logarithm Logarithm to the base e (approximately 2.7183). Near money Assets that are easily convertible into cash, such as money market accounts and bank deposits. Nearby The nearest active trading month of a financial or commodity futures market. Related: Deferred futures. Nearby futures contract When several futures contracts are considered, the contract with the closest settlement date is called the nearby futures contract. The next (or the "next out") futures contract is the one that settles just after the nearby futures contract. The contract farthest away in time from settlement is called the most distant futures contract. Nearest month The expiration date of an option or future that is closest to the present. "Need the tick" Used for listed equity securities. A stock must trade up/down at least one tick (1/8) in order to comply with regulations governing short sales/corporate repurchases. Negative amortization A loan repayment schedule in which the outstanding principal balance of the loan increases, rather than amortizing, because the scheduled monthly payments do not cover the full amount required to amortize the loan. The unpaid interest is added to the outstanding principal, to be repaid later. Negative carry Related: Net financing cost Negative cash flow Occurs when spending in a business is greater than earnings. Negative convexity A bond characteristic such that the price appreciation will be less than the price depreciation for a large change in yield of a given number of basis points. For example, a fixed-rate mortgage may lose value as rates go down because of prepayments. Negative covenant A bond covenant that limits or prohibits certain actions unless the bondholders agree. Negative duration Occurs when the price of an MBS moves in the same direction as interest rates. Negative income tax A proposal to assist taxpayer with below-subsistence-level incomes. After filing a tax return, such persons would receive a subsidy to bring them up above the poverty level. Negative pledge clause A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders. Negative working capital Occurs when current liabilities exceed current assets, which can lead to bankruptcy. Negative yield curve When the yield on a short-term security is higher than the yield on a long-term security, partially because high interest rates are creating a greater demand for short-term borrowing. Neglected firm effect The tendency of firms that are neglected by security analysts to outperform firms that are the subject of considerable attention. Negotiable A security whose title is transferable by delivery . See also: Negotiable instrument. Negotiable instrument An unconditional order or promise to pay some amount of money, easily transferable from one party to another. Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) Demand deposits that pay interest. Negotiated certificate of deposit A large-denomination CD, generally $1MM or more, that can be sold but cannot be cashed in before maturity. Negotiated commission An unfixed broker's commission that is determined through negotiation, depending on the specifics of the trades performed. Negotiated markets Markets in which each transaction is separately negotiated between buyer and seller (i.e., an investor and a dealer). Negotiated offering An offering of securities for which the terms, including underwriters' compensation, have been negotiated between the issuer and the underwriters. Negotiated sale Determining the terms of an offering by negotiation between the issuer and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups. Negotiated underwriting A securities offering process in which the purchase price paid to the issuer and the public offering price are determined by negotiation rather than through competitive bidding. NEO Abbreviation for nonequity options, which are options contracts on foreign currencies, debt issues, commodities, and stock indexes. Net The gain or loss on a security sale as measured by the selling price of a security less the adjusted cost of acquisition. Net adjusted present value The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment. Net advantage to leasing The net present value of entering into a lease financing arrangement rather than borrowing the necessary funds and buying the asset. Net advantage to merging The difference in total post- and pre-merger market value minus the cost of the merger. Net advantage of refunding The net present value of the savings from a refunding. Net after-tax gain Capital gain after income taxes have been paid. Net asset value (NAV) The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed-end fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value. Net assets The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized long-term liabilities on the other hand. Net benefit to leverage factor A linear approximation of a number, that enables one to operationalize the total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure. Net book value The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any accounting adjustments such as depreciation. Net capital requirement SEC requirement that member firms and nonmember securities broker-dealers maintain a maximum ratio of indebtedness to liquid capital of 15 to 1. Net cash balance Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements. Net change This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade. Net current assets The difference between current assets and current liabilities, also known as working capital. Net errors and omissions In balance of payments accounting, net errors and omissions record the statistical discrepancies that arise in gathering balance of payments data. Net financing cost Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned. Net float Sum of disbursement float and collection float. Net income The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business, depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses. Net income per share of common stock See: Earnings per share Net interest cost (NIC) The total amount of interest that will be paid on a debt obligation by a corporate or municipal bond issuer. Net investment Gross, or total, investment minus depreciation. Net investment income per share Income received by an investment company from dividends and interest on investments less administrative expenses, divided by the number of outstanding shares. Net lease A lease arrangement under which the lessee is responsible for all property taxes, maintenance expenses, insurance, and other costs associated with keeping the asset in good working condition. Net operating losses Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes. Net operating margin The ratio of net operating income to net sales. Net parity Antithesis of gross parity. Convertibles: Price of a convertible security including accrued interest. International: Price of international security including commissions, fees, stamp duty, and other transaction costs, translated into U.S. dollar amounts. Net period The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due. Net position The value of the position subtracting the initial cost of setting up the position. For example, if 100 options where purchased for $1 each and the option is currently trading for $9, the value of the net position is $900 - $100 = $800. Net present value (NPV) The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost. Net proceeds Amount received from the sale of an asset after deducting all transaction costs. Net present value of future investments The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from all of the firm's future investments. Net present value of growth opportunities A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new investment opportunities is explicitly examined. Net present value rule An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV Projects with negative NPVs should be rejected. Net profit margin Net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses have been paid. Net quick assets Cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable less current liabilities. Net realized capital gains per share Capital gains realized by an investment company minus any capital losses divided by the total number of the company's outstanding shares. Net sales Gross sales less returns and allowances, freight out, and cash discounts allowed. Net sales transaction Refers to over-the-counter trading. Securities deal in which the quoted prices include commissions (i.e., OTC); looked at another way, the buyer and seller do not pay fees or commissions in addition to the print or quotation prices. Net salvage value The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project. Net tangible assets per share All of a company's assets except patents, trademarks, and other intangible assets minus all liabilities and the par value of preferred stock, divided by the number of shares outstanding. Net transaction A securities transaction in which no commissions or extra fees are paid, such as in an initial public offering. Net working capital Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital. Net worth Common stockholders' equity which consists of common stock, surplus, and retained earnings. Net yield The rate of return on a security minus purchase costs, commissions, or markups. Netting Reducing transfers of funds between subsidiaries or separate companies to a net amount. Netting out To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit. Network A/Network B See: Consolidated tape Neutral hedge Hedge that is expected to yield a dollar-neutral result of the combined position, regardless of price change in any part of the hedge securities. For any convertible trading at a premium, this ratio is less than 100%. The higher the convertible premium, the lower a ratio must be to be neutral. See: Delta. Neutral period In the Euromarket, a period over which Eurodollars are sold is said to be neutral if it does not start or end on either a Friday or the day before a holiday. New account report A broker's document including information about a new client. See: Know your customer. New high/new low A stock valued at its highest or lowest price in the last year. New issue Securities that are publicly offered for the first time, whether in an IPO or as an additional issue of stocks or bonds by a company that is already public. New-issues market The market in which a new issue of securities is first sold to investors. This is not a separate market but refers to a niche of the overall market. New listing A security that has just been entered on a stock or bond exchange for trading. New money In a Treasury auction, the amount by which the par value of the securities offered exceeds that of those maturing. New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE) Commodities exchange in New York trading futures and options on cotton, frozen concentrated orange juice, and potatoes, as well as interest rate, currency, and index futures and options. New York Futures Exchange (NYFE) A wholly owned subsidiary of the NYSE that trades futures and futures options on the NYSE composite index. New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) The world's largest physical commodity futures exchange. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Also known as the Big Board or the Exchange. NYSE composite index Composite index covering price movements of all new world common stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange. It is based on the close of the market on December 31, 1965, at a level of 50.00, and is weighted according to the number of shares listed for each issue. Print changes in the index are converted to dollars and cents so as to provide a meaningful measure of changes in the average price of listed stocks. The composite index is supplemented by separate indexes for four industry groups: industrial, transportation, utility, and finance. New Zealand Stock Exchange Automated, screen-based national trading system based in Wellington. "News out" Refers to over-the-counter trading. A news story concerning the stock being considered has recently been posted on one of the news services, such as the Dow Jones News Service or Reuters. A courtesy standard in trading is to mention that "news is out," in case the other party is unaware of the new development. Next day settlement Transaction in which the contract is settled the day after the trade is executed. See: Settlement date. Next futures contract The contract settling immediately after the nearby futures contract. Nexus (of contracts) A set or collection of something. NICs Newly Industrialized Countries, which are countries with high-growth industrial economies, such as Hong Kong and Malaysia. Nifty Fifty Institutional investor' 50 most popular stocks. Nikkei stock average Applies mainly to international equities. Price-weighted average of 225 stocks of the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange started on May 16, 1949. Japanese equivalent of the U.S. Dow. Nine-bond rule An NYSE rule requiring that orders for nine bonds or fewer stay on the floor for one hour to seek a market. 19c3 stock A stock listed on a national securities exchange after April 26, 1979, that is exempt from the Securities and Exchange Commission rule that prohibits exchange members from participating in off-board trading. No-action letter A letter from the Securities and Exchange Commission agreeing that the commission will take no civil or criminal action against a party, regarding a specific activity. "No Autex" Used in the context of general equities. "No buy or sell interest should be entered into the Autex (advertising) system." Inquirers do not want exposure of an inquiry to affect the price at which they hope to ultimately transact the trade, hence disturbing the customer's picture. No book Used for listed equity securities. Not much, if any, stock is being bid for or offered at the present time by customers or the specialist. No-brainer A market in which it does not take very complex analysis to figure out how securities are going to perform, such as a strong bull market. No-load fund A mutual fund that does not impose a sales commission. Related: Load fund, no-load mutual fund. No-load mutual fund An open-end investment company whose shares are sold without a sales charge. There can be other distribution charges, however, such as Article 12B-1 fees. A true no-load fund has neither a sales charge nor a distribution fee. No-load stock Shares that can be purchased from the issuing companies themselves, so that broker fees and commissions can be avoided. NM Abbreviation for "not meaningful". NOB spread Notes over bonds spread. This is the difference in yield between Treasury notes (maturing in 2 to 10 years) and Treasury bonds (maturing in 15 or more years), which is traded using Treasury note and bond futures. Noise Price and volume fluctuations that can confuse interpretation of market direction. Used in the context of general equities. Stock market activity caused by program trades, dividend rolls, and other phenomena not reflective of general sentiment. Antithesis of real. No-par-value stock A stock with no par value given in the charter or stock certificate. Nominal In name only. Differences in compounding cause the nominal rate to differ from the effective interest rate. Inflation causes the purchasing power of money to differ from one time to another. Nominal annual rate An effective rate per period multiplied by the number of periods in a year. Same as annual percentage rate. Nominal cash flow A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given. Nominal dollars Dollars that are not adjusted for inflation. Nominal exchange rate The actual foreign exchange quotation in contrast to the real exchange rate, which has been adjusted for changes in purchasing power. Nominal exercise price The exercise price of a GNMA option contract, which equals the unpaid principal balance multiplied by the adjusted exercise price. Nominal income Income that has not been adjusted for inflation and decreasing purchasing power. Nominal interest rate The interest rate unadjusted for inflation. Nominal price Price quotations on futures for a period in which no actual trading took place. Nominal quotation Used in the context of general equities. Bid and offer prices given by a market maker for the purpose of valuation, not as an invitation to trade; must be specifically identified as such by prefixing the quotes FYI (for your information) or FVO (for valuation only). Nominal yield The income received from a fixed income security in one year divided by its par value. See also: Coupon rate. Nominee A person or firm to whom securities or other properties are transferred to facilitate transactions, while leaving the customer as the actual owner. Nonaccredited investor Wealthy, sophisticated investors who do not meet SEC net worth requirements. These investors require less protection because of large financial resources, but only 35 nonaccredited investor can be included per investment. Noncallable A preferred stock or bond that cannot be redeemed whenever desired by the issuer. Noncash charge A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow. Nonclearing member An exchange member firm that is not able to clear transactions, and must pay another member firm to carry out its clearing operations. Noncompete A provision in a number of employment contracts that prohibits an employee from working for a competing firm for a specified number of years after the employee leaves the firm. Noncompetitive bid In a Treasury auction, bidding for a specific amount of securities at the price, whatever it may turn out to be, equal to the average price of the accepted competitive bids. Noncontributory pension plan A pension plan that is fully paid for by the employer, requiring no employee contributions. Noncumulative Applies mainly to convertible securities. Type of preferred stock on which unpaid or omitted dividends do not accrue. Omitted dividends are, as a rule, gone forever. Noncumulative preferred stock Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the company misses a dividend payment. Related: Cumulative preferred stock. Noncurrent asset Any asset that is expected to be held for the whole year, not sold or exchanged, such as real estate, machinery, or a patent. Noncurrent liability A liability due in one year. Nondiscretionary trust A personal trust whose trustee has no discretion in deciding how income will be distributed to the beneficiary. Nondiversifiability of human capital The difficulty of hedging one's human capital (the unique capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort. Nondiversifiable risk Risk that cannot be eliminated by having a large portfolio of many assets. Nonfinancial assets Physical assets such as real estate and machinery. Nonfinancial services Such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel. Noninsured plans Defined benefit pension plans that are not guaranteed by life insurance products. Related: Insured plans. Noninterest-bearing note A note without periodic interest payment, but selling at a discount and maturing at face value. See: Zero-coupon bond. Nonmarketed claims Claims that cannot be easily bought and sold in the financial markets, such as those of the government and litigants in lawsuits. Nonmember firm Used for listed equity securities. Brokerage firm that is not a member of an organized exchange (NYSE). Such firms execute trades either through member firms, or on regional exchanges where they are members, or in the third market. Nonparallel shift in the yield curve A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve. Nonparticipating life insurance policy Life insurance policy whose policyholders do not receive dividends, because they are not participants in the interest, dividends, and capital gains earned by the insurer on premiums paid. Nonperforming asset An asset that is not effectively producing income, such as an overdue loan. Nonproductive loan A loan that increases spending power, but is used in business that does not directly increase the economy's output, such as a leveraged buyout loan. Nonpublic information Information about a company that is not known by the general public, which will have a definite impact on the stock price when released. See: Insider trading. Nonpurpose loan A loan with securities pledged as collateral, but which is not to be used in securities trading or transactions. Nonqualifying annuity An annuity that does not fall under an IRS-approved pension plan. Contributions are made with after-tax dollars, but earnings can accumulate tax-deferred until withdrawal. Nonqualifying stock option An employee stock option that does not satisfy IRS qualifying rules and therefore is liable for taxation upon exercise . Nonrated A bond that has not been rated by a large rating agency, usually because the issue is too small. Nonrecourse In the case of default, the lender has ability to claim assets over and above what the limited partners contributed. Nonrecourse loan A loan taken by limited partners used to finance their portion of the partnership, which is secured by their ownership in the venture. Nonrecurring charge A one-time expense or credit shown in a company's financial statement. Nonredeemable Not permitted, under the terms of an indenture, to be redeemed. Nonrefundable Not permitted, under the terms of an indenture, to be refundable. Nonreproducible assets A tangible asset with unique physical properties, like a parcel of land, a mine, or a work of art. Nonsystematic risk Nonmarket or firm-specific risk factors that can be eliminated by diversification. Also called unique risk or diversifiable risk. Systematic risk refers to risk factors common to the entire economy. Nontradables Goods and services produced and consumed domestically that are not close substitutes to import or export goods and services. Nonvoting stock A security that does not entitle the holder to vote on the corporation's resolutions or elections. Normal annuity form The manner in which retirement benefits are paid out. Normal backwardation theory Holds that the futures price will be bid down to a level below the expected spot price. Normal deviate Related: Standardized value Normal investment practice The investment history of a customer, which is used as a benchmark to test the bona fide public offerings requirement of the allocation of a hot issue. Normal Market Size (NMS) A system that categorizes the size of transactions that are normal for a particular security and forces market makers to deal within these sizes. Normal portfolio A customized benchmark that includes all the securities from which a manager normally chooses, weighted as the manager would weight them in a portfolio. Normal probability distribution A probability distribution for a continuous random variable that forms a symmetrical bell-shaped curve around the mean. This distribution has no skewness or excess kurtosis. Normal random variable A random variable that has a normal probability distribution. Normal retirement The age or number of working years after which a pension plan beneficiary can retire and receive unreduced benefits immediately. Normal trading unit See: Round lot. Normalized earnings Earnings that have been adjusted in order to take into account the effect of cycles in the economy. Normalizing method Making a change in the income account equivalent to the tax savings realized through the use of different depreciation methods for shareholder and income tax purposes, thus washing out the benefits of the tax savings reported as final net income to shareholders. Not a name with us Refers to over-the-counter trading. Not a registered market maker in the security, especially in OTC and convertibles, or having nothing real to do. Not-for-profit An organization established for charitable, humanitarian, or educational purposes that is exempt from some taxes and in which no one in profits or losses. Not rated A rating service indicator, neither positive nor negative, showing that a security or company has not been rated. Not-sufficient-funds check A bank check having insufficient funds to back it. Not held order (NH order) Applies mainly to international equities. Market or limit order in which the customer does not desire to transact automatically at the inside market (market held) but instead has given the trader or floor broker (listed stock) time and price discretion in transacting on a best-efforts basis. This will not hold the broker responsible for missing the price within the limits (limit not held) or obtaining a worse price (market not held). The order is marked "not held, disregard tape/DRT, take time" or bears any such qualifying notation, excluding "or better." See: Held order. Note Debt instruments with initial maturities longer than one year and shorter than 10 years. Note agreement A contract for privately placed debt. Note issuance facility (NIF) An agreement by which a syndicate of banks indicates a willingness to accept short-term notes from borrowers and resell these notes in the Eurocurrency markets. Notes to the financial statements A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in an annual report that explain and expand on the information in the financial statements. Notice day A day on which notices of intent to deliver pertaining to a specified delivery month may be issued. Related: Delivery notice. Notice of sale A notice advertising a new issue of municipal securities and inviting underwriters to submit competitive bids. Notification date The day the option is either exercised or expires. Notional principal amount In an interest rate swap, the predetermined dollar principal on which the exchanged interest payments are based. Nouveau Marche An equity market unit of the Paris Bourse that deals solely in innovative, high-growth companies. Novation Defeasance whereby the firm's debt is cancelled. NPV profile A graph of NPV as a function of the discount rate. Numismatist Collector of historical coins and currencies. O Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that it is the company's second class of preferred shares. OAS See: Option adjusted spread OCC See: Options Clearing Corporation OID See: Original issue discount debt OPEC See: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Objective (mutual funds) The fund's investment strategy category as stated in the prospectus. There are more than 20 standardized categories. E.g. Aggressive growth, balanced. Obligation A legal responsibility, such as to repay a debt. Obligation bond A municipal bond with a face value greater than the value of the underlying property. The difference is designed to compensate the lender for costs exceeding the mortgage value. Obligor A person who has an obligation to pay off a debt. Odd lot A trading order for less than 100 shares of stock. Compare round lot. Odd-lot dealer A broker who combines odd lots of securities from multiple buy or sell orders into round lots and executes transactions in those round lots. Odd-lot short-sale ratio The percentage of total odd-lot sales that is composed of short sales. Odd-lot theory The theory that profits can be made by making trades contrary to odd-lot trading patterns, since odd-lot investors have poor timing. This theory is no longer popular. OEX index Applies to derivative products. Quotron symbol for the S&P 100 index option. Off-balance-sheet financing Financing that is not shown as a liability on a company's balance sheet. Off-board Used for listed equity securities. Transacted away from a national securities exchange even though the stock itself is listed, such as on the NYSE, and instead of on the OTC market, a regional exchange, or in the third or fourth markets (between customers directly). After 9:30 a.m., if the stock has not opened due to the exchange's discretion, trading can occur elsewhere, but the trader must assume the role of a quasi-specialist in the process. Off-floor order Used for listed equity securities. (1) Order to buy or sell a security that originates off the floor of an exchange; customer orders originating with brokers, as distinguished from orders placed by floor members trading for their own accounts. Exchange rules require that an off-floor order be executed before orders initiated on the floor. Upstairs order. Antithesis of on-floor order; (2) order not handled on the floor but instead upstairs. Offer Indicates a willingness to sell at a given price. Related: Bid. Offer price See: Offer. Offer wanted Used in the context of general equities. Notice by a potential buyer of a security that he or she is looking for supply from a potential seller of the security, often requiring a capital commitment. Antithesis of bid wanted. Offering date Date on which a new set of stocks or bonds will first be sold to the public. Offering memorandum A document that outlines the terms of securities to be offered in a private placement. Offering scale The range of prices offered by the underwriter of a serial bond issue with different maturities. Offerings Often refers to initial public offerings. When a firm goes public and makes an offering of stock to the market. Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) An agency of the U.S. Treasury department responsible for the U.S. savings and loan industry. Official reserves Holdings of gold and foreign currencies by official monetary institutions. Official statement A statement published by an issuer of a new municipal security describing itself and the issue Official unrequited transfers Include a variety of subsidies, military aid, voluntary cancellation of debt, contributions to international organizations, indemnities imposed under peace treaties, technical assistance, taxes, or fines. Offset Elimination of a long or short position by making an opposite transaction. Related: Liquidation. Offshore finance subsidiary A wholly owned affiliate incorporated overseas, usually in a tax haven country, whose function is to issue securities abroad for use in either the parent's domestic or foreign business. "O.K. to cross" Used for listed equity securities. "Legal to cross the buy and sell orders on the exchange floor because transactor is not a principal in the transaction." Old-line factoring Factoring arrangement that provides collection, insurance, and finance for accounts receivable. Oligopoly A Market characterized by a small number of producers who often act together to control the supply of a particular good and its market price. Oligopsony A Market characterized by a small number of large buyers who control all purchases and therefore the market price of a good or service. OM Stockholm AB The derivatives market of Sweden, trading a wide variety of interest rate and bond futures. The exchange trades futures and options on the OMX equity index. Omitted dividend A dividend that was scheduled to be declared, but that is not voted by the board of directors probably because the company is experiencing financial difficulties. Omnibus account An account carried by one futures commission merchant with another futures commission merchant in which the transactions of two or more persons are combined and carried in the name of the originating broker, rather than designated separately. Related: Commission house. On Used in the context of general equities. Conjunction that denotes trade execution /indication, usually during a pre-opening look. "Looks 6 on 6000 shares at opening." See: for/at. On balance Used for listed equity securities. Left over after pairing off other market buy and sell orders, usually before the opening of a stock or market but at times at the close (especially during index expirations). See: Imbalance of orders. On board Used in the context of general equities. Long. On a clean up Used in the context of general equities. Willingness to participate in part of a trade if all of the stock available is spoken for except for the "clean up amount." On the close order A market order that is to be executed as close as possible to the closing price of the day. On-floor order Used for listed equity securities. Security order originating with a member on the floor of an exchange when dealing with his or her own account, versus an upstairs order. Antithesis of off-floor order. On the money Used in the context of general equities. In-line, or at the same price, as the last sale. On the opening order A market order that is to be executed at the price of the first trade of the day. On the print Used in the context of general equities. To participate in a block trade that has already transpired, as if that customer had been part of the trade originally; often used by a new party looking to participate in a trade that has just happened. See: Open on the print. On the run The most recently issued (and typically the most liquid) government bond in a particular maturity range. On the sidelines An investor who decides not to invest due to market uncertainty. On the take Used in the context of general equities. Price moving upward, because more buyers are taking offerings, causing offerings to vanish and be replaced by higher ones. Antithesis of come in, get hit. On the tape Used in the context of general equities. (1) Trade printed on the ticker tape; (2) news displayed on Reuters or the Dow Jones News Service. One-decision stock A quality stock that is not actively traded, but rather held for its growth potential. One-factor APT A special case of the arbitrage pricing theory that is derived from the one-factor model by using diversification and arbitrage. It shows that the expected return on any risky asset is a linear function of a single factor. 144 stock Used in the context of general equities. Restricted stock. One-man picture When both bid and the offered prices of a broker come from the same source. One-share-one-vote rule The principle that all shareholders should have equal voting rights in public companies and each shareholder should have one vote. One-way market (1) A market in which only one side, the bid or asked, is quoted or firm. (2) A market that is moving strongly in one direction. OPD Tape symbol showing either the first transaction of the day in a security after a delayed opening or the opening transaction in a security whose price has experienced a large rise or fall from the previous day's closing price. Open Used in the context of general equities. Having either buy or sell interest at the indicated price level and side of a preceding trade. "Open on the buy/sell sid" means looking for buyers/sellers (for someone who is a seller/buyer). Antithesis of clean. Open account Arrangement whereby sales are made with no formal debt contract. The buyer signs a receipt, and the seller records the sale in the sales ledger. Open book See: Unmatched book Open contracts Contracts that have been bought or sold without completion of the transaction by subsequent sale or purchase, or by making or taking actual delivery of the financial instrument or physical commodity. Open depending on the floor Used for listed equity securities. Having room for a customer buyer or seller contingent on the results of a trade being executed on the floor (i.e., satisfying the specialist book and the orders the trader opened up). See: Open on the print, subject. Open-end credit Revolving line of credit that is extended with every purchase or cash advance. Open-end fund Used in the context of general equities. Mutual fund that continually creates new shares on demand. Mutual fund shareholders buy the funds at net asset value and may redeem them at any time at the prevailing market prices. Antithesis of closed-end fund. Open-end lease A lease agreement that provides for an additional payment at the expiration of the lease to adjust for any change in the value of the property. Open-end mortgage Mortgage against which additional debts may be issued. Related: Closed-end mortgage. Open interest The total number of derivatives contracts traded that have not yet been liquidated either by an offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: Liquidation. Open-market operation Purchase or sale of government securities by the monetary authorities to increase or decrease the domestic money supply. Open-market purchase operation A systematic program of repurchasing shares of stock in market transactions at current market prices, in competition with other prospective investors. Open-market rates Interest rates that are determined in the open market by supply and demand, as opposed to being set by the Federal Reserve Board. Open (good-till-cancelled) order (GTC order) Order to buy or sell a security that stays active until it is completed or the investor cancels it. Open-outcry The method of trading used at futures exchanges, typically involving calling out the specific details of a buy or sell order, so that the information is available to all traders. Open position A net long or short position whose value will change with a change in prices. Open on the print Used in the context of general equities. Block trader's term for a block trade that has been completed with an institutional client and printed on the consolidated tape, but leaves the block trader with stock available (because the trader has taken a long or short position to complete the trade) for new customers who are on the opposite side of the market to the initiating customer. Open repo A repurchase agreement with no definite term. The agreement is made on a day-to-day basis, and either the borrower or the lender may choose to terminate. The rate paid is higher than on overnight repo and is subject to adjustment if rates move. Open up Used in the context of general equities. Disclose more information (e.g., the exact price and quantity of one's potential interest). See: Put pants on it. Opening The period at the beginning of the trading session officially designated by an exchange, during which all transactions are considered made "at the opening." Related: Close. Opening price The range of prices at which the first bids and offers are made or the first transactions are completed on an exchange. Opening purchase Creation of or increase in a long position in a given series of options. Opening sale Creation of or increase in a short position in a given series of options. Opening transaction Applies to derivative products. (1)Buy or sell transaction that creates a position out of a flat one (writing an option short or buying an option long). Antithesis of closing transaction. (2) First transaction of the day in a stock. Operating cash flow Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. Measures the cash generated from operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements. Operating cycle The average time between the acquisition of materials or services and the final cash realization from that acquisition. Operating exposure Degree to which exchange rate changes, in combination with price changes, will alter a company's future operating cash flows. Operating lease Short-term, cancelable lease. A type of lease in which the contact period is shorter than the life of the equipment, and the lessor pays all maintenance and servicing costs. Operating leverage Fixed operating costs, which are characterized as leverage because they accentuate variations in profits. Operating profit (or loss) Revenue from a firm's regular activities less costs and expenses and before income deductions. Operating profit margin The ratio of operating profit to net sales. Operating rate The percentage of total production capacity of a company, industry, or country that is being used. Operating ratio A ratio that measures a firm's operating efficiency. Operating in the red Doing business while losing money. Operating risk The inherent or fundamental risk of a firm, without regard to financial risk. The risk that is created by operating leverage. Also called business risk. Operationally efficient market Market in which investors can obtain transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services. Also called an internally efficient market. Operations department See: Back office. Opinion shopping Attempts by a corporation to attain reporting objectives by following questionable accounting principles, with the help of an auditor willing to sanction the practices. Prohibited by the SEC. OPM Stands for "other people's money," which refers to borrowed funds used to increase the return on invested capital. Oporto Portugal's derivatives exchange (Bolsa de Derivados do Oporto) trading futures on the ten-year government bond, Portuguese stock index, and three-month interbank deposit rate LISBOR (Lisbon Interbank Offered Rate). Opportunity cost of capital Expected return that is forgone by investing in a project rather than in comparable financial securities. Opportunity costs The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. When not all desired trades can be implemented. Most valuable alternative that is given up. Opportunity set The possible expected return and standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be constructed from a given set of assets. Optimal contract The contract that balances the three types of agency costs (contracting, monitoring, and misbehavior) against one another to minimize the total cost. Optimal portfolio An efficient portfolio most preferred by an investor because its risk/reward characteristics approximate the investor's utility function. A portfolio that maximizes an investor's preferences with respect to return and risk. Optimal redemption provision Provision of a bond indenture that governs the issuer's ability to call the bonds for redemption prior to their scheduled maturity date. Optimization approach to indexing An approach to indexing that seeks to optimize some objective, such as to maximize the portfolio yield, to maximize convexity, or to maximize expected total returns. Optimum capacity The amount of manufacturing output that creates the lowest cost per unit. Option Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Buyers of call options bet that a stock will be worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they pay for the option itself. Buyers of put options bet that the stock's price will drop below the price set by the option. An option is part of a class of securities called derivatives, which means these securities derive their value from the worth of an underlying investment. Option account A brokerage account that is approved to hold option positions or trades. Option-adjusted spread (OAS) (1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market prices. (2) The cost of the implied call embedded in an MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread. Option agreement A form that an options investor opening an option account fills out guarantees the investor will follow trading regulations and has the financial resources to settle possible losses. Option cycle The cycle of option expiration months. The most common cycles are: January, April, July, and October (JAJO); February, May, August, and November (FMAN); and March, June, September, and December (MJSD). Option elasticity The percentage increase in an option's value, given a 1 percentage point change in the value of the underlying security. Option holder A person who has an option that has not been exercised. Option margin The margin requirement for options described in Regulation T and in brokers' individual policies. Option mutual fund A mutual fund that buys and sells options for aggressive or conservative investment. Option not to deliver In the mortgage pipeline, an additional hedge placed in tandem with the forward or substitute sale. Option premium The option price. Option price Also called the option premium; the price the buyer of the options contract pays for the right to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future. Option seller Also called the option writer; the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in the future. Option series A group of options on the same underlying security with the same exercise price and maturity month. Option spread The trading of options of the same class at the same time in order to profit from changes in the size of the spread between different options. Option writer See: Option seller Optional dividend A dividends that the shareholder can elect to receive either in cash or in stock. Optional payment bond A bond whose principal and/or interest may be paid in foreign or domestic currency at the discretion of the bondholder. Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) Applies to derivative products. Financial institution that is the actual issuer and guarantor of all listed option contracts. Options contract A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date). Options contract multiple A constant, set at $100, that when multiplied by the cash index value gives the dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is the dollar value of the underlying stock index = Cash index value x $100 (the options contract multiple). Options on physicals Interest rate options written on fixed income securities, as opposed to those written on interest rate futures contracts. Or better Used in the context of general equities. Indication on the order ticket of a limit order to buy or sell securities at a price better than the specified limit price if a better price can be obtained. Does not imply a not-held order, but rather puts more emphasis on executing at the limit if available. Oral contract A contract not recorded on paper or on computer, buy made vocally which is usually enforceable. Order Instruction to a broker/dealer to buy, sell, deliver, or receive securities or commodities that commits the issuer of the "order" to the terms specified. See: indication, inquiry, bid wanted, offer wanted. Order imbalance Orders of one kind for a stock not offset by the opposite orders, which causes a wide spread between bid and offer prices. Order room The brokerage firm department receives and processes all orders to buy and sell securities. Order splitting Breaking up orders so that they can be processed as small orders for execution by SOES. Prohibited by NASD. Order ticket A form detailing an order instruction that a customer gives an account executive. Ordinary income The income derived from the regular operating activities of a firm or individual. Ordinary interest Interest based on a 360-day year instead of a 365-day year, resulting in what can be a significant difference. Ordinary shares Apples mainly to international equities. Shares of non-U.S. companies traded in their individual home markets. Usually cannot be delivered in the U.S. See: ADR. Organization chart A chart showing the hierarchical interrelationships of positions within an organization. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) A cartel of oil-producing countries. Organized exchange A securities marketplace where purchasers and sellers regularly gather to trade securities according to the formal rules adopted by the exchange. Original face value The principal amount of a mortgage as of its issue date. Original issue discount debt (OID debt) Debt that is initially offered at a price below par. Original margin The margin needed to cover a specific new position. Related: Margin, security deposit (initial). Original maturity Maturity at issue. For example, a five-year note has an original maturity of five years; one year later it has a maturity of four years. Origination The making of mortgage loans. Originator A bank, savings and loan, or mortgage banker that initially made a mortgage loan that is part of a pool. Also, an investment bank that has worked with the issuer of a new securities offering from the beginning and is usually appointed manager of the underwriting syndicate. Orphan stock A stock that is ignored by research analysts and as a result may be trading at low price earnings ratios. Oslo Stock Exchange An exchange founded in 1819 and trading stocks, bonds, and stock options that is considered the options market of Norway. OTC Bulletin Board An electronic quotation listing of the bid and asked prices of OTC stocks that do not meet the requirements to be listed on the NASDAQ stock-listing system. OTC margin stock Shares traded over-the-counter that can be used as margin securities under Regulation T. Other capital In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most nonnegotiable instruments of a year or more, like bank loans and mortgages. Other short-term capital includes financial assets that can be liquidated in less than a year such as currency, deposits, and bills. Other current assets Value of noncash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due within one year. Other income Income from activities that are not undertaken in the ordinary course of a firm's business. Other long-term liabilities Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes, and other obligations not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than one year. Other sources Amount of funds generated during the period from operations by sources other than depreciation or deferred taxes. Part of free cash flow calculation. Out Used in the context of general equities. (1) No longer obligated to an order, as it has already been cancelled: (2) advertised on Autex. Out-of-favor industry or stock An unpopular industry or stock that usually has a low price-earnings ratio. Out of line A stock price that is too high or too low in comparison with similar-quality stocks in the same industry, according to its price/earnings ratio. Out-of-the-money option A call option is out of the money if the strike price is greater than the market price of the underlying security. That is, you have the right to purchase a security at a price higher than the market price, which is not valuable. A put option is out of the money if the strike price is lower than the market price of the underlying security. Out of the name Used in the context of general equities. To no longer have an active trading profile/position in the stock. Out of print Not open on the print. See: Clean. Out there Used in the context of general equities. Indication gained from their trading and inquiry activity that buyers and/or (more often) sellers are in the market and should be found to get their order. "Feels like IBM is 'out there'." Out with Used in the context of general equities. Showing of an inquiry to another broker by a customer ("he's out with...."). Outright rate Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa. Outside director A director of a company who is not an employee of that company and brings in outside experience to help make board decisions. Outside market Used in the context of general equities. Outside the inside market (above the lowest offering and below the highest bid). Outside of you Used for listed equity securities. Another order bidding for or offering stock at the same price that the trader has put on the floor himself, represented by another broker in the trading crowd. These orders may have different price limits (possible top or low on floor mentioned to floor broker but not announced in the crowd). See: Matching orders. Outsourcing Purchasing a significant percentage of intermediate components from outside suppliers. Outstanding Used in the context of general equities. Stock held by shareholders (verses the company's treasury stock). Outstanding share capital Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held as the company's treasury stock. Outstanding shares Shares that are currently owned by investors. Over-the-counter (OTC) A decentralized market (as opposed to an exchange market) where geographically dispersed dealers are linked by telephones and computer screens. The market is for securities not listed on a stock or bond exchange. The NASDAQ market is an OTC market for U.S. stocks. Antithesis of listed. Overage Apples mainly to convertible securities. Difference between how much common stock one party must sell and the other wishes to buy for the same amount of convertible in a swap. Overall market price coverage Total assets less intangibles divided by the total of the market value of the security issue and the book value of liabilities and issues having a prior claim. This is used to determine how much of the market value of a certain class of securities would be covered in liquidation. Overbought Used in the context of general equities. Technically too high in price, and hence a technical correction is expected. See: Heavy. Antithesis of oversold. Overbought-oversold indicator An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to reaction. Overdraft Provision of instant credit by a lending institution. Overfunded pension plan A pension plan that has a positive surplus (i.e., assets exceed liabilities). Overhang Used in the context of general equities. Sizable block of securities or commodities contracts that, if released on the market, would put downward pressure on prices; prohibits buying activity that would otherwise translate into upward price movement. Examples include shares held in a dealer's inventory, a large institutional holding, a secondary distribution still in registration, and a large commodity position about to be liquidated. Overhead The expenses of a business that are not attributable directly) the production or sale of goods. Overheating An economy that is growing very quickly, with the risk of high inflation. Overissue An excess of issued shares over authorized shares. Overlap the market Used in the context of general equities. Create a crossed market by expressing a willingness to sell on the bid side of the market and buy on the offer side. Overlapping debt The portion of debt of political subdivisions or neighboring special districts that a municipality is responsible for. Overlay strategy A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the activities of money managers. Overnight delivery risk A risk brought about because differences in time zones between settlement centers require that payment or delivery on one side of a transaction be made without knowing until the next day whether the funds have been received in an account on the other side. Particularly apparent when delivery takes place in Europe for payment in dollars in New York. Overnight position A broker-dealer's position in a security at the end of a trading day. Overnight repo A repurchase agreement with a term of one day. Overperform To appreciate at a rate faster than appreciation of the overall market. Overreaching Used in the context of general equities. Creating artificial volume in a stock through activity not generated by normal/natural buyers and sellers in the market. Overreaction hypothesis The supposition that investors overreact to unanticipated news, resulting in exaggerated movements in stock prices followed by corrections. Overshooting The tendency of a pool of MBS to reflect an especially high rate of prepayments the first time it crosses the threshold for refinancing, especially if two or more years have passed since the date of issue without the weighted average coupon of the pool crossing the refinancing threshold. Oversold Used in the context of general equities. Technically too low in price, and hence a technical correction is expected. Antithesis of overbought. Oversubscribed issue Investors are not able to buy all the shares or bonds they want, so underwriters must allocate the shares or bonds among investors. This occurs when a new issue is underpriced or in great demand because of growth prospects. Oversubscription privilege In a rights issue, arrangement by which shareholders are given the right to apply for any shares that are not taken up. Overtrading Excessive broker trading in a discretionary account. Underwriters persuade brokerage clients to purchase some part of a new issue in return for the purchase by the underwriter of other securities from the clients at a premium. This premium is offset by the underwriting spread. Overvalued A stock price that is seen as too high according to the company's price-earnings ratio, expected earnings, or financial condition. Overwithholding Deducting and paying too much tax that may be refunded to the taxpayer or applied against the next period's obligation. Overwriting A speculative options strategy that involves selling call or put options on stocks that are believed to be overpriced or underpriced; the options are expected not to be exercised. Owner's equity Paid-in capital plus donated capital plus retained earnings less liabilities. P Fifth letter of Nasdaq stock symbol specifying issue is the company's first class of preferred shares. P2P Business slang, usually used in reference to startups or internet startup, refers to "path to profitability." PAC See: Planned amortization class PAC See: Preauthorized checks PAD See: Preauthorized electronic debits PBGC See: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation PC See: Participation certificates. PEFCO See: Private Export Funding Corporation PEG Ratio See: Prospective earnings growth ratio PERC See: Preferred equity redemption stock PERLS Principal Exchange-Rated-Linked Securities PHLX See: Philadelphia Stock Exchange PIBOR See: Paris Interbank Offer Rate PIK See: Payment-in-kind bond PLC See: Project loan certificate PN See: Project notes PO See: Principal only PVBP See: Price value of a basis point PAC Bond Stands for Planned Amortization Class bond. A tranche class offered by some CMOs that has a sinking fund schedule and an ability to make principal payments that are not subordinated to other classes. Pacific Stock Exchange Used for listed equity securities. Regional exchange located in Los Angeles and San Francisco; only U.S. exchange open between 4:00 and 4:30. Pac-Man strategy Takeover defense strategy in which the prospective acquiree retaliates against the acquirer's tender offer by launching its own tender offer for the other firm. Package mortgage A mortgage on a house and property in the house. Paid-in capital Capital received from investors in exchange for stock, but not stock from capital generated from earnings or donated. This account includes capital stock and contributions of stockholders credited to accounts other than capital stock. It would also include surplus resulting from recapitalization. Paid in surplus See: Paid-in capital Paid up When all payments that are due have been made. Paid-up policy A life insurance policy in which all premiums that are due have been paid. Painting the tape Illegal practice by traders who manipulate the market by buying and selling a security to create the illusion of high trading activity and to attract other traders who may push up the price. Paired off Used for listed equity securities. Matched buy and sell market orders, usually pertaining to the pre-opening market picture in a stock, or MOC orders (especially relating to futures/options expirations). Paired shares Stock of two companies under the same management that are sold as one unit with one certificate. Pairoff A buyback to offset and effectively liquidate a prior sale of securities. Panic buying or selling Rapid trading of stocks or bonds in high volume in anticipation of sharply rising or falling prices, usually after unexpected news is released. Paper Money market instruments, commercial paper, and other. Paper dealer A brokerage firm that buys and sells commercial paper to make a profit. Paper gain (loss) Unrealized capital gain (loss) on securities held in a portfolio based on a comparison of current market price to original cost. Par Equal to the nominal or face value of a security. A bond selling at par is worth an amount equivalent to its original issue value or its value upon redemption at maturity-typically $1000/bond. See: Discount, premium. Par bond A bond trading at its face value. Par value Also called the maturity value or face value; the amount that an issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date. Par value of currency The official exchange rate between two countries' currencies. Parallel loan A process whereby two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a specific period of time, and repay the other's currency at an agreed maturity for the purpose of reducing foreign exchange risk. Also referred to as back-to-back loans. Parallel shift in the yield curve A shift in economic conditions in which the change in the interest rate on all maturities is the same number of basis points. In other words, if the three month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one %), then the 6-month, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 20-year, and 30-year rates all increase by 100 basis points as well. Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve. Parameter A model is a combination of variables, such as GDP growth, and coefficients which multiply these variables. The coefficients are often estimated from the data. The coefficients are called parameters. Parent company A company that controls subsidiaries through its ownership of voting stock, as well as runs its own business. Paris Bourse National stock market of France. Paris Interbank Offer Rate (PIBOR) The deposit rate on interbank transactions in the Eurocurrency market quoted in Paris. Parity For convertibles, level at which a convertible security's market price equals the aggregate value of the underlying common stock; value/worth of the convertible bond considered only as an equity instrument (Conversion ratio times common price). See: Conversion value. For international parity, US$ price of a foreign stock's last sale in an overseas market (Local currency stock price times forex rate times ADR ratio). For listed parity, condition whereby no party has floor priority, and matching thus occurs. For options parity, dollar amount by which an option is in the money. See: Intrinsic value. Parity value Related: Conversion value Parking Putting money into safe investments such as money market investments while deciding where to invest the money. Parking violation Often used in risk arbitrage. Illegal holding of stock by a third party, or the financing of such a stock, in which the third party's sole reason for holding the stock is to conceal ownership or control of a raider, thus sidestepping the Williams Act requirements of 5% holding limits. See: Rule 13d. Partial Used in the context of general equities. Trade whose size is only part of the total customer indication/order, usually made to avoid a compromise in price and also to get some business instead of losing the customers inquiry/order to a competitor. "Participate but do not initiate" Used for listed equity securities. "Participate in the side of the market indicated by the order, but do not initiate the interest that causes the trade to take place." This kind of order can cause one to "miss stock" because the broker of investor is at the mercy of the player who does initiate the trade. See: Market order go along, percentage order. Participating buyer/seller Used for listed equity securities. (1) Customer willing to buy/sell in line with market. (2) Buyer/seller who goes along with another buyer/seller in a percentage order. Participating convertible preferred stock Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder. In contrast, to the usual preferred stock, the value of the preferred stock is refunded to the holder. That is, one gets conversion plus the value of the stock. Participating dividend Dividend received from ownership of participating preferred stock. Participating fees The portion of total fees in a syndicated credit that go to the participating banks. Participating GIC A guaranteed investment contract whose policyholder is not guaranteed a crediting rate, but instead receives a return based on the actual experience of the portfolio managed by the life insurance company. Participating life insurance policies Life insurance that pays dividends to policyholders depending on the company's success as provided by few claims and profitable underwritings and investments. Participating preferred stock Preferred stock that provides the holder with a specified dividend plus the right to additional earnings under specified conditions. Participation certificates (PC) Used in the context of general equities. Investments representing an interest in a pool of funds or in other instruments, such as foreign securities, that allow participation in the rise or fall of a security or group of securities. Participation loan A large loan made by a group of lenders, that enables a borrower to obtain financing above the legal lending limit of an individual lender. Partner Business associate who shares equity in a firm. Partnership Shared ownership among two or more individuals, some of whom may, but do not necessarily, have limited liability with respect to obligations of the group. See: General partnership, limited partnership, and master limited partnership. Partnership agreement A written agreement among partners detailing the terms and conditions of participation in a business ownership arrangement. Pass the book The process of transferring responsibility for a brokerage firm's trading account from one office to another around the world in order to benefit from trading 24 hours a day. Pass-through coupon rate The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees. Pass-through rate The net interest rate passed through to investors after deducting servicing, management, and guarantee fees from the gross mortgage coupon. Pass-through securities A pool of fixed income securities backed by a package of assets (i.e., mortgages) where the holder receives the principal and interest payments. Related: Mortgage pass-through security Passive Income or loss from business activities in which a person does not materially participate, such as a limited partnership. Passive Activity Loss (PAL) A loss incurred in participating in passive investing. Passive bond A bond without any interest yield. Passive Income Generator (PIG) An investment that favors passive income, such as an income-oriented real estate limited partnership. Passive investing Putting money into a profitable business opportunity that is deemed passive by the IRS and thus benefits from tax deductions. Passive investment management Buying a well diversified portfolio to represent a broad-based market index without attempting to search out mispriced securities. Passive investment strategy See: Passive investment management. Passive portfolio A market index portfolio. Passive portfolio strategy A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not attempt to find mispriced securities. Related: Active portfolio strategy. Patent The exclusive right to use documented intellectual property in producing or selling a particular product or using a process for a designated period of time. Path-dependent option An option whose value depends on the sequence of prices of the underlying asset rather than just the final price of the asset. Pattern A technical chart formation used to make market predictions by following the price movements of securities. Pay-as-you-go basis A method of paying income tax in which the employer deducts a portion of an employee's monthly salary to remit to the IRS. Pay-to-play Attempts by municipal bond underwriting businesses to gain influence with political officials who decide which underwriters are awarded the municipality's business. Pay-up The loss of cash resulting from a swap into higher-priced bonds or the need/willingness of a bank or other borrower to pay a higher rate of interest to get funds. Used in the context of general equities. (1) When an investor who wants to buy a stock at a particular price hesitates and the stock begins to rise; instead of letting the stock go, he "pays up" to buy the shares at the higher prevailing price. (2) Buy shares in a high-quality company at what is felt to be a high, but supportable, price due to its quality. Payable through drafts A method of making payment that is used to maintain control over payments made on behalf of the firm by personnel in noncentral locations. The payer's bank delivers the payable through draft to the payer, which must approve it and return it to the bank before payment can be received. Payables Related: Accounts payable Payback The length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of a project, without regard to the time value of money. Pay-down In a Treasury refunding, the amount by which the par value of the securities maturing exceeds that of those sold. In the context of general equities, paying a lower price in an accumulation of stock. Antithesis of pay-up. Payee A person receiving payment through any form of money transfer method. Payer The person making a payment to a payee. Paying agent An agent who makes principal and interest payments to bondholders on behalf of the issuer. Payment date The date on which shareholders of record will be sent a check for the declared dividend. Payment float Company-written checks that have not yet cleared. Payment-in-kind (PIK) bond A bond that gives the issuer an option (during an initial period) either to make coupon payments in cash or in the form of additional bonds. Payments netting Reducing fund transfers between affiliates to only a netted amount. Netting can occur on a bilateral basis (between pairs of affiliates), or on a multi-lateral basis (taking all affiliates together). Payments pattern Describes the collection pattern of receivables. The pattern might describe the probability that a 72-day-old account will still be unpaid when it is 73 days-old. Payoff diagram In option pricing, a graph of the value of the option position at expiration as a function of the underlying asset price. Payout ratio Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends. More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period. P-coast Refers to west coast listed equity securities. See: Pacific Stock Exchange. P/E See: Price/earnings ratio P/E effect That portfolios with low P/E stocks exhibit higher average risk-adjusted returns than those with high P/E stocks. Related: Value manager. P/E ratio Current stock price divided by trailing annual earnings per share or expected annual earnings per share. Assume XYZ Co. sells for $25.50 per share and has earned $2.55 per share this year; $25.50 = 10 times $2.55. XYZ stock sells for ten times earnings. Peak The high point at the end of an economic expansion until the start of a contraction. Pecking-order view (of capital structure) The argument that external financing transactions costs, especially those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated funds are the most preferred, followed by new debt, and debt-equity hybrids. Finally, new equity is at the least preferred source. Pegging Making transactions in a security, currency, or commodity in order to stabilize or target its value through market intervention. Penalty clause A clause found in contract agreements that provides for a penalty in the event of default. Pennant A chart pattern resembling a pointed flag, with the point facing to the right, which shows a diminishing variance of price. Penny stock Used in the context of general equities. Stock that typically sells for less than $1 a share, although it may rise to as much as $10/share after the initial public offering, usually because of heavy promotion. All are traded OTC, many of them in the local markets of Denver, Vancouver, or Salt Lake City. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) A federal agency that insures the vested benefits of pension plan participants (established in 1974 by the ERISA legislation). Pension fund A fund set up to pay the pension benefits of a company's workers after retirement. Pension parachute A form of poison pill providing that in the event of a hostile takeover attempt, any excess pension plan assets can be used to benefit pension plan participants. This prevents the raiding firm from using the pension assets to finance the takeover. Pension plan A fund that is established for the payment of retirement benefits. Pension reversion Termination of an overfunded defined benefit pension plan and replacement of it with a life insurance company-sponsored fixed annuity plan. Pension sponsors Organizations that have established a pension plan. Penultimate profit prospect (PPP) The second-lowest-priced of the ten highest-yielding stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average that is said (by authors O'Higgins and Downes) to be the Dow stock with the best possibility of outperforming the average as a whole. People pill A form of poison pill providing that the entire management threatens to resign in the event of a takeover. Per capita debt The total bonded debt of a municipality divided by the population of the municipality. Percent to double Percentage that the stock price has to rise (fall) to double the price of the call (put). Percentage order Used for listed equity securities. Market limited price order to buy/sell a specified percentage (usually 50%) of shares traded (sometimes after a fixed number of shares of the stock have already traded). See: participating buyer/seller, "Participate but do not initiate." Percentage premium Applies mainly to convertible securities. Premium over parity of a convertible bond divided by parity. Perfect capital market A market in which there are never any arbitrage opportunities. Perfect competition An idealized market environment in which every market participant is too small to affect the market price by acting on its own. Perfect hedge A situation in which the profit and loss from the underlying asset and the hedge position are equal. Perfect market view (of capital structure) Analysis of a firm's capital structure decision, which shows the irrelevance of capital structure in a perfect capital market. Perfect market view (of dividend policy) Analysis of a decision on dividend policy, in a perfect capital market environment, that shows the irrelevance of dividend policy. Perfected first lien A first attachment on an asset that is duly recorded with the relevant government body so that the lender will be able to act on it should the borrower default. Perfectly competitive financial markets Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by certain conditions: (1) Trading is costless, and access to the financial markets is free; (2)information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely available; and (3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices. Performance attribution analysis The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer questions such as: (1) What were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was market timing statistically significant? and (4), was security selection statistically significant? Performance bond A surety bond between two parties, insuring one party against loss if the terms of a contract are not fulfilled. Performance evaluation The assessment of a manager's results, which involves, first, determining whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance attribution analysis). Performance fund A growth-oriented mutual fund investing in growth stock and performance stock with low dividends and high risk. Performance measurement Calculation of the return a money manager realizes over some time interval. Performance shares Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings per share and similar criteria. A control device shareholders sometimes use to tie management to the self-interest of shareholders. Performance stock High-growth stock in a company that retains earnings for further growth and therefore pays no dividends, but that an investor feels has significant future potential. Period-certain annuity An annuity that provides guaranteed payments to an annuitant for a specified period of time. Period of digestion The time period of often high volatility after a new issue is released when the trading price of the security is established by the market. Periodic payment plan Accumulation of capital in a mutual fund by making regular payments on a monthly or quarterly basis. Periodic purchase deferred contract A fixed or variable annuity contract for which fixed-amount premiums are paid either monthly or quarterly, and that does not begin paying out until a time elected by the annuitant. Periodic rate The monthly effective interest rate. For example, the periodic rate on a credit card with an 18% annual percentage rate is 1.5% per month. Permanent financing Long-term financing using either debt or equity. Perpendicular spread Option strategy involving the purchase of options with similar expiration dates and different exercise prices. Perpetual bond Nonredeemable bond with no maturity date that pays regular interest rates indefinitely. Perpetual inventory Recordkeeping system in which book inventory is updated daily. Perpetual warrants Warrants that have no expiration date. Perpetuity A constant stream of identical cash flows without end, such as a British consol. Perquisites Personal benefits, including direct benefits, such as the use of a firm car or expense account for personal business, and indirect benefits, such as up-to-date office decoration. Personal article floater Insurance policy attachment designed to cover specified personal valuables. Personal exemption Amount of money a taxpayer can exclude from personal income for each member of the household in calculation of a tax obligation. Personal income Total income received from all sources, including wages, salaries, or rents, and the like. Personal inflation rate The inflation rate as it affects a specific individual. Personal property Any assets other than real estate. Personal tax view (of capital structure) The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage of the double taxation (corporate and personal) of income from equity. Personal trust An interest in an asset held by a trustee for the benefit of another person. Phantom income Income from a limited partnership that creates taxability without generating cash flow. Phantom stock plan An incentive scheme that awards management bonuses based on increases in the market price of the company's stock. Philadelphia Board of Trade (PBOT) A subsidiary of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange that trades currency futures. Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX) A securities exchange trading American and European foreign currency options on spot exchange rates. Philippine Stock Exchange Stock exchange based in the Philippines, which operates two trading floors, at Manila and Makati. Phillips Curve A graph that supposedly shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment. It is conjectured that there is a simple trade-off between inflation and unemployment (high inflation and low unemployment, and low inflation and high unemployment). Named after A.W. Phillips. Obviously, the relation between these important macroeconomic variables is more complicated than this simple graph would suggest. For a modern treatment, see work of Robert Lucas. Phone switching Transferring money between funds in the same mutual fund family by telephone request. There may be a charge associated with these transfers. Phone switching is also possible among different fund families if the funds are held in street name by a participating broker/dealer. Physical commodity See: Commodity Physical verification A procedure auditors use to ensure that inventory recorded in the book is correct by actually checking out the physical inventory. P & I Stands for principal and interest on bonds or mortgage-backed securities. Pickup The gain in yield that occurs when a block of bonds is swapped for another block of higher-coupon bonds. Pickup bond A bond with a relatively high coupon that is close to the date at which it is callable, meaning that a fall in interest rates will most likely cause early redemption of the bond at a premium. Picture Describes bid and asked prices a broker quotes for a given security. Used for listed equity securities. Bid and ask prices and quantity information from a specialist or from a dealer regarding a particular security (i.e., "IBM's 1/4 to 1/2, 5m by 10m"). Piece Apply mainly to convertible securities. Increment of bonds that trade in portions of $1000 minimum. Not all bonds can be traded in "pieces," and the increments can vary. Pie model of capital structure A model of the debt-equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets. Piggyback registration When a securities underwriter allows existing holdings of shares in a corporation to be sold in combination with an offering of new public shares. Piggybacking A broker who trading stocks, bonds or commodities in a personal account following a trade just made for a customer. The broker assumes that the customer is making the trade on valuable inside information. Illegal. PIK (Payment-in-kind) securities Highly speculative bonds or preferred stock that pay interest or dividends through additional bonds or preferred stock. Pink sheets Refers to over-the-counter trading. Daily publication of the national quotation bureau that reports the bid and ask prices of thousands of OTC stocks, as well as the market makers who trade each stock. Pip Used for listed equity securities. Smallest unit of a currency (i.e., cents for U.S. dollars). Pipeline The underwriting process that must be completed with the SEC before a security can be offered for sale to the public. Pit A specific area of the trading floor that is designed for the trading of commodities, individual futures, or option contracts. Pit committee A committee of the exchange that determines the daily settlement price of futures contracts. PITI Stands for principal, interest, taxes, and insurance, the four main parts of monthly mortgage obligations. Pivot Price level established as being significant by market's failure to penetrate or as being significant when a sudden increase in volume accompanies the move through the price level. P&L Profit and loss statement for a trader. Place The marketing of new securities, usually through sales to institutional investors. See: Float. Placement A bank depositing Eurodollars with (selling Eurodollars to) another bank is often said to be making a placement. Placement ratio The percentages of last week's new municipal bond offerings that have been bought from the underwriters, according to the Bond Buyer newspaper. Plain vanilla A term that refers to a relatively simple derivative financial instrument, usually a swap or other derivative that is issued with standard features. Plan participants Employees or other beneficiaries who are eligible to receive benefits from a company's employee benefit plan. Plan for reorganization A plan for reorganizing a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process. Plan sponsors The entities that establish pension plans, including private business entities acting for their employees; state and local entities operating on behalf of their employees; unions acting on behalf of their members; and individuals representing themselves. Planned amortization class (PAC) (1) The class of CMO that has the most stable cash flows and the lowest prepayment risk of any class of CMO Because of a stable cash flow, it is considered the least risky CMO (2) A CMO bond class that stipulates cash flow contributions to a sinking fund. A PAC directs principal payments to the sinking fund on a priority basis in accordance with a predetermined payment schedule, with prior claim to the cash flows before other CMO classes. Similarly, cash flows received by the trust in excess of the sinking fund requirement are also allocated to other bond classes. The prepayment experience of the PAC is therefore very stable over a wide range of prepayment experience. Planned capital expenditure program Budgeted or projected outlays for major expenditures on permanent or fixed assets as outlined in the corporate financial plan. Planned financing program Budgeted or projected ways need for reasons or to obtain short-term and long-term financing as outlined in the corporate financial plan. Planning horizon The length of time a model or investor or plan projects into the future. Plant The assets of a business including land, buildings, machinery, and all equipment permanently employed. Player Used in the context of general equities. Customer or trader who is actively involved in a particular stock or the market in general. Playing the market Trading in high, uncalculated risk usually refers to actions of amateur investors. Pledging See: Hypothecation Plow back To reinvest earnings in a business rather than pay out them out as dividends. Common practice in high-growth companies. Plowback rate Related: Retention rate Plug A variable that handles financial slack in the financial plan. Plus Used to quote a price in 64ths. Dealers in government bonds normally give price quotes in 32nds. To quote a bid or offer in 64ths, they use pluses; a dealer who bids 4+ is bidding the handle plus 4/32 + 1/64, which equals the handle plus 9/64. Plus a match Used for listed equity securities. Floor indication that someone is on the floor with equal priority standing who wants to buy/sell at least the same number of shares at the same price as one's own order. Outside. See: Matched orders. Compare to ahead. Plus tick Used in the context of general equities. Trade occurring at a price higher than the previous sale. Uptick. Antithesis of minus tick. See: Short sale. Plus tick seller Used for listed equity securities. A short seller (referring to the regulation requiring a plus tick to short). Point The smallest unit of price change quoted, or one one-hundredth of a percent. Related: Minimum price fluctuation and tick. Point and figure chart A price-only chart that takes into account only whole integer changes in price, i.e., a 2-point change. Point and figure charting disregards the element of time and is used solely to record changes in price. Poison pill Anti-takeover device that gives a prospective acquiree's shareholders the right to buy shares of the firm or shares of anyone who acquires the firm at a deep discount to their fair market value. Named after the cyanide pill that secret government agents are said to be instructed to swallow if capture is imminent. Poison put A covenant allowing the bondholder to demand repayment in the event of a hostile takeover. Policy asset allocation Way in which an investor seeks to assess an appropriate long-term "normal" mix of assets that represents an ideal blend of controlled risk and enhanced return. Policy limit The maximum dollar amount of coverage provided by an insurance company for a certain policy. Policy loan A loan often made at a below-market interest rate from an insurance company to a policyholder that is secured by the cash surrender value of a life insurance policy. Policyholder An individual who owns an insurance policy. Policyholder loan bonds Packaged loans acquired by policyholders that are secured by the cash surrender value of the policies, and are offered by a broker/dealer as bonds. Political risk Possibility of negative events such as expropriation of assets, changes in tax policy, restrictions on the exchange of foreign currency, or other changes in the business climate of a country. Pool In capital budgeting, the concept that investment projects are financed out of a pool of bonds, preferred stock, and common stock, and a weighted-average cost of capital must be used to calculate investment returns. In insurance, a group of insurers who share premiums and losses in order to spread risk. In investments, the combination of funds for the benefit of a common project, or a group of investors who use their combined influence to manipulate prices. Pool factor The outstanding principal balance divided by the original principal balance with the result expressed as a decimal. Pool factors are published monthly by the Bond Buyer newspaper for Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) MBSs. Pooling of interests An accounting method for reporting acquisitions accomplished through the use of equity. The combined assets of the merged entity are consolidated using book value, as opposed to the purchase method, which uses market value. The merging entities' financial results are combined as though the two entities have always been a single entity. Porcupine provision Often used in risk arbitrage. See: Shark repellent. Portability The character of benefits that may be carried from a previous job to the next. Portfolio A collection of investments, real and/or financial. Portfolio beta Used in the context of general equities. The beta of a portfolio is the weighted sum of the individual asset betas, According to the proportions of the investments in the portfolio. E.g., if 50% of the money is in stock A with a beta of 2.00, and 50% of the money is in stock B with a beta of 1.00,the portfolio beta is 1.50. Portfolio beta describes relative volatility of an individual securities portfolio, taken as a whole, as measured by the individual stock betas of the securities making it up. A beta of 1.05 relative to the S&P 500 implies that if the S&P's excess return increases by 10% the portfolio is expected to increase by 10.5%. Portfolio insurance A strategy using a leveraged portfolio in the underlying stock to create a synthetic put option. The strategy's goal is to ensure that the value of the portfolio does not fall below a certain level. Portfolio internal rate of return The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio. Portfolio management Related: Investment management Portfolio manager Used in the context of general equities. Professional responsible for the securities portfolio of an individual or institutional investor, such as a mutual fund, pension fund, profit-sharing plan, bank trust department, or insurance company. In return for a fee, the manager has the fiduciary responsibility to manage the assets prudently and choose which asset types are most appropriate over time. Related: Investment manager. Portfolio opportunity set The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be constructed from a given set of assets. Portfolio R2 Used in the context of general equities. Number between 0 and 1 that measures the strength of correlation of movement between the portfolio/stock and the index. Indeed, the R2 is the square of the correlation. For hedging purposes, the higher the R2, the better. Portfolio restructuring Applies to derivative products. Recomposition of a portfolio's asset mix by selling off undesired asset types (equities, debt, or cash) or specific securities within that class, while simultaneously buying desired types or securities. Often a firm is asked to bid on an old portfolio and give an offering of the desired portfolio. See: Program trading. Portfolio separation theorem Theory that an investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his attitude towards risk. Related: Fisher's separation theorem. Portfolio theory See: Modern portfolio theory. Portfolio turnover rate For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets. Portfolio variance Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio. Position A market commitment; the number of contracts bought or sold for which no offsetting transaction has been entered into. The buyer of a commodity is said to have a long position, and the seller of a commodity is said to have a short position. Related: Open contracts. Position building Buying shares to build up a long position or selling shares to create a short position in a particular security or group of securities. Position diagram Diagram showing the possible payoffs from a derivative investment. Position limits Applies to derivative products. Maximum position available in any one future or option contract for a given institution. For "bona fide" futures hedgers, there are no position limits. Position self Used in the context of general equities. Going long or short in anticipation of a stock's movement. Position sheet Used in the context of general equities. List of long and short positions for an individual trader or desk, at times accompanied by the trades from the previous trading session that brought these closing positions. Position trader A commodities trader who takes a long-term approach in maintaining positions in the market and does not close out of these positions until close to the delivery date. Positive carry Related: Net financing cost Positive convexity A property of option-free bonds that the price appreciation for a large downward change in interest rates will be greater (in absolute terms) than the price depreciation for the same downward change in interest rates. Positive covenant (of a bond) A bond covenant that specifies certain actions the firm must take. Also called an affirmative covenant. Positive float See: Float Positive yield curve When long-term debt interest rates are higher than short-term debt rates (because of the increased risk involved with long-term debt security). Possessions corporation A type of corporation permitted under the U.S. tax code whose branch operation in a U.S. possession can obtain tax benefits as though it were operating as a foreign subsidiary. Post Particular place on the floor of an exchange where transactions in stocks listed on the exchange occur. Post-audit A set of procedures for evaluating a capital budgeting decision after the fact. Post-dated check A check that becomes payable and negotiable on a future date specified. Postponement option The option of deferring a project without eliminating the possibility of undertaking it. Postponing income Purposely delaying receipt of income to a later year in order to reduce current tax liability. Post-trade benchmarks Prices after the decision to trade. Pot The portion of stock or bond issue that is returned to the managing underwriter by the participating investment bankers for sale to institutional investors. Pot is clean Phrase used when managing underwriter has sold the entire pot. Power of attorney A written authorization allowing a person to perform certain acts on behalf of another, such as moving of assets between accounts or trading for a person's benefit. Prearranged trading Possibly fraudulent practice whereby commodities dealers carry out risk-free trades at predetermined prices to acquire tax advantages. Preauthorized checks (PAC) Checks that are authorized by a payer in advance, and written either by the payee or by the payee's bank and then deposited in the payee's bank account. Preauthorized electronic debits (PAD) Debits to a bank account in advance by the payer. The payer's bank sends payment to the payee's bank through the Automated Clearing House (ACH) system. Precautionary demand (for money) The need to meet unexpected or extraordinary contingencies with a buffer stock of cash. Precautionary motive A desire to hold cash in order to be able to deal effectively with unexpected events that require cash outlay. Precedence The established system of priorities of trades in an exchange. For example, the highest bid and lowest offer have highest precedence; the first bid or first offer at a price has highest priority, and large orders have priority over smaller orders. Precious metals Gold, silver, platinum, and palladium, which are used for their intrinsic value or for their value in production. These may be traded either in their physical state or by way of futures and options contracts, mining company stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or other instrument. Precompute Method of charging interest in which the annual interest is either deducted from the face amount of the loan when the funds are distributed or is added to the total amount and divided into the regular payments. Preemptive right Common stockholders' right to anything of value distributed by the company. Preference Refers to over-the-counter trading. Selection of a dealer to handle a trade despite the dealer's market not being the best available. Often the "preferenced dealer" will then move his market in line. Preference stock A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock. Preferred dividend coverage Net income after interest and taxes (before common stock dividends) divided by preferred stock dividends. Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC) Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives. Preferred habitat theory A biased expectations theory that believes the term structure reflects the expectation of the future path of interest rates as well as risk premium. The theory rejects the assertion that the risk premium must rise uniformly with maturity, but instead profits that to the extent that the demand for and supply of funds do not match for a given maturity range, some participants will shift to maturities showing the opposite imbalances, as long as they are compensated by an appropriate risk premium whose magnitude will reflect the extent of aversion to either price or reinvestment risk. Preferred shares Preferred shares give investors a fixed dividend from the company's earnings and entitle them to be paid before common shareholders. See: Preferred stock. Preferred stock A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. Preferred stock has characteristics of both common stock and debt. Preferred stock agreement A contract for preferred stock. Preferred stock ratio Preferred stock at par value divided by total capitalization, which gives the portion of capitalization that consists of preferred stock. PREG Financial ratio defined as stock price divided by sales over earnings growth. Often used in the valuation of Internet stocks. Related: PSSG. Preliminary prospectus An initial or tentative version of a prospectus. Premium (1) A bond sold above its par value. (2) The price of an option contract; also, in futures trading, the amount by which the futures price exceeds the price of the spot commodity. For convertibles, amount by which the price of a convertible exceeds parity, and is usually expressed as a percentage. If a stock is trading at $45, and the bond convertible at $50 is trading at 105, the premium is $15, or 16.66% (15/90). If the premium is high, the bond trades like any fixed income bond; if low, like a stock. See: Gross parity, net parity. For futures, excess of fair value of future over the spot index, which in theory will equal the Treasury bill yield for the period to expiration minus the expected dividend yield until the future's expiration. For options, price of an option in the open market (sometimes refers to the portion of the price that exceeds parity). For straight equity, price higher than that of the last sale or inside market. Related: Inverted market premium payback period. Also called break-even time; the time it takes to recover the premium per share of a convertible security. Premium bond A bond that is selling for more than its par value. Premium income The income received by an investor who sells an option. Premium raid An attempt to acquire a large portion of a company's stock to gain control by offering stockholders a premium over the market value for their shares. Prepackaged bankruptcy A bankruptcy in which a debtor and its creditors pre-negotiate a plan of reorganization and then file it along with the bankruptcy petition. Prepaid interest An asset account showing interest that has been paid in advance, which is expensed and charged to the borrower's P & L statement. Prepayment penalty A fee a borrower pays a lender when the borrower repays a loan before its scheduled time of maturity. Prepayment speed Also called speed, the estimated rate at which mortgagors pay off their loans ahead of schedule, critical in assessing the value of mortgage pass-through securities. Prepayments Payments made in excess of scheduled mortgage principal repayments. Prerefunded bond Refunded bond. Prerefunding Procedure of floating a second bond at a lower interest rate in order to pay off the first bond at the first call date and to reduce overall borrowing costs. Presale order An order to purchase part of a new municipal bond issue that is accepted by an underwriting syndicate before an official public offering. Present value The amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments, to be received in the future. To determine the present value, each future cash flow is multiplied by a present value factor. For example, if the opportunity cost of funds is 10%, the present value of $100 to be received in one year is $100 x [1/(1 + 0.10)] = $91. Present value factor Factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in a future period. If the opportunity cost of funds is 10% over next year, the factor is [1/(1 + 0.10)]. Present value of growth opportunities Net present value (NPV) of investments the firm is expected to make in the future. President Highest-ranking officer in a corporation after the chief executive officer. Presidential election cycle theory A theory that stock market trends can be predicted and explained by the four-year presidential election cycle. Pre-sold issue An issue that is sold out before the coupon announcement. Pre-tax earnings or profits Net income before federal income taxes are subtracted. Pre-tax rate of return Gain on a security before taxes. Pre-trade benchmarks Prices occurring before or at the decision to trade. Previous balance method Method of calculating finance charges based on the account balance at the end of the previous month. Price of admission Used in the context of general equities. Cost to become a player in a stock in an inordinately aggressive market (i.e., locking on one side, size or price concessions); trader becomes aggressive in order to break the domination of customer activity by another dealer. Price-book ratio Compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book value). Determined by dividing current stock price by common stockholder equity per share (book value), adjusted for stock splits. Also called Market-to-Book. Price change Increase or decrease in the closing price of a security compared to the previous day's closing price. Price compression The limitation of the price appreciation potential for a callable bond in a declining interest rate environment, based on the expectation that the bond will be redeemed at the call price. Price discovery process The process of determining the prices of assets in the marketplace through the interactions of buyers and sellers. Price-earnings ratio Shows the multiple of earnings at which a stock sells. Determined by dividing current stock price by current earnings per share (adjusted for stock splits). Earnings per share for the P/E ratio are determined by dividing earnings for past 12 months by the number of common shares outstanding. Higher multiple means investors have higher expectations for future growth, and have bid up the stock's price. Price elasticities The percentage change in quantity divided by a percentage change in the price. Answers the question: How much will the demand for my product decrease if I raise prices by 10%? Price gap A term used when the price of a stock rockets or dives in a direction away from its last price range, such as a stock with a trading range of $10-$12 that closes at $12 and climbs to $14 the next day. Price give Used in the context of general equities. Willingness of a buyer or seller to negotiate on price, within reason, from the price at the last sale or the indicated level. See: Takes price. Price impact costs Related: Market impact costs Price indexes See: Consumer price index and producer price index Price leadership A price charged by the dominant producer that becomes the price adopted by all the other producers. Price momentum Related: Relative strength Price persistence Related: Relative strength Price range The interval between the high and low prices over which a stock has traded over a particular period of time. Price risk The risk that the value of a security (or a portfolio) will decline in the future. Or, a type of mortgage pipeline risk created in the production segment when loan terms are set for the borrower in advance of setting terms for secondary market sale. If the general level of rates rises during the production cycle, the lender may have to sell the originated loans at a discount. Price-sales ratio Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits). Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares outstanding. Price-specie flow mechanism Adjustment mechanism under the classic gold standard allowing disturbances in the price level in one country to be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international payments into balance. Price spread An options strategy that involves buying and selling two options on the same security with the same expiration month, but with different exercise prices. Price support Government intervention to set an artificially high price through the use of a price floor designed to aid producers. Price takers Individuals who respond to rates and prices by acting as though prices have no influence on them. Price value of a basis point (PVBP) Also called the dollar value of a basis point; a measure of the change in the price of a bond if the required yield changes by one basis point. Price-volume relationship A relationship espoused by some technical analysts that signals continuing rises or falls in security prices that are related to changes in volume traded. Price-weighted index An index giving a greater influence to higher-valued stocks by weighting all component stocks by their price. Prices (of equity) Price of a share of common stock on the date shown. Highs and lows are based on the highest and lowest intraday trading price. Priced out The market has already incorporated information, such as a low dividend, into the price of a stock. Pricey Term used for an unrealistically low bid price or unrealistically high offer price. Pricing efficiency Also called external efficiency; a market characteristic that prices at all times fully reflect all available information that is relevant to the valuation of securities. Primary dealer Usually refers to the select list of securities firms that are authorized to deal in new issues of government bonds. Primary distribution Sale of a new issue of stock or bonds, as distinguished from a secondary distribution. Primary earnings per (common) share Earnings available for the payment of dividends to common stockholders divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Primary market Where a newly issued security is first offered. All subsequent trading of this security occurs is done in the secondary market. Primary offering Direct/Sale of a firm's newly issued shares by the firm to investors. PRIME Stands for prescribed right to income and maximum equity, a certificate that entitles the owner to the dividend/income from an underlying security, but not to the capital appreciation of that security. Prime paper The highest-quality, investment-grade debt of corporations as decided by rating agencies such as Moody's. Prime rate The interest rate at which banks lend to their best (prime) customers. More often than not, a bank's most creditworthy customers borrow at rates below the prime rate. Prime rate fund A mutual fund that buys portions of corporate loans from banks and pays the interest to shareholders. Primitive security An instrument such as a stock or bond for which payments depend only on the financial status of the issuer. Principal (1) The total amount of money being borrowed or lent. (2) The party affected by agent decisions in a principal-agent relationship. Principal-agent relationship Occurs when one person, an agent, acts on the behalf of another person, the principal. Principal amount The face amount of debt; the amount borrowed or lent. Often called principal. Principal Exchange-Rated-Linked Securities (PERLS) A debt instrument with its principal and interest denominated in U.S. dollars, but with principal repayment depending on the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against a foreign currency. Principal-only (PO) A mortgage-backed security (MBS) whose holder receives only principal cash flows on the underlying mortgage pool. All the principal distribution due from the underlying collateral pool is paid to the registered holder of the stripped MBS on the basis of the current face value of the underlying collateral pool. Principal stockholder A stockholder who owns 10% or more of the voting stock of a company. Such stockholders must report all trading in the stock to the SEC pursuant insider trading rules. Principle of diversification That portfolios of different sorts of assets differently correlated with one another will have negligible unsystematic risk. In other words, unsystematic risks disappear in diversified portfolios, and only systematic risks persist, those related to particular assets. Print Used in the context of general equities. As a verb execute a trade, evidenced by its printing on the ticker tape. As a noun, a trade. Prior-lien bond A bond usually arising from reorganization with precedence over another bond of the same issuing company that is equally secured. Prior-preferred stock Preferred stock that has a higher claim on all dividends and assets in liquidation than claims of other preferred stock. Priority Used for listed equity securities. System used in an auction market, in which the first bid or offer price is executed before other bid and offer prices, even if subsequent orders are larger. NYSE rules stipulate that the bid made first should be executed first, or if two bids came in at once, the bid for the large number of shares receives "priority." The bid not executed is then turned to the broker, who informs the customer that the trade was not completed because there was stock ahead. See: Standing. Private Export Funding Corporation (PEFCO) Company that mobilizes private capital for financing the export of big-ticket items by U.S. firms by purchasing at fixed interest rates the medium- to long-term debt obligations of importers of U.S. products. Private-label pass-throughs Related: Conventional pass-throughs. Private letter ruling A ruling by the IRS in response to a request for interpretation of a tax law. Private limited partnership A limited partnership with no more than 35 participants that is not registered with the SEC. Private market value (PMV) The break-up market value of all divisions of a company if divisions were each independent and established their own market stock prices. Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) Policy protecting the holder against loss resulting from default on a mortgage loan. Private placement The sale of a bond or other security directly to a limited number of investors. For example, sale of stocks, bonds, or other investments directly to an institutional investor like an insurance company, avoiding the need for SEC registration if the securities are purchased for investment as opposed to resale. Antithesis of public offering. Private-purpose bond A municipal bond allowing more than 10% of the proceeds go to private activities. Private unrequited transfers Resident immigrant workers' remittances to their country of origin as well as, e.g., gifts, dowries, inheritances, prizes, charitable contributions. Privatization The transfer of government-owned or government-run companies to the private sector, usually by selling them. Pro forma capital structure analysis A method of analyzing the impact of alternative possible capital structure choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully. Pro forma financial statements A firm's financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction. "What-if" analysis. Pro forma statement A financial statement showing the forecast or projected operating results and balance sheet, as in pro forma income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows. Probability The relative likelihood of a particular outcome among all possible outcomes. Probability density function The function that describes the change of certain realizations for a continuous random variable. Probability distribution A function that describes all the values a random variable can take and the probability associated with each. Also called a probability function. Probability function A measure that assigns a likelihood of occurrence to each and every possible outcome. Proceeds sale OTC securities sale whose revenue is used to buy another security. Producer Price Index (PPI) Index measuring changes in wholesale prices, published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics every month. Product cycle The time it takes to bring new and/or improved products to market. Product risk A type of mortgage pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price. Production-flow commitment An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow a monthly loan quota to be delivered in batches. Production payment financing A method of nonrecourse asset-based financing in which a specified percentage of revenue realized from the sale of the project's output is used to pay debt service. Production rate The coupon rate at which a pass-through security guaranteed by Ginnie Mae is issued. Productivity The amount of output per unit of input, such as the quantity of a product produced per hour of capital employed. Profile buyer/seller Trader trying to get involved in a stock who presents self as a buyer/seller to draw a call from a customer. That is the trader has nothing real, or natural. Profit Revenue minus cost. The amount one makes on a transaction. Profit center A division of an organization held responsible for producing its own profits. Profit forecast A prediction of future profits of a company, which may affect investment decisions. Profit margin Indicator of profitability. The ratio of earnings available to stockholders to net sales. Determined by dividing net income by revenue for the same 12-month period. Result is shown as a percentage. Also known as net profit margin. Profit-sharing plan An incentive system providing that employees share in company profits through a cash fund or a deferred plan used to buy stock or bonds. Profit taking Action by short-term securities traders to cash in on gains created by a sharp market rise, which pushes prices down temporarily but implies an upward market trend. See: Ring the [cash] register. Profitability index The present value of the future cash flows divided by the initial investment. Also called the benefit-cost ratio. Profitability ratios Ratios that focus on how well a firm is performing. Profit margins measure performance with relation to sales. Rate of return ratios measure performance relative to some measure of size of the investment. Program trades Orders requiring the execution of trades in a large number of different stocks at as near the same time as possible. Also called basket trades. Related: Block trade Program trading Trades based on signals from computer programs, usually entered directly from the trader's computer in to the market's computer system and executed automatically. Applies to derivative products. A process of electronic execution of trading of a basket of stocks simultaneously, for index arbitrage, portfolio restructuring, or outright buy/sell interests. See: super dot. Progress payments Periodic payments to a supplier, contractor, or subcontractor for work as it is completed as desired, in order to reduce working capital requirements. Progress review A periodic review of a capital investment project to evaluate its continued economic viability. Progressive tax system A tax system providing that the average tax rate increases for some increases in income, but never decreases with an increase in income. Project financing A form of asset-based financing in which a firm finances a discrete set of assets on a stand-alone basis. Project link An econometric model forecasting and describing the effects of changes in different economies on other economies. Project loan certificate (PLC) A primary program of Ginnie Mae for securitizing FHA-insured and coinsured multifamily, hospital, and nursing home loans. Project loans Usually FHA-insured and HUD-guaranteed mortgages on multiple-family housing complexes, nursing homes, hospitals, and other special development. Project loan securities Securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loans-primarily multifamily apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes. Project notes (PN) Notes issued by municipalities to finance federally sponsored programs in urban renewal and housing and guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Projected benefit obligation (PBO) A measure of a pension plan's liability at the calculation date assuming that the plan is ongoing and will not terminate in the foreseeable future. Related: Accumulated benefit obligation. Projected maturity date With CMOs, the date at the end of the estimated cash flow window where final payment is made. Projection The use of econometric models to forecast the future performance of a company, country, or other financial entity using historical and current information. Promissory note Written pledge to pay. Property inventory A list of personal property with corresponding values and initial costs often used to substantiate insurance claim and tax losses. Property rights Rights of individuals and companies to own and use property as they see fit and to receive the stream of income that their property generates. Property tax A tax levied on real property based on its use and its assessed value. Proportional representation A method of stockholder voting that allows minority shareholders and groups of small shareholders to have a better chance of getting representation on a board of directors than under statutory voting. Proprietary trading Principal trading in which firm seeks direct gain rather than commission dollars. Proprietorship An unincorporated business that is owned and operated by only one person who has complete liability for all assets, and complete rights to all profits. Prospective Earnings Growth (PEG Ratio) Based on forecasts from proprietary sources such as Institutional Brokers' Estimate System (IBES), First Call, or Zach's. Growth is forecast of earnings minus current earnings divided by current earnings. Forward-looking measure rather than typical earnings growth measures, which look back in time (historical). Prospectus Formal written document to sell securities that describes the plan for a proposed business enterprise, or the facts concerning an existing one, that an investor needs to make an informed decision. Prospectuses are used by mutual funds to describe fund objectives, risks, and other essential information. Protect Assure the salesperson or trader that interest, buy or sell, will be attended to, given any change in the trading circumstances, as follows: At a price: If the stock trades at a certain price or price range, the trader will show this market to the salesperson and thus allow participation under these favorable circumstances. Floor protection: Representation of a client on the floor of the exchange-so that if size were to trade at his price or a better price, salesperson would participate. Volume (OTC): If a certain amount of volume trades (that parallels the protectee's interest), trader assures salesperson of reasonable participation in the trading activity. The extent of this protection depends on liquidity, number of market makers, and other aspects of the stock. Protectionism Notion that governments should protect domestic industry from import competition by means of tariffs, quotas, and other trade barriers. Protective covenant A part of an indenture or loan agreement that limits certain actions a company may take during the term of the loan to protect the lender's interests. Protective put buying strategy A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies. Provision for income taxes An amount on the P & I statement that estimates a company's total income tax liability for the year. Provisional call feature A stipulation in a convertible issue that allows the issuer to call the issue during the noncall period if the price of the stock reaches a certain level. In the case of convertible securities, right of an issuer to accelerate the first redemption date if the underlying common should trade at or above a certain level for a sustained period. Most typical terms are 150% of conversion price for 20 consecutive days. Note that under these circumstances the security has appreciated, at a minimum, 50% since being issued. Proxy Authorization, whether written or electronic, that shareholders' votes may be cast by others. Shareholders can and often do give management their proxies, delegating the right and responsibility to vote their shares as specified. Proxy contest A battle for the control of a firm in which a dissident group seeks, from the firm's other shareholders, the right to vote those shareholders' shares in favor of the dissident group's slate of directors. Also called proxy fights. Proxy fight Often used in risk arbitrage. Technique used by an acquiring company to attempt to gain control of a takeover target. The acquirer tries to persuade the shareholders of the target company that the present management of the firm should be ousted in favor of a slate of directors favorable to the acquirer, thus enabling the acquiring company to gain control of the company without paying a premium price. Proxy statement Document intended to provide shareholders with information necessary to vote in an informed manner on matters to be brought up at a stockholders' meeting. Includes information on closely held shares. Information required by the SEC that must be provided to shareholders who wish to vote for directors and on other company decisions by proxy. Proxy vote Vote cast by one person or entity on behalf of another. Prudent-man rule A common law standard against which those investing the money of others (fiduciaries) are judged. P&S Purchase and sale statement. A statement provided by the broker showing change in the customer's net ledger balance after the offset of any previously established positions. PSA Prepayment Rate The Bond Market Trade Association's Mortgaged Asset-Backed Securities Division's prepayment model based on an assumed rate of prepayment each month of the then unpaid principal balance of a pool of mortgages. PSA is used primarily to derive an implied prepayment speed of new production loans. 100% PSA assumes a prepayment rate of 2% per month in the first month following the date of issue, increasing at 2% percentage points per month thereafter until the 30th month. Thereafter, 100% PSA is the same as 6% CPR (Constant prepayment rate). PSSG Financial ratio defined as stock price divided by sales over sales growth. Often used in the valuation of Internet stocks. Related: PREG. Public debt Issues of debt by governments to compensate for a lack of tax revenues. Public housing authority bond Bonds of local public housing agencies that are secured by the federal government and whose proceeds are used to provide low-rent housing. Public limited partnership A limited partnership with an unlimited number of partners that is registered with the SEC and is available for public trading by broker/dealers Public offering Used in the context of general equities. Offering to the investment public, after compliance with registration requirements of the SEC, usually by an investment banker or a syndicate made up of several investment bankers, at a price agreed upon between the issuer and the investment bankers. Antithesis of private placement. See: Primary distribution and secondary distribution. Public offering price The price of a new issue of securities at the time that the issue is offered to the public. Public ownership The portion of a company's stock that is held by the public. Public-purpose bond A specific type of municipal bond used to finance public projects such as roads or government buildings. Interest on municipal bonds is federal income tax-free. Public Securities Administration (PSA) The trade association for primary dealers in U.S. government securities, including MBSs. The Public Individual investors who trade single securities independently or invest in intermediaries such as mutual funds, as opposed to professional investors. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 Legislation intended to eliminate many holding company abuses by reorganizing the financial structures of holding companies in the gas and electric utility industries and regulating their debt and dividend policies. Public warehouse Storage facility operated by an independent warehouse company on its own premises. Publicly held Describes a company whose stock is held by the public, whether individuals or business entities. Publicly traded assets Assets that can be traded in a public market, such as the stock market. Puke Slang for a trader selling a position, usually a losing position, as in, "When in doubt, puke it out." Pull Used in the context of general equities. See: Cancel. Pullback The downward reversal of a prolonged upward price trend. Pulling in their horns Investors selling off positions after a stock or bond market has increased sharply or setting up hedging positions to guard against a negative turn of the market. Purchase Buy; be long; have an ownership position. Purchase accounting Method of accounting for a merger that treats the acquirer as having purchased the assets and assumed the liabilities of the acquiree, which are then written up or down to their respective fair market values. The difference between the purchase price and the net assets acquired is attributed to goodwill. Purchase agreement Used in connection with project financing; an agreement to purchase a specific amount of project output per period. Purchase fund Resembles a sinking fund, except that money is used to purchase bonds only if they are selling below their par value. Purchase group See: Underwriting syndicate Purchase loan A consumer loan taken to finance a purchase. Purchase method Accounting for an acquisition using market value for the consolidation of the two entities' net assets on the balance sheet. Generally, depreciation/amortization will increase for this method (due to the creation of goodwill) compared to the pooling method resulting in lower net income. Purchase-money mortgage A mortgage given by a buyer in lieu of cash when the buyer is unable to borrow commercially for the purchase of property. Purchase order A written order to buy specified goods at a stipulated price. Purchase and sale A method of securities distribution in which a firm purchases securities from the issuer for its own account at a stated price and then resells them, as contrasted with a best-efforts sale. Purchasing power The amount of credit available for securities trading in a margin account, after taking margin requirements into consideration. Purchasing power of the dollar The amount of goods and services that can be exchanged for a dollar as compared with amount of a previous time period. Purchasing power parity The notion that the ratio between domestic and foreign price levels should equal the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies. Purchasing power risk Related: Inflation risk Pure discount bond A bond that will make only one payment of principal and interest. Also called a zero-coupon bond or a single-payment bond. Pure expectations theory A theory that asserts that forward rates exclusively represent the expected future rates. In other words, the entire term structure reflects the market's expectations of future short-term rates. For example, an increasing slope to the term structure implies increasing short-term interest rates. Related: Biased expectations theories. Pure index fund A portfolio that is managed so as to perfectly replicate the performance of the market portfolio. Pure monopoly A market in which only one firm has total control over the entire market for a product due to some sort of barrier to entry for other firms, often a patent held by the controlling firm. Pure play A company involved in only one line of business. Pure yield pickup swap Moving to higher yield-bonds. Purpose loan A loan that is backed by securities and that is used to buy other securities under certain government regulations. Purpose statement A form filed by a borrower that describes the use of a loan backed by securities, and guarantees that the funds lent will not be used illegally to buy securities against Federal Reserve regulations. Put An option granting the right to sell the underlying futures contract. Opposite of a call. Put bond A bond that the holder may choose either to exchange for par value at some date or to extend for a given number of years. If the price is above par, the put is a "premium put." Put-call parity Applies to derivative products. Option pricing principle that says, given a stock's price, a put and call of the same class must have a static price relationship because arbitrage opportunities or activities will always reestablish such a relationship. Put-call parity relationship The relationship between the price of a put and the price of a call on the same underlying security with the same expiration date, which prevents arbitrage opportunities. Holding the underlying stock and buying a put will deliver the exact payoff as buying one call and investing the present value (PV) of the exercise price. The call value equals C = S + P - PV(k). Put-call ratio The ratio of the volume of put options traded to the volume of call options traded, which is used as an indicator of investor sentiment (bullish or bearish). Put guarantee letter A bank's letter certifying that the person writing a put option has sufficient funds in an account to cover the exercise price if required. Put on Used for listed equity securities. Trade, or cross, a block of stock at the designated price and quantity. See: Print. "Put it on " Used for listed equity securities. "Go to the floor to transact." See: Print. Put option This security gives investors the right to sell (or put) a fixed number of shares at a fixed price within a given period. An investor, for example, might wish to have the right to sell shares of a stock at a certain price by a certain time in order to protect, or hedge, an existing investment. Put an option To exercise a put option. "Put pants on it " Used in the context of general equities. "Elaborate on your intentions or your inquiry," especially with respect to size, side, and price. See: Open up. Put price The price at which an asset will be sold if a put option is exercised. Also called the strike or exercise price of a put option. Put provision Gives the holder of a floating-rate bond the right to redeem the note at par on the coupon payment date. Put to seller Exercise a put option; require that the option writer to purchase the stock at the strike price. Put swaption A financial instrument giving the buyer the right, or option, to enter into a swap as a floating-rate payer. The writer of the swaption therefore becomes the floating-rate receiver/fixed-rate payer. Put up See: Print Pyramid scheme An illegal, fraudulent scheme in which a con artist convinces victims to invest by promising an extraordinary return but instead simply uses newly invested funds to pay off any investors who insist on terminating their investment. Q Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that it is in bankruptcy proceedings. Q ratio or Tobin's Q ratio Market value of a firm's assets divided by replacement value of the firm's assets. Named after James Tobin of Yale University. Quadratic programming Variant of linear programming in which the objective function is quadratic rather than linear. In portfolio selection, we often minimize the variance of the portfolio (which is a quadratic function) subject to constraints on the mean return of the portfolio. Qualification period A period of time during the first few months or weeks of a new policy when an insurance company will not reimburse a policyholder for a claim in order to allow the insurance company time to find any fraudulent information in the application. Qualified endorsement A signature on the back of a negotiable instrument transferring the amount to some other party but that includes wording that limits the endorser's liability. Qualified opinion An auditor's opinion expressing certain limitations of an audit. Qualified plan or trust A tax-deferred plan allowing employer and employee contributions that build up savings, which are paid out at retirement or on termination of employment. Tax is paid only when amounts are drawn from the trust. Qualifying annuity An annuity allowable as investment for a qualified plan or trust. Qualifying share Shares of common stock that a person must hold in order to qualify as a director of the issuing corporation. Qualifying stock option A benefit granted by a corporation that allows employees to purchase shares at a discount price. Qualitative analysis An analysis of the qualities of a company that cannot be measured concretely, such as management quality or employee morale. Qualitative research Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. Quality of earnings Increased earnings due to increased sales and cost controls, as compared to artificial profits created by inflation of inventory or other asset prices. Quality option Gives the seller choice of deliverables in Treasury bond and Treasury note futures contracts. Also called the swap option. Related: Cheapest to deliver issue. Quality spread Difference between Treasury securities and non-Treasury securities that are identical in all respects except for quality rating. For instance, the difference between yields on Treasuries and those on single A-rated industrial bonds. Also called credit spread. Quant A person with numerical and computer skills who carries out quantitative analyses of companies. Quantize To convert an asset or liability into a currency other than the regular trading currency. Quantitative analysis An analysis of the mathematically measurable figures of a company, such as the value of assets or projected sales. Quantitative research Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. Quanto swap See: Differential swap Quantos Currency options with a guaranteed exchange rate that enable buyers who like an asset, German bonds for example, but not the asset's pricing currency, to arrange payment in a different currency for a fee. Quarter stock Stock with a par value of $25 per share. Quarterly Occurring every three months. Quasi-public corporation A corporation that is operated privately, but is supported by the government in its operations and that often traded publicly. Quick assets Current assets minus inventories. Quick ratio Indicator of a company's financial strength (or weakness). Calculated by taking current assets less inventories, divided by current liabilities. This ratio provides information regarding the firm's liquidity and ability to meet its obligations. Also called the Acid test ratio. Quid pro quo An arrangement allowing a firm to use research from another firm at no cost in exchange for executing all of its trades with the firm that provides the research. Quiet period Time period an issuer is "in registration" with the SEC and may not promote its forthcoming issue. Quorum The minimum number of people who must be present or must provide a proxy to vote at a meeting in order to make a valid decision. Quotation Highest bid and lowest offer (asked) price currently available on a security or a commodity. Quotation board The electronic board at a brokerage firm displaying prices other financial data. Quoted price The price at which the last trade of a particular security or commodity took place. R Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that the stock has rights. RAM See: Reverse-annuity mortgage RAP See: Regulatory accounting procedures REIT See: Real Estate Investment Trust REMIC See: Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit ROA See: Return on assets ROE See: Return on equity ROI See: Return on investment RPPP See: Relative purchasing power parity Radar alert Close monitoring of trading patterns in a company's stock by senior managers to uncover unusual buying activity that might signal a takeover attempt. See: Shark watcher. Raider Individual or corporate investor who intends to take control of a company (often ostensibly for greenmail) by buying a controlling interest in its stock and installing new management. Raiders who accumulate 5% or more of the outstanding shares in the target company must report their purchases to the SEC, the exchange of listing, and the target itself. See: takeover. Rainmaker A valuable employee or manager who buys new business to a financial services company and thus generates income. Rally (recovery) An upward movement of prices. Opposite of reaction. Reverse-annuity mortgages (RAM) Bank loan for an amount equal to a percentage of the appraisal value of the home. The loan is then paid to the homeowner in the form of an annuity. Random variable A function that assigns a real number to each and every possible outcome of a random experiment. Random walk Theory that stock price changes from day to day are accidental or haphazard; changes are independent of each other and have the same probability distribution. Many believers in the random walk theory believe that it is impossible to outperform the market consistently without taking additional risk. Randomized strategy A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a chance element that is designed to confound the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices. Range The high and low prices, or high and low bids and offers, recorded during a specified time. Range forward A forward exchange rate contract that places upper and lower bounds on the future cost of foreign exchange. Rate anticipation swaps An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target portfolio duration, given the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates. Rate base The value of a regulated public utility and its operations as defined by its regulators and on which the company is allowed to earn a particular rate of return. Rate covenant A provision governing a municipal revenue project financed by a revenue bond issue, which establishes the rates to be charged users of the new facility. Rate of exchange See: Exchange Rate Rate lock An agreement between the mortgage banker and the loan applicant guaranteeing a specified interest rate for a designated period, usually 60 days. Rate of interest The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed. Rate of return Calculated as the (value now minus value at time of purchase) divided by value at time of purchase. For equities, we often include dividends with the value now. See also: Return, annual rate of return. Rate of return ratios Ratios that measure the profitability of a firm in relation to various measures of investment in the firm. Rate risk In banking, the risk that profits may drop or losses occur because a rise in interest rates forces up the cost of funding fixed-rate loans or other fixed-rate assets. Ratings An evaluation of credit quality of a company's debt issue by Moody's, S&P, and Fitch Investors Service. Investors and analysts use ratings to assess the riskness of an investment. Ratio analysis A way of expressing relationships between a firm's accounting numbers and their trends over time that analysts use to establish values and evaluate risks. Ratio writer An option writer who does not own the number of shares required to cover the call options he or she writes. Rational expectations The idea that people rationally anticipate the future and respond today to what they see ahead. This concept was pioneered by Nobel Laureate, Robert E. Lucas, Jr. Raw material Materials a manufacturer converts into a finished product. Raw material supply agreement As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a specified amount per period of a specified raw material. Reachback The ability of a tax shelter or limited partnership to deduct certain costs and expenses at the end of the year that were incurred throughout the entire year. Reaction A decline in prices following an advance. Opposite of rally. Reading the tape Judging the performance of stocks by monitoring changes in price as they are displayed on the ticker tape. Real Used in the context of general equities. (1) natural, (2) not dividend roll-or program trading-related; (3) not tax-related. "Real" indications have three major repercussions: a) pricing will be more favorable to the other side of the trade since an investment bank is not committing any capital; b) price pressure will be stronger if real since a natural buyer/seller may have information leading to his decision or more behind it, and c) an uptick may be required for the trader to transact if the indication is not real and the trader has no long position. Real assets Identifiable assets, such as land and buildings, equipment, patents, and trademarks, as distinguished from a financial investment. Real capital Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial securities, and real estate. Real cash flow Income expressed in current purchasing power terms. Real estate A piece of land and whatever physical property is on it. Real estate appraisal An estimate of the value of property using various methods. Real estate broker An intermediary who receives a commission for arranging and facilitating the sale of a property for a buyer or a seller. Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments. A REIT is similar to a closed-end mutual fund. Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC) A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages secured by any type of real property and can issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Real exchange rates Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries. Real gain or loss A gain or loss adjusted for increasing prices by an inflation index such as the CPI. Real income The income of an individual, group, or country adjusted for inflation. Real interest rate The rate of interest excluding the effect of expected inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate adjusted for expected inflation. Realistic on price In trading, and indication that the size under consideration requires price give, especially with illiquid stocks. See: Takes price. Realized profit (or loss) A capital gain or loss on securities held in a portfolio that has become actual by the sale or other type of surrender of one or many securities. Real market The bid and offer prices at which a dealer could execute the desired quantity of shares. Quotes in the brokers market. Real property Land plus all other property that is in some way attached to the land. Real rate of return The percentage return on some investments that has been adjusted for inflation. Real time A real-time stock or bond quote is one that states a security's most recent offer to sell or bid (buy). Different from a delayed quote, which shows the same bid and ask prices 15 minutes and sometimes 20 minutes after a trade takes place. Realized compound yield Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest rate at the time of their receipt and held thus until the bond matures. Realized return The return that is actually earned over a given time period. Realtor A specific designation given to members of real estate firms affiliated with the National Association of Realtors (NAR) who are trained and licensed to assist clients in buying and selling real estate. Rebalancing Realigning the proportions of assets in a portfolio as needed. Rebate Negotiated return of a portion of the interest earned by the lender of stock to a short seller. When a stock is sold short, the seller borrows stock from an owner or custodian and delivers it to the buyer. The proceeds are delivered to the lender. The borrower, who is short, often wants a rebate of the interest earned on the proceeds under the lender's control, especially when the stock can be borrowed from many sources. Note: The seller must pay the lender any dividends paid out or, in the case of bonds, interest that accrues daily during the term of the loan. Recapitalization proposal Often used in risk arbitrage. Plan by a target company to restructure its capitalization (debt and equity) in a way to ward off a hostile or potential suitor. Recapture A provision in a contract that allows one party to recover (recapture) some degree of possession of an asset, such as a share of the profits derived from some property. Receivables balance fractions The percentage of a month's sales that remains uncollected (and part of accounts receivable) at the end of succeeding months. Receivables turnover ratio Total operating revenues divided by average receivables. Used to measure how effectively a firm is managing its accounts receivable. Receiver A bankruptcy practitioner appointed by secured creditors to oversee the repayment of debts. Receiver's certificate A debt instrument issued by a receiver and serving as a lien on the property, which provides funding to continue operations or to protect assets in receivership. Receive versus payment An instruction that only cash will be accepted in exchange for delivery of securities. Recession A temporary downturn in economic activity, usually indicated by two consecutive quarters of a falling GDP. Reclamation A claim for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security that has been previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other irregularities in the delivery and settlement process. Record date (1) Date by which a shareholder must officially own shares in order to be entitled to a dividend. For example, a firm might declare a dividend on Nov. 1, payable Dec. 1 to holders of record Nov. 15. Once a trade is executed, an investor becomes the "owner of record" on settlement, which currently takes five business days for securities and one business day for mutual funds. Stocks trade ex-dividend the fourth day before the record date, since the seller will still be the owner of record and is thus entitled to the dividend. (2) The date that determines who is entitled to payment of principal and interest due to be paid on a security. The record date for most MBS is the last day of the month, although the last day on which an MBS may be presented for the transfer is the last business day of the month. The record dates for CMOs and asset-backed securities vary with each issue. Recourse Term describing a type of loan. If a loan is with recourse, the lender has a general claim against the parent company if the collateral is insufficient to repay the debt. Recovery The use of depreciation of assets to offset costs; or a new period of rising securities prices after a period of declining security values. Redemption date The date on which a bond matures or is redeemed. Redemption price See: Call price Red herring A preliminary prospectus providing information required by the SEC. It excludes the offering price and the coupon of the new issue. Redeemable Eligible for redemption under the terms of an indenture. Redemption Repayment of a debt security or preferred stock issue, at or before maturity, at par or at a premium price. Redemption charge The commission a mutual fund charges an investor who is redeeming shares. For example, a 2% redemption charge (also called a back end load) on the sale of shares valued at $1000 will result in payment of $980 (or 98% of the value) to the investor. This charge may decline or be eliminated as shares are held for longer time periods. Redemption cushion The percentage by which the conversion value of a convertible security exceeds the redemption price (strike price). Redemption or call Right of the issuer to force holders on a certain date to redeem their convertibles for cash. The objective usually is to force holders to convert into common prior to the redemption deadline. Typically, an issue is not called away unless the conversion price is 15%-25% below the current level of the common. An exception might occur when an issuer's tax rate is high, and the issuer could replace it with debt securities at a lower after-tax cost. Rediscount To discount short-term negotiable debt instruments for a second time, after they have been discounted with a bank. Red-lining Illegal discrimination in making loans, insurance coverage, or other financial services available to people or property in certain areas because of poor economic conditions, high levels of fraudulent transaction, or frequent defaults. Reduction-Option Loan (ROL) A hybrid of a fixed-rate and adjustable-rate mortgage. An ROL the borrower to match the current mortgage rate, which then becomes fixed for the rest of the term. This reduction is usually allowed if rates drop more than 2% in a year. Reference rate A benchmark interest rate (such as LIBOR) used to specify conditions of an interest rate swap or an interest rate agreement. Refinancing An extension and/or increase in amount of existing debt. Reflation Government monetary action that causes a reversal of deflation. Refund To retire existing bond issues through the sale of a new bond issue, usually to reduce the interest rate being paid. Refundable Eligible for refunding under the terms of a bond indenture. Refunded bond Also called a prerefunded bond, a bond that originally may have been issued as a general obligation or revenue bond but that is now secured by an escrow fund consisting entirely of direct U.S. government obligations that are sufficient for paying the bondholders. Refunding Redeeming a bond with proceeds received from issuing lower-cost debt obligations with ranking equal to or superior to the debt to be redeemed. Refunding Escrow Deposits (REDs) A financial instrument involving a forward purchase contract that obligates investors to buy bonds at a certain rate when issued. The future date coincides with the first optional call date on an existing high-rate bond. In the interim, investors' money is invested in secondary market Treasury bonds. The Treasuries mature around the call date on the existing bonds, providing the money to buy the new issue and redeem the old one. Regional bank A bank operating in a specific region of the country, taking deposits and offering loans. Regional fund A mutual fund that invests in a specific geographic area overseas, such as Asia or Europe. Regional stock exchanges Organized national securities exchanges located outside of New York City and registered with the SEC They include: the Boston, Cincinnati, Intermountain (Salt Lake City-dormant, owned by COMEX), Midwest (Chicago), Pacific (Los Angeles and San Francisco), Philadelphia (Philadelphia and Miami), and Spokane (local mining and Canadian issues, non-reporting trades) Stock Exchanges. Registered bond A bond whose issuer records ownership and interest payments. Differs from a bearer bond, which is traded without record of ownership and whose possession is the only evidence of ownership. Registered check A check issued and guaranteed by a bank for a customer who provides funds for payment of the check. Registered company A company that is listed with the SEC after submission of a required statement and compliance with disclosure requirements. Registered competitive market maker An NASD-registered dealer who acts as a market maker for a designated over-the-counter stock by buying and selling that stock to maintain stability. Registered equity market maker Member firm of the American Stock Exchange registered as a trader to make stabilizing trades for its own account in particular securities. Registered investment adviser SEC-registered individual or firm that substantiates completion of education and work experience in the field, and pays an annual membership fee. Registered investment company An investment firm which is registered with the SEC and complies with certain stated legal requirements. Registered options trader An American Stock Exchange specialist who monitors a certain group of options to help maintain a fair and orderly market. Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) Tax-sheltered retirement plan for Canadian citizens, much like an American IRA. Registered representative A person registered with the CFTC who is employed by and solicits business for a commission house or futures commission merchant. Registered secondary offering A reoffering of a large block of securities, previously publicly issued, by the holder of a large portion of some corporation through an investment firm. Registered security Used in the context of general equities. Securities whose owner's name is recorded on the books of the issuer or the issuer's agent, called a registrar. Registered trader A member of the exchange who executes frequent trades for his or her own account. Registrar Financial institution appointed to record issue and ownership of company securities. Registration In the securities market describes process set up pursuant to the Securities Exchange Acts of 1933 and 1934 whereby securities that are to be sold to the public are reviewed by the SEC. Registration statement A legal document filed with the SEC to register securities for public offering that details the purpose of the proposed public offering. The statement outlines financial details, a history of the company's operations and management, and other facts of importance to potential buyers. See: Registration. Regression A mathematical technique used to explain and/or predict. The general form is Y = a + bX + u, where Y is the variable that we are trying to predict; X is the variable that we are using to predict Y, a is the intercept; b is the slope, and u is the regression residual. The a and b are chosen in a way to minimize the squared sum of the residuals. The ability to fit or explain is measured by the R-square. Regression analysis A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables. Regression equation An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables. Regression toward the mean The tendency that a random variable will ultimately have a value closer to its mean value. Regressive tax A tax system that provides that average tax rates decrease with increases in individuals' income brackets. Regular settlement Transaction in which a stock contract is settled and delivered on the fifth full business day following the date of the transaction (trade date). In Japan, regular settlement occurs three business days following the trade date; in London, two weeks following the trade date (at times, three weeks); in France, once per month. Regular way settlement In the money and bond markets, the standard basis on which some security trades are settled is that the delivery of the securities purchased is made against payment in Fed funds on the day following the transaction. Regulated commodities The group of registered commodity futures and options contracts traded on organized U.S. futures exchanges. Regulated investment company An investment company allowed to pass capital gains, dividends, and interest earned on fund investments directly to its shareholders so that it is taxed only at the personal level, and double taxation is avoided. Regulation A A Federal Reserve Board regulation that exempts small public offerings, valued at less than $1.5MM from most registration requirements with the SEC. Regulation D Federal Reserve Board regulation that currently requires member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from foreign offices of other banks over a 28-day averaging period. Regulation D has been merged with Regulation M. Regulation G Federal Reserve Board regulation of lenders other than commercial banks, brokers, or dealers that provide credit for the purchase of or carrying of securities. Regulation M Federal Reserve Board regulation that currently requires member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings from their foreign branches over a 28-day averaging period. Reg M has also required member banks to hold reserves against Eurodollars lent by their foreign branches to domestic corporations for domestic purposes. Regulation Q Federal Reserve Board regulation imposing caps on the rates that banks may pay on savings and time deposits. Currently time deposits with a denomination of $100,000 or more are exempt from Reg Q. Regulation T Federal Reserve Board regulation that deals with granting credit to customers by securities brokers, dealers, and exchange member as far as initial margin requirements and securities that are covered under the rules. Regulation U Federal Reserve Board limit on how much credit a bank can allow a customer for the purchase and carrying of margin securities. Regulatory accounting procedures (RAP) Accounting principles required by the FHLB that allow S&Ls to elect annually to defer gains and losses on the sale of assets and amortize these deferrals over the average life of the asset sold. Regulatory pricing risk Risk that arises when insurance companies are subject to regulation of the premium rates that can they charge. Regulatory surplus The surplus as measured using regulatory accounting principles (RAP), which may allow the nonmarket valuation of assets or liabilities and which may be materially different from economic surplus. Rehypothecation Pledging to banks by securities brokers of the amount in customers' margin account as collateral for broker loans, which are used to cover margin loans to customers for margin purchases and selling short. Reimbursement Payment made to someone for out-of-pocket expenses has incurred. Reinstatement The restoration of an insurance policy after it has lapsed for nonpayment of premiums. Reinsurance The spreading of risk and division of client premiums among insurance companies allowing the sharing of the burden of a large risk. Reinvestment privilege A shareholder's right to reinvest dividends and buy more shares in the corporation or mutual fund. Reinvestment rate The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a debt security can be reinvested over the life of that security. Reinvestment risk The risk that proceeds received in the future may have to be reinvested at a lower potential interest rate. Reinvoicing center A central financial subsidiary an MNC uses to reduce transaction exposure by billing all home country exports in the home currency and reinvoicing to each operating affiliate in that affiliate's local currency. It can also be used as a netting center. Rejection Refusal by a bank to grant credit, usually because of the applicant's financial history, or refusal to accept a security presented to complete a trade, usually because of a lack of proper endorsements or violation of rules of a firm. Relative purchasing power parity (RPPP) Idea that the rate of change in the price level of commodities in one country relative to the price level in another determines the rate of change of the exchange rate between the two countries' currencies. Relative strength Movement of a stock price over the past year as compared to a market index (like the S&P 500). A value below 1.0 means the stock shows relative weakness in price movement (underperformed the market); a value above 1.0 means the stock shows relative strength over the one-year period. Equation for Relative Strength: [current stock price/year-ago stock price] divided by [current S&P 500/year-ago S&P 500]. Note this can be a misleading indicator of performance because it does not take risk into account. Relative value The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to another, or, for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another. Relative yield spread The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level. Used for bonds. Release Relieve party to a trade of any previously made obligation concerning that trade, hence allowing the would-be transactor to show the inquiry/order to a new broker. Release clause A mortgage provision that releases a pledged asset after a certain portion of the total payments has been made. Remainderman One who receives the principal of a trust when it is dissolved. Remaining maturity The length of time remaining until a bond comes due Remaining principal balance The amount of principal dollars remaining to be paid under a mortgage as of a given time. Remargining Putting up additional cash or securities after a margin call on a brokerage customer's margin account so that it meets minimum maintenance requirements. Rembrandt market The foreign market in the Netherlands. Remit To pay for purchases by cash, check, or electronic transfer. Remote disbursement Technique that involves writing checks drawn on banks in remote locations so as to maximize disbursement float. Renewal Placement of a day order identical to one not completed on the previous day. Renewable term life insurance A policy for a stated period that may be renewed if desired at the end of the term. Rent Regular payments to an owner for the use of some leased property. Rental lease See: Full-service lease Rent control Municipal regulation restricting the amount of rent that a building owner can charge. Reoffering yield In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which an underwriter offers to sell bonds to investors. Reopen an issue The Treasury, when it wants to sell additional securities, will occasionally sell more of an existing issue (reopen it) rather than offer a new issue. Reorganization Creation of a plan to restructure a debtor's business and restore its financial health. Reorganization bond A bond issued by a company undergoing a reorganization process. Repatriation The return from abroad of the financial assets of an organization or individual. Replacement cost Cost to replace a firm's assets. Replacement cost accounting An accounting method that includes as part of depreciation the difference between the original purchase price of an asset and the current replacement cost. Replacement cost insurance Insurance that pays out the full amount required to replace damaged property with new property, without taking into account the depreciated value of the property. Replacement cycle The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset. Replacement value Current cost of replacing the firm's assets. Replacement-chain problem Idea that future replacement decisions must be taken into account in selecting among projects. Replicating portfolio A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark. Repo An agreement in which one party sells a security to another party and agrees to repurchase it on a specified date for a specified price. See: Repurchase agreement. Report Written or oral confirmation that all or part of one's order has been executed, including the price and size parameters of the trade being reported; often followed by a fresh picture. Reported factor The pool factor as reported by the bond buyer for a given amortization period. Reporting currency The currency in which the parent firm prepares its own financial statements; that is, U.S. dollars for a U.S. company. Reproducible assets A tangible asset with physical properties that can be matched or duplicated, such as a building or machinery. Repurchase agreement An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a collateralized short-term loan for which, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument, federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser's (customer's) perspective, the deal is reported as a reverse repo. Repurchase of stock Technique to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferential tax treatment for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a Dutch auction, open market, purchase, or tender offer. Required reserves The dollar amounts, based on reserve ratios, that banks are required to keep on deposit at a Federal Reserve Bank. Required return The minimum expected return you would need in order to purchase an asset, that is, to make the investment. Required yield Generally referring to bonds; the yield required by the marketplace to match available expected returns for financial instruments with comparable risk. Rescheduled loans Bank loans that are usually altered to have longer maturities in order to assist the borrower in making the necessary repayments. Rescind To cancel a contract because of misrepresentation, fraud, or illegal procedure. Research and development (R"D)>
Development of new products and services by a company in order to obtain a competitive advantage.

Research and development limited partnership
A partnership whose investors put up money to finance new product R&D in return for profits generated from the products.

Research department
The office in an institutional investing organizations that analyzes markets and securities.

Research portable
Service offered to clients that transmits investment bank research electronically by computers.

An accounting entry that properly reflects contingent liabilities.

Reserve currency
A foreign currency held by a central bank or monetary authority for the purposes of exchange intervention and the settlement of intergovernmental claims.

Reserve ratios
Specified percentages of deposits, established by the Federal Reserve Board, that banks must keep in a noninterest-bearing account at one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.

Reserve requirements
The percentage of different types of deposits that member banks are required to hold on deposit at the Fed.

Reset bonds
Bonds that allow the initial interest rates to be adjusted on specific dates in order that the bonds trade at the value they had when they were issued.

Reset frequency
The frequency with which the floating rate changes.

Residential mortgage
Mortgage on a residential property, tax-deductible for individuals up to $1 million.

Residential property
Property that consists of homes, apartments, townhouses, and condominiums.

Residual assets
Assets that remain after sufficient assets are dedicated to meet all senior debtholders' claims in full.

Residual claim
Related: Equity claim

Residual dividend approach
An approach that suggests that a firm pay dividends if and only if acceptable investment opportunities for those funds are currently unavailable.

Residual method
A method of allocating the purchase price for the acquisition of another firm among the acquired assets.

Residual risk
Related: Unsystematic risk

(1) Part of stock returns not explained by the explanatory variable (the market index return). Residuals measure the impact of firm-specific events during a particular period. (2) Remainder cash flows generated by pool collateral and those needed to fund bonds supported by the collateral.

Residual value
Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

Resistance level
A price level above which it is supposedly difficult for a security or market to rise. Price ceiling at which technical analysts note persistent selling of a commodity or security. Antithesis of support level.

A document that records a decision or action by a board of directors, or a bond resolution by a government entity authorizing a bond issue.

Resolution Funding Corporation (RefCorp)
A government agency established by Congress in 1989 to issue bailout bonds and raise funds for the activities of the Resolution Trust Corporation, as well as to administer struggling institutions inherited from the disbanded Federal Savings and Loan Corporation.

Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC)
A government agency established in 1989 and disbanded in 1996 that administered federal savings and loan institutions that were insolvent between 1989 and August 1992 by either bailing them out or merging them.

Placed on a list that dictates that the trader may not maintain positions, solicit business, or provide indications in a stock, but may serve as broker in agency trades after being properly cleared. Traders are so restricted due to investment bank involvement with the company on nonpublic activity (i.e., mergers and acquisitions defense), affiliate ownership, or underwriting activities; signified on the Quotron by a flashing "R." A restricted list and the stocks on it should never be conveyed to anyone outside of the trading areas, much less outside the firm. See: Grey list.

Restricted account
A margin account without enough equity to meet the initial margin requirement that is restricted from any purchases until the requirement is fulfilled.

Restricted surplus
A portion of retained earnings not allowed by law to be used for the payment of dividends.

Restricted stock
Stock that must be traded in compliance with special SEC regulations concerning its purchase and resale. These restrictions generally result from affiliate ownership, M&A activity, and underwriting activity.

Restrictive covenants
Provisions that place constraints on the operations of borrowers, such as restrictions on working capital, fixed assets, future borrowing, and payment of dividends.

Restrictive endorsement
An endorsement signature on the back of a check that specifies the conditions under which the check can be transferred or paid out.

The reorganization of a company in order to attain greater efficiency and to adapt to new markets.

Resyndication limited partnership
The sale of existing properties to new limited partners, so that they can receive the tax advantages that are no longer available to the old partners.

Individual and institutional customers as opposed to dealers and brokers.

Retail credit
Credit granted by a firm to consumers for the purchase of goods or services. See: consumer credit.

Retail house
A brokerage firm that caters to individual customers rather than large institutions.

Retail investors
Small individual investors who commit capital for their personal account rater than on behalf of another company.

Retail price
The total price charged for a product sold to a customer, which includes the manufacturer's cost plus a retail markup.

Retained earnings
Accounting earnings that are retained by the firm for reinvestment in its operations; earnings that are not paid out as dividends.

Retained earnings statement
A statement of all transactions affecting the balance of a company's retained earnings account.

The number of units allocated to an underwriting syndicate member less the units held back by the syndicate manager for facilitating institutional sales and for allocation to nonmember firms.

Retention rate
The percentage of present earnings held back or retained by a corporation, or one minus the dividend payout rate. Also called the retention ratio.

To extinguish a security, as in paying off a debt.

Removal from circulation of stock or bonds that have been reacquired or redeemed.

Retirement Protection Act of 1994
Legislation designed to protect the pension benefits of workers and retirees by increasing required support of pension plans by employers.

A price movement in the opposite direction of the previous trend.

The change in the value of a portfolio over an evaluation period, including any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

Return of capital
A cash distribution resulting from the sale of a capital asset, or securities, or tax breaks from depreciation.

Return on assets (ROA)
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by total average assets. Result is shown as a percentage. ROA can be decomposed into return on sales (net income/sales) multiplied by asset utilization (sales/assets).

Return on equity (ROE)
Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12 months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). Result is shown as a percentage. Investors use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets (ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

Return on investment (ROI)
Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

Return on sales
A measurement of operational efficiency equaling net pre-tax profits divided by net sales expressed as a percentage.

Return on total assets
The ratio of earnings available to common stockholders to total assets.

Return-to-maturity expectations
A variant of pure expectations theory that suggests that the return an investor will realize by rolling over short-term bonds to some investment horizon will be the same as holding a zero-coupon bond with a maturity that is the same as that investment horizon.

International news and quotation service based in London.

An increase in the foreign exchange value of a currency that is pegged to other currencies or gold.

Revenue Anticipation Note (RAN)
A short-term municipal debt issue that will be repaid with anticipated revenues, such as sales taxes, from the project.

Revenue bond
A bond issued by a municipality to finance either a project or an enterprise in which the issuer pledges to the bondholders the revenues generated by the operation of the projects financed. Examples are hospital revenue bonds and sewer revenue bonds.

Revenue fund
A fund accounting for all revenues from an enterprise financed by a municipal revenue bond.

Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993
Legislation created to reduce the federal budget deficit by cutting spending and increasing taxes.

Revenue sharing
The percentage split between the general partner and limited partners of profits and losses resulting from the operation of the involved business.

Turn, unwind. For convertible reversal, selling a convertible and buying the underlying common, usually effected by an arbitrageur. For market reversal, change in direction in the stock or commodity futures markets, as charted by technical analysts in trading ranges. For options reversal, closing the positions of each aspect of an options spread or combination strategy.

Reverse a swap
Reswap of bonds to gain the advantage of a yield spread or tax loss and restore a bond portfolio to its position before the original swap.

Reverse conversion
A technique in which brokerage firms earn interest on the stocks they hold for their customers by selling the short and investing the proceeds in money market accounts. The short positions are hedged to protect against adverse market conditions.

Reverse leverage
Occurs when the interest on borrowings exceeds the return on investment of the funds that were borrowed.

Reverse leveraged buyout
Bringing back into publicly traded status a company that had been privatized by way of a leveraged buyout.

Reverse mortgage
A mortgage agreement allowing a homeowner to borrow against home equity and receive tax-free payments until the total principal and interest reach the credit limit of equity, and the lender is either repaid in full or takes the house.

Reverse price risk
A type of mortgage pipeline risk that occurs when a lender commits to sell loans to an investor at rates prevailing at the time of mortgage application but sets the note rates when the borrowers closes. The lender is thus exposed to the risk of falling rates.

Reverse repo
In essence, refers to a repurchase agreement. From the customer's perspective, the customer provides a collateralized loan to the seller.

Reverse stock split
A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the total value of shares of stock held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a 1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning one share for every three shares owned before the split. After the reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price. Some think this supposedly attracts investors.

Reversing trade
Entering the opposite side of a currently held futures position to close out the position.

Revisionary trust
An irrevocable trust that becomes a revocable trust after a certain amount of time.

Revocable trust
A trust that may altered as many times as desired in which income-producing property passes directly to the beneficiaries at the time of the grantor's death. Since the arrangement can be altered at any time, the assets are considered part of the grantor's estate and they are taxed as such.

Revolving credit agreement
A legal commitment in which a bank promises to lend a customer up to a specified maximum amount during a specified period.

Revolving line of credit
A bank line of credit on which the customer pays a commitment fee and can take and repay funds at will. Normally a revolving LOC involves a firm commitment from the bank for a period of several years.

Reward-to-volatility ratio
Ratio of excess return to portfolio standard deviation.

Term for a security whose price seems too high in light of its price history.

Stands for Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act. Legislation under/which inside traders may be convicted.

A form accompanying an insurance policy that alters the policy's terms or coverage.

Riding the yield curve
Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the declining maturity of the bonds.

Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994
Law permitting interstate banking in the U.S.

Rigged market
Manipulation of prices in a market to attract buyers and sellers.

Privilege granted shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is offered to the public. Such a right, which normally has a life of two to four weeks, is freely transferable and entitles the holder to buy the new common stock below the public offering price. See: Warrant.

Right here
Used in the context of general equities. In-line, emphasizing that this is a customer inquiry that is ready to be executed and not distant on price. See: Tight.

Rights offering
Issuance to shareholders that allows them to purchase additional shares, usually at a discount to market price. Holdings of shareholders who do not exercise rights are usually diluted by the offering. Rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may wish to exercise them. Rights offerings are particularly common to closed-end funds, which cannot otherwise issue additional common stock.

Right of first refusal
The right of a person or company to purchase some thing before the offering is made to others.

Right of redemption
The right to recover property that has been attached by paying off the debt .

Right of rescission
The right to void a contract without any penalty within three days as provided in the Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968.

Shares trading with rights attached to them.

Trading arenas located on the floor of an exchange in which traders execute orders. Sometimes called a pit.

"Ring the cash register"
Used in the context of general equities. "Take a profit." See: Profit taking.

Rising bottoms
Chart pattern showing an increasing trend in the daily low prices of a security or commodity.

Often defined as the standard deviation of the return on total investment. Degree of uncertainty of return on an asset. In context of asset pricing theory. See: Systematic risk.

Risk-adjusted discount rate
The rate established by adding an expected risk premium to the risk-free rate in order to determine the present value of a risky investment.

Risk-adjusted profitability
A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.

Risk-adjusted return
Often we subtract from the rate of return on an asset a rate of return from another asset that has similar risk. This gives an abnormal rate of return that shows how the asset performed over and above a benchmark asset with the same risk. We can also use the beta against the benchmark to calculate an alpha, which is also risk-adjusted performance.

Risk arbitrage
Traditionally, the simultaneous purchase of stock in a company being acquired and the sale of stock of the acquirer. Modern risk arbitrage focuses on capturing the spreads between the market value of an announced takeover target and the eventual price at which the acquirer will buy the target's shares.

Describes an investor who, when faced with two investments with the same expected return but different risks, prefers the one with the lower risk.

Risk-based capital ratio
Bank requirement that there be a minimum ratio of estimated total capital to estimated risk-weighted asset.

Risk classes
Groups of projects that have approximately the same amount of risk.

Risk controlled arbitrage
A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that generally use mortgage securities (MBS) as the primary assets.

Risk factor
In arbitrage pricing theory or the multibeta capital asset pricing model, the set of common factors that impact returns, e.g., market return, interest rates, inflation, or industrial production.

Risk indexes
Categories of risk used to calculate fundamental beta, including (1) market variability, (2) earnings variability, (3) low valuation, (4) immaturity and smallness, (5) growth orientation, and (6) financial risk.

Riskless arbitrage
The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same asset to yield a profit.

Riskless or risk-free asset
An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk-free asset is commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.

Riskless rate
The rate earned on a riskless investment, typically the rate earned on the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill.

Riskless rate of return
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Riskless transaction
A transaction that is guaranteed a profit, such as the arbitrage of a temporary differential between commodity prices in two different markets. The evaluation of whether dealer markups and markdowns in OTC transactions are reasonable. According to NASD, markups or markdowns should not exceed 5%.

Risk lover
A person willing to accept lower expected returns on prospects with higher amounts of risk.

Risk management
The process of identifying and evaluating risks and selecting and managing techniques to adapt to risk exposures.

Insensitive to risk.

Willing to pay money to assume risk from others.

Risk premium
The reward for holding the risky equity market portfolio rather than the risk-free asset. The spread between Treasury and non-Treasury bonds of comparable maturity.

Risk premium approach
A common approach for tactical asset allocation to determine the relative valuation of asset classes based on expected returns.

Risk-return trade-off
The basic concept that higher expected returns accompany greater risk, and vice versa.

Risk-reward ratio
Relationship of substantial reward corresponding to the amount of risk taken; mathematically represented by dividing the expected return by the standard deviation.

Risk transfer
The shifting of risk through insurance or securitization of debt because of risk aversion.

Risky asset
An asset whose future return is uncertain.

Risk-adjusted return
Return earned on an asset normalized for the amount of risk associated with that asset.

Risk-free asset
An asset whose future normal return is known today with certainty.

Risk-free rate
The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Road show
A promotional presentation by an issuer of securities to potential buyers about the desirable qualities of the investments.

An active asset management strategy that tactically overweighted and underweighted certain sectors, depending on expected performance. Sometimes called sector rotation.

Rocket scientist
An employee of an investment firm (often having a Ph.D. in physics or mathematics) that works on highly mathematic models of derivative pricing.

Roll down
To move to an option position with a lower exercise price.

Roll forward
To move to an option position with a later expiration date.

Roll, Richard
Author of path-breaking work on asset pricing including the famous Roll critique. Finance professor at UCLA.

Roll order
(1) Dividend roll; (2) Replacement of a maturing position with an identical one in the new maturity; (3) Recognizition of capital gain or loss while reestablishing the position at the risk of the market.

Roll over
To reinvest funds received from a maturing security in a new issue of the same or a similar security.

Means that a loan is periodically repriced at an agreed spread over the appropriate, currently prevailing rate. Most term loans in the Euromarket are made on a rollover basis as to current LIBOR rate.

Roll up
To move to an option position with a higher exercise price. In venture capital, refers to the venture capitalist forcing small firms to merge operations in order to reduce costs

Ross, Stephen
Developer of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Finance professor at MIT.

Roth IRA
Individual Retirement Account that allows contributors to invest up to $2,000 per year, and to withdraw the principal and earnings totally tax-free under certain conditions.

Round lot
A trading order typically of 100 shares of a stock or some multiple of 100. Related: odd lot.

Round-trip trade
The purchase and sale of a security within a short period of time.

Round-trip transactions costs
Costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact costs, and taxes.

Procedure by which the long or short position of an individual is offset by an opposite transaction or by accepting or making delivery of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.

Payment for the right to use intellectual property or natural resources.

Rubber check
A check that bounces for lack of funds.

R square (R2)
Square of the correlation coefficient. The proportion of the variability in one series that can be explained by the variability of one or more other series a regression model. A measure of the quality of fit. 100% R-square means perfect predictability.

Rule 13-d
Often used in risk arbitrage. Requirement under Section 13-d of the Securities Act of 1934 that a form must be filed with the SEC within ten business days of acquiring direct or beneficial ownership of 5% or more of any class of equity securities in a publicly held corporation. The purchaser of such stock must also file a 13-d with the stock exchange on which the shares are listed (if any) and the company itself. Required information includes the way the shares were acquired, the purchaser's background, and future plans regarding the target company. The law is designed to protect against insidious takeover attempts and to keep the investing public aware of information that could affect the price of their stock. See: Williams Act.

Rule 14-d
Often used in risk arbitrage. Regulations and restrictions covering public tender offers and related disclosure requirements.

Rule 144
Restricts solicitation of buyers to complete the sell order of an insider (unless the firm is already a buyer); signified by a flashing "E" on Quotron.

Rule 144a
SEC rule allowing qualified institutional buyers to buy and trade unregistered securities.

Rule 405
NYSE codification of "know your customer" rules, which require that a customer's situation is suitable for any investment being made.

Rule 415
Permits corporations to file a registration for securities they intend to issue in the future when market conditions are favorable. See: Shelf registration.

Rule of 72
A formula used to determine the amount of time it will take for invested money to double at a given compound interest rate, which is 72 divided by the interest rate.

Rules of fair practice
Rules established by the NASD that lay down guidelines for just and equitable principles of trade and business in securities markets.

A term combining the words "rumor" and arbitrage, used to describe trading that occurs on the basis of rumors of a takeover.

Usually used in the context of a merger or acquisition. A group of shareholders who refuse to tender their shares for a merger or acquisition. In a merger of Company A and Company B for example, if a sufficient number of Company B shareholders do not tender their shares, the new company will not be able to access the cash flows of Company B.

A run consists of a series of bid and offer quotes for different securities or maturities. Dealers give and ask for runs from each other.

A summary of the amount and prices of a serial bond issue that is still available for purchase.

Running ahead
The illegal practice of trading in a security for a broker's personal account before placing an order for the same security for a customer.

Used for listed equity securities. Series of trades printed on the ticker tape that occur on the NYSE before 4:00 p.m., but are not reported until afterwards due to heavy trading that makes the tape late.

Russell Indexes
U.S. equity index widely used by pension and mutual fund investors that are weighted by market capitalization and published by the Frank Russell Company of Tacoma, Washington. For example, the Russell 3000 index includes the 3,000 largest U.S. companies according to market capitalization.

Russian Trading System (RTS)
An electronic system in Russia, like the Nasdaq system on which the majority of Russian equities trading is conducted.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying a beneficial interest.

See: Savings Association Insurance Fund

See: Special drawing rights

See: Stock Exchange Automated Quotation System

See: Securities & Exchange Commission

See: Stock Exchange of Hong Kong

See: Security Industry Automated Corporation

See: Standard Industrial Classification

See: Singapore International Monetary Exchange

See: Stripped mortgage backed securities

See: Small Order Execution System

See: Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications

Safe harbor
Often used in risk arbitrage as a form of shark repellent. A target company acquires a business so onerously regulated that it makes the target less attractive, giving it, in effect, a safe harbor.

Safe harbor lease
A lease to transfer tax benefits of ownership (depreciation and debt tax shield) from the lessee, if the lessee could not use them, to a lessor that could use them.

Holding by a bank of bonds and money market instruments. For a fee, the bank clips coupons and presents for payment at maturity.

Safety cushion
In a contingent immunization strategy, the difference between the initially available immunization level and the safety-net return.

Safety-net return
The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent immunization strategy.

Regular wages and benefits an employee receives from an employer.

Salary freeze
A temporary halt to increases in salary due to financial difficulties experienced by a company.

Salary reduction plan
A plan allowing employees to contribute pre-tax income to a tax-deferred retirement plan.

An agreement between a buyer and a seller on the price to be paid for a security, followed by delivery.

Sale and lease-back
Sale of an existing asset to a financial institution that then leases it back to the user. Related: Lease.

Sales charge
The fee charged by a mutual fund at purchase of shares, usually payable as a commission to a marketing agent, such as a financial adviser, who is thus compensated for assistance to a purchaser. It represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.

Sales forecast
A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.

Sales literature
Material written by an institution selling a product, which informs potential buyers of the product and its benefits.

Sales load
See: Sales charge

Sales tax
A percentage tax on the selling price of goods and services.

Sales-type lease
The leasing out of a firm's own equipment, such as a printing company leasing its own presses, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.

Sallie Mae
See: Student Loan Marketing Association

Salomon Brothers World Equity Index (SBWEI)
A top-down, float capitalization-weighted index used to measure the performance of fixed-income and equity markets. It includes approximately 6000 companies in 22 countries.

Salvage value
Scrap value of plant and equipment.

Same-Day Funds Settlement (SDFS)
A method of settlement used in trading between well-collateralized parties in good-the-same-day federal funds used by the Depository Trust Company for transactions in U.S. government securities, short-term municipal notes, medium-term commercial paper notes, CMOs, and other instruments.

Same-day substitution
Offsetting changes in a margin account during the day that result in no overall change in the balance of the account.

Samurai bond
A yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by a non-Japanese borrower. Related: Bulldog bond and Yankee bond.

Samurai market
The foreign market in Japan.

Santa Claus Rally
Seasonal rise in stock prices in the last week of the calendar year, between Christmas and New Year's Day.

Sao Paulo Stock Exchange
See: Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo

Standard & Poor's Corporation.

S&P 500 Composite Index
Index of 500 widely held common stocks that measures the general performance of the market.

S&P phenomenon
Tendency of stocks newly added to the S&P composite index to rise in price due to a large number of buy orders as S&P-related index funds add the stock to their portfolios.

S&P Rating
Rating service provided by S&P that indicates the amount of risk involved with different securities.

Saturday night special
Often used in risk arbitrage. Sudden attempt by one company to take over another by making a public tender offer.

Technical chart pattern depicting a security whose price has reached bottom and is moving up.

Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF)
A government organization that replaced the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation as the provider of deposit insurance for thrift institutions.

Savings bank
An institution that primarily accepts consumer savings deposits and to make home mortgage loans.

Savings bond
A government bond issued in face value denominations from $50 to $10,000, with local and state tax-free interest and semiannually adjusted interest rates.

Savings deposits
Accounts that pay interest, typically at below-market interest rates, that do not have a specific maturity, and that usually can be withdrawn upon demand.

Savings element
Used in the context of life insurance, the cash value built up in a policy, which equals the amount of premium paid minus the cost of protection. This excess is invested by the insurance company, and the returns are tax-deferred inside the policy.

Savings and loan association
National- or state-chartered institution that accepts savings deposits and invests the bulk of the funds thus received in mortgages.

Savings rate
Personal savings as a percentage of disposable personal income.

Payment of different rates of interest on CDs of varying maturities. A bank is said to "post a scale." Commercial paper dealers also post scales.

Describes a project that is in the same risk class as the whole firm. That is, the project allows the firm to grow larger in the context of their current business rather than diversify into new businesses.

Scale in
Gradually taking a position in a security or market over time.

Scale order
Order to buy (sell) a security that specifies the total amount to be bought (sold) and the amount to be bought (sold) at successively decreasing (increasing) price intervals; often placed in order to average the price.

To trade for small gains. Scalping normally involves establishing and liquidating a position quickly, usually within the same day.

Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest.

Scenario analysis
The use of horizon analysis to project total returns under different reinvestment rates and future market yields.

Schedule C
Describes membership requirements and procedures of NASD, in its bylaws.

Schedule 13d
Disclosure form required when more than 5% of any class of equity securities in a publicly held corporation is purchased.

Scheduled cash flows
The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the mortgage, not including possible prepayments.

Scorched-earth policy
Often used in risk arbitrage. Any technique a company that has become the target of a takeover attempt uses to make itself unattractive to the acquirer. For example, it may agree to sell off its crown jewels, or schedule all debt to become due immediately after a merger.

Stands for Special Claim on Residual Equity, a certificate that entitles the owner to the capital appreciation of an underlying security, but not to the dividend income from the security.

Screen stocks
To analyze various stocks in search of stocks that meet predetermined criteria. For example, a simple value screen would sort all stocks by their price-to-book ratio and pick the stocks with the lowest ratios as candidates for the value portfolio.

A temporary document that represents a portion of a share of stock, often issued after a stock split or spin-off.

Collecting stock and bond certificates for their scarcity, rather than for their value as securities.

Search costs
Costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as advertising) and implicit costs (such as the value of time). Related: Information costs.

Seasonally adjusted
Mathematically adjusted by moderating a macroeconomic indicator (e.g., oil prices/imports) so that relative comparisons can be drawn from month to month all year.

In the case of equity, having gained a reputation for quality with the investing public and enjoying liquidity in the secondary market; in the case of convertibles, having traded for at least 90 days after issue in Europe, and thus available for sale legally to U.S. investors.

Seasoned datings
Extended credit for customers who order goods in periods other than peak seasons.

Seasoned issue
Issue of a security for which there is an existing market. Related: Unseasoned issue.

Seasoned new issue
A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A seasoned new issue of common stock can be made using a cash offer or a rights offer.

Position of membership on a securities or commodity exchange, bought and sold at market prices.

SEC fee
Small fee the SEC charges to sellers of equity securities on an exchange.

Second pass regression
A cross-sectional regression of portfolio returns on betas. The estimated slope is the measurement of the reward for bearing systematic risk during the period analyzed.

Second-preferred stock
Preferred stock issue that has less priority in claiming dividends and assets in liquidation than another issue of preferred stock.

Second round
Stage of venture capital financing following the start-up and first round stages and before the mezzanine level stage.

Second-to-die insurance
Insurance policy that, on the death of the spouse dying last, pays a death benefit to the heirs that is designed to cover estate taxes.

Secondary distribution/offering
Public sale of previously issued securities held by large investors, usually corporations or institutions, as distinguished from a primary distribution, where the seller is the issuing corporation. The sale is handled off the NYSE, by a securities firm or a group of firms, and the shares are usually offered at a fixed price related to the current market price of the stock.

Secondary issue
(1) Procedure for selling blocks of seasoned issues of stocks. (2) More generally, sale of already issued stock.

Secondary market
The market in which securities are traded after they are initially offered in the primary market. Most trading occurs in the secondary market. The New York Stock Exchange, as well as all other stock exchanges and the bond markets, are secondary markets. Seasoned securities are traded in the secondary market.

Secondary mortgage market
Buying and selling existing mortgage loans, which are often pooled and traded as mortgage-backed securities.

Secondary stocks
Stocks with smaller market capitalization, less quality and more risk than blue chip issues that behave differently than larger corporations' stocks.

Second mortgage lending
Loans secured by real estate previously pledged in a first mortgage.

Section 482
U.S. Department of Treasury regulations governing transfer prices.

Used to characterize a group of securities that are similar with respect to maturity, type, rating, industry, and/or coupon.

Sector rotation
An active asset management strategy certain sectors, that tactically overweights and underweights depending on expected performance. Sometimes called rotation.

Long-term time frame (10-50 years or more).

Secured bond
A bond backed by the pledge of collateral, a mortgage, or other lien, as opposed to an unsecured bond, called a debenture .

Secured debt
Debt that has first claim on specified assets in the event of default.

Securities Act of 1933
First law designed to regulate securities markets, requiring registration of securities and disclosure.

Securities Acts Amendments of 1975
Legislation to encourage the establishment of a national market system together with a system for nationwide clearing and settlement of securities transactions.

Securities analysts
Related: Financial analysts

Securities and commodities exchanges
Exchanges on which securities, options, and futures contracts are traded by members for their own accounts and for the accounts of customers.

Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)
A federal agency that regulates the U.S. financial markets. The SEC also oversees the securities industry and promotes full disclosure in order to protect the investing public against malpractice in the securities markets.

Securities and Exchange Commission Rules
Rules enacted by the SEC to assist in the regulation of U.S. financial markets.

Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Legislation that created the SEC, outlawing dishonest practices in the trading of securities.

Securities Exchange of Thailand (SET)
The only stock market in Thailand, based in Bangkok.

Securities Industry Association (SIA)
An association of broker-dealers who sell taxable securities, which lobbies the government, records industry trends, and keeps records of broker profits.

Securities Industry Committee on Arbitration (SICA)
A private group that provides mediation services in case of customer complaints against securities firms.

Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)
A nonprofit corporation that insures customers' securities and cash held by member brokerage firms against the failure of those firms.

Securities loan
The loan of securities between brokers, often to cover a client's short sale; or a loan secured by marketable securities.

Securities markets
Organized exchanges plus over-the-counter markets in which securities are traded.

Creating a more or less standard investment instrument such as the mortgage pass-through security, by pooling assets to back the instrument. Also refers to the replacement of nonmarketable loans and/or cash flows provided by financial intermediaries with negotiable securities issued in the public capital markets.

Piece of paper that proves ownership of stocks, bonds, and other investments.

Security characteristic line
A plot on a graph of the excess return on a security over the risk-free rate as a function of the excess return on the market. The slope of this line is the security's beta.

Security deposit (initial)
Synonymous with the term margin. A cash amount that must be deposited with the broker for each contract as a guarantee of fulfillment of the futures contract. It is not considered as part payment or purchase. Related: Margin.

Security deposit (maintenance)
Related: Maintenance margin

Security Industry Automated Corporation (SIAC
Entity that executes automated DOT orders.

Security market line
Line representing the relationship between expected return and market risk or beta. The slope of this line is the risk premium for beta.

Security market plane
A plane that shows the relationship between expected return and the beta coefficient of more than one factor.

Security ratings
Commercial rating agencies' assessment of the credit and investment risk of securities.

Security selection
See: Security selection decision

Security selection decision
Choosing the particular stocks or bonds or other investment instruments to include in a portfolio.

Seed money
The first contribution by a venture capitalist toward the financing of a new business, often using a loan or purchase of convertible bonds or preferred stock. See: Mezzanine level and second round.

Seek a market
Search for a securities buyer or seller.

Segregation of securities
SEC rules to dictate how customers' securities may be used by broker-dealers in broker loans.

Select ten portfolio
A unit investment trust that buys and holds for one year the ten stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the highest dividend yields.

Selected dealer agreement
The set of rules governing the selling group in an underwriting.

Self-amortizing mortgage
Mortgage whose entire principal is paid off in a specified period of time with regular interest and principal payments.

Self-directed IRA
An IRA that the account holder can after appointing a custodian manager to carry out investment instructions.

Self-employed income
Taxable income of a person involved in a sole proprietorship or other sort of free-lance work.

Self-employment tax
A tax self-employed people must pay to qualify them to receive Social Security benefits at retirement.

Self-liquidating loan
Loan to finance current assets. The sale of the current assets provides the cash to repay the loan.

Self-regulatory organization (SRO)
Organizations that enforce fair, ethical, and efficient practices in the securities and commodity futures industries, including all national securities and commodities exchanges and the NASD.

Consequence of a contract that induces only one group to participate.

Self-supporting debt
Bonds sold to finance a project that will produce enough revenue through tolls or other charges to retire the debt . See: revenue bond.

Sell the book
Used for listed equity securities. Order to a broker by the holder of a large quantity of shares of a security to sell all that can be absorbed at the current bid price. The term derives from the specialist's book - the record of all the buy and sell orders members have placed in the stock one handles. In this scenario, the buyers potentially include those in the specialist's book, the specialist for its own account, and broker-dealers.

Sell hedge
Related: short hedge.

Sell limit order
Conditional trading order that indicates that a security may be sold at the designated price or higher. Related: Buy limit order.

Sell off
Sale of securities under pressure. See: Dumping.

Sell order
An order that may take many different forms by an investor to a broker to sell a particular stock, bond, option, future, mutual fund, or other holding.

Sell out
Liquidation of a margin account after a customer has failed to bring an account to a required level by producing additional equity after a margin call.

The selling of securities by a broker when a customer fails to pay for them.

The complete sale of all securities in a new issue.

Sell plus order
Market or limit order to sell a stated amount of stock provided that the price to be obtained is not lower than the last sale if the last sale was a plus, or zero plus tick, and is not lower than the last sale plus the minimum fractional change in the stock if the last sale was a minimum or zero minimum tick. (In a limit order, sale cannot be lower than the limit, regardless of tick.)

Sell-side analyst
A financial analyst who works for a brokerage firm and whose recommendations are passed on to the brokerage firm's customers. Also called a Wall Street analyst.

Seller financing
Funding a purchase by a seller's loan to the buyer, the buyer takes full title to the property when the loan is fully repaid.

Seller's market
Market in which demand exceeds supply. As a result, the seller can dictate the price and the terms of sale.

Seller's option
Delayed settlement/delivery in a transaction.

Selling climax
A sudden drop in security prices as sellers dump their holdings.

Selling concession
The discount underwriters offer the selling group on securities in a new issue.

Selling dividends
Inducing a prospective customer to buy shares in order to profit from a dividend scheduled in the near future.

Selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses
Expenses such as salespersons' salaries and commissions, advertising and promotion, travel and entertainment, office payroll and expenses, and executives' salaries.

Selling on the good news
A strategy of selling stock shortly after a company announces good news and the stock price rises. Investors believe that the price is as high as it can go and is on the brink of going down.

Selling group
All banks involved in selling or marketing a new issue of stock or bonds.

Selling short
Selling a stock not actually owned. If an investor thinks the price of a stock is going down, the investor could borrow the stock from a broker and sell it. Eventually, the investor must buy the stock back on the open market. For instance, you borrow 1000 shares of XYZ on July 1 and sell it for $8 per share. Then, on Aug. 1, you purchase 1000 shares of XYZ at $7 per share. You've made $1000 (less commissions and other fees) by selling short.

Selling short against the box
Selling short stock that is actually owned by the seller but held in the box, meaning it is held in safekeeping. The seller borrows securities needed to cover as the stock in the box may be inaccessible, or the seller may not wish to disclose ownership.

Selling the spread
A spread whose option to be sold is trading at a higher premium than the option to be bought.

Semistrong-form efficiency
A form of pricing efficiency that profits the price of a security fully reflects all public information (including, but not limited to, historical price and trading patterns). Compare weak-form efficiency and strong-form efficiency.

"Send it in"
Market language: "I bought your stock - 'send it in' (and possibly more)."

Senior debt
Debt whose terms in the event of bankruptcy, require it to be repaid before subordinated debt receives any payment.

Senior mortgage bond
A bond that, in the event of bankruptcy, will be redeemed before any other bonds are repaid.

Senior refunding
Replacement by the issuer of securities with 5-to 12-year maturities with securities of 15-year or longer maturities, in order to delay, reduce, or consolidate payment.

Senior security
A security that, in the event of bankruptcy, will be redeemed before any other securities.

The order of repayment. In the event of bankruptcy, senior debt must be repaid before subordinated debt is repaid.

Sensitive market
A market that reacts to a great extent to good or bad news.

Sensitivity analysis
Analysis of the effect on a project's profitability of changes in sales, cost, and so on.

Sentiment indicators
The general feeling of investors about the state of the market, such as whether they are bullish or bearish.

Separate customer
Method of allocating insurance by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Each account that is under the name of a different person or group of people is entitled to maximum protection.

Separate tax returns
Tax returns of married persons who choose to file their returns individually, usually because this approach produces lower overall tax payments.

Separation property
The property that portfolio choice can be divided into two independent tasks: (1) Determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is a purely mathematical problem, and (2) the personal choice of the best mix of the optimal risky portfolio and the risk-free asset, which depends on a person's degree of risk aversion.

Separation theorem
Theory that the value of an investment to an individual is not dependent on consumption preferences. That is, investors will want to accept or reject the same investment projects by using the NPV rule, regardless of personal preference.

Corporate bonds arranged so that specified principal amounts become due on specified dates. Related: Term bonds.

Serial covariance
The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as autocorrelation.

Serial entrepreneur
Business person that successfully starts (does not kill) a number of different businesses.

Serial redemption
The redemption of a serial bond.

Options: All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade, expiration date, and exercise price. Stocks: shares that have common characteristics, such as rights to ownership and voting, dividends, or par value. In the case of many foreign shares, one series may be owned only by citizens of the country in which the stock is registered.

Series bond
Bond that may be issued in several series under the same indenture document.

Series E bond
A local and state tax-free bond issued by the U.S. government from 1941 to 1979, which was then replaced by Series HH bonds.

Series EE bond
See: Savings bond

Series HH bond
See: Savings bond

A percentage of a municipal or corporate bond underwriting that is allocated for handling by a minority-owned broker/dealer firm.

Set of contracts perspective
View of corporation as a set of contracting relationships among individuals who have conflicting objectives, such as shareholders or managers. The corporation is a legal construct that serves as the nexus for the contracting relationships.

Set up
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Arbitrage involving going long the convertible and short a certain percentage of the underlying common. Antithesis of Chinese hedge.

When payment is made for a trade.

Settlement date
The date on which payment is made to settle a trade. For stocks traded on U.S. exchanges, settlement is currently three business days after the trade. For mutual funds, settlement usually occurs in the U.S. the day following the trade. In some regional markets, foreign shares may require months to settle.

Settlement options
The various possibilities open to a beneficiary under a life insurance policy as to how the benefit will be paid out.

Settlement price
A figure determined by the closing range that is used to calculate gains and losses in futures market accounts. Settlement prices are used to determine gains, losses, margin calls, and invoice prices for deliveries. Related: Closing range.

Settlement rate
The rate suggested in Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) 87 for discounting the obligations of a pension plan. The rate at which the pension benefits could be effectively settled if the company sponsoring the pension plan wishes to terminate its pension obligation.

Settlement risk
The risk that one party will deliver and the counterparty will not be able to pay and vice versa.

Severally but not jointly
An agreement between members of an underwriting group buy a new issue (severally), but not to assume joint liability for shares left unsold by other members.

Shadow calendar
A backlog of securities issues registered with the SEC, awaiting the determination of an offer date.

Shadow stock
First, a public company may create a stock that strips out the market wide movements for the purpose of rewarding managers. That is, the management might have done a great job - but the traded stock plummets because the market as a whole plummets. A second interpretation of shadow stock is a phantom stock that is created by a private company (i.e. that does not have stock traded either on exchange or over the counter) again for the purpose of performance evaluation and rewards.

A dramatic change in market conditions that forces speculators to sell their positions, often at a loss.

A business transaction, such as a limited partnership, that is entered into for the sake of avoiding tax.

Share broker
A discount broker who charges per share traded, and reduces the per unit charge as the number of shares traded increases, as opposed to a dealer who charges a percentage of the dollar amount of the trade.

Share repurchase
Program by which a corporation buys back its own shares in the open market. It is usually done when shares are undervalued. Since repurchase reduces the number of shares outstanding and thus increases earnings per share, it tends to elevate the market value of the remaining shares held by stockholders.

Shared Appreciation Mortgage (SAM)
A mortgage with a low rate of interest, offset by giving the lender some portion of the appreciation in the value of the underlying property.

Person or entity that owns shares or equity in a corporation.

Shareholders' equity
This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the same thing.

Shareholders' letter
A section of an annual report where one can find general overall discussion by management of successful and failed strategies. Provides guidance for looking at specific parts of the report.

Certificates or book entries representing ownership in a corporation or similar entity.

Shares authorized
The maximum number of shares of stock of a company allowed in the articles of incorporation, which may be changed only by a shareholder vote. See: Issued and outstanding.

Shark repellant
Often used in risk arbitrage. Examples are golden parachutes, poison pills, safe harbor, and scorched-earth policy. Porcupine provision. Amendment to company charter intended to protect it against takeover.

Shark watcher
Often used in risk arbitrage. Firm specializing in the early detection of takeover activity. Such a firm, whose primary business is usually the solicitation of proxies for client corporations, monitors trading patterns in a client's stock and attempts to determine the identity of parties accumulating shares.

Sharpe benchmark
A statistically created benchmark that adjusts for a manager's index-like tendencies. Named after William Sharpe, Nobel Laureate, and developer of the capital asset pricing model.

Sharpe ratio
A measure of a portfolio's excess return relative to the total variability of the portfolio. Related: Treynor index. Named after William Sharpe, Nobel Laureate, and developer of the capital asset pricing model.

Shelf offering
Offering of registered securities covered by a prospectus whose distribution is not underwritten on a firm commitment basis. The shares may be sold in one block or in small amounts from time to time in agency or principal transactions. See: Rule 415.

Shelf registration
A procedure that allows firms to file one registration statement covering several issues of the same security. SEC Rule 415, adopted in the 1980s, allows a corporation to comply with registration requirements up to two years prior to a public offering of securities. With the registration "on the shelf," the corporation, by simply updating regularly filed annual, quarterly, and related reports to the SEC, can go to the market as conditions become favorable with a minimum of administrative preparation and expense.

Shell corporation
An incorporated company with no significant assets or operations, often formed to obtain financing before beginning actual business, or as a front tax evasion.

The tendency to do less work when the return is smaller. Owners may have more incentive to shirk if they issue equity as opposed to debt, because they retain less ownership interest in the company and therefore may receive a smaller return. Thus, shirking is considered an agency cost of equity.

Shock absorbers
See: Circuit breakers

Shogun bond
Dollar bond issued in Japan by a nonresident.

Venture capital jargon. Refers to two or more venture capital firms fighting for the startup.

Wall Street slang for a firm.

Shopped stock
Sell inquiry that has been seen by or shown to other dealers before coming to an investment bank.

Seeking to obtain the best bid or offer available by calling a number of dealers and/or brokers.

One who has sold a contract to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position through an offsetting purchase; the opposite of a long position. Related: Long.

Short bonds
Bonds with short (not much time to maturity) current maturities.

Short book
See: Unmatched book.

Short coupon
A bond payment covering less than six-months' interest, because the original issue date is less than six months from the first scheduled interest payment. A bond with a short time to maturity, usually two years or less.

Short covering
Used in the context of general equities. Actual purchase of securities by a short seller to replace those borrowed at the time of a short sale.

Short exempt
Used for listed equity securities. A special trading situation where a short sale is allowed on a minustick. The owners of a convertible trading at parity can sell the equivalent amount of common short on a minus tick, assuming they have the firm intention to convert.

Short hedge
The sale of futures contracts to eliminate or lessen the possible decline in value of an approximately equal amount of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity. Related: Long hedge.

Short interest
Total number of shares of a security that investors have sold short and that have not been repurchased to close out the short position. Usually, investors sell short to profit from price declines. As a result, the short interest is often an indicator of the amount of pessimism in the market about a particular security, although there are other reasons to short that are not related to pessimism. For example, hedging strategies for mergers and acquisition as well as derivative positions may involve short sales.

Short interest theory
The theory that a large interest in short positions in stocks will precede a rise in the market prices, because the short positions must eventually be covered by purchases of the stock.

Short position
Occurs when a person sells stocks he or she does not yet own. Shares must be borrowed, before the sale, to make "good delivery" to the buyer. Eventually, the shares must be bought back to close out the transaction. This technique is used when an investor believes the stock price will drop.

Short ratio(or short interest ratio)
Number of shares of a security that investors have sold short divided by average daily volume of the security (measured over 30 days or 90 days). There are various interpretations of this ratio. When people short, it is usually (but not always) because they are pessimistic about the security's future performance. Shorting involves buying at some point however. Hence, some would interpret a high short ratio as an indicator that there will be some buying pressure on the security that would increase its price.

Short-run operating activities
Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.

Short sale
Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.

Short-sale rule
An SEC rule requiring that short sales be made only in a market that is moving upward; this means either on an uptick from the last sale, or showing no downward movement.

Short selling
Establishing a market position by selling a security one does not own in anticipation of the price of that security falling.

Short settlement
Trade settlement made prior to the standard five-day period due to customer request.

Short-short test
A repealed IRS restriction, that used to limit profits from short-term trading, which three months, to 30% of gross income. The penalty for exceeding this limit would be the loss of certain tax-free benefits.

Short squeeze
When a lack of supply tends to force prices upward. In particular, when prices of a stock or commodity futures contracts start to move up sharply and many traders with short positions are forced to buy stocks or commodities in order to cover their positions and prevent (limit) losses. This sudden surge of buying leads to even higher prices, further aggravating the losses of short sellers who have not covered their positions.

Short straddle
A straddle involves both purchase and sale. In short straddle one put and one call are sold.

Short tender
Practice prohibited by SEC that involves the use of borrowed stock to respond to a tender offer.

Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.

Short-term bond fund
A bond mutual fund holding short to intermediate-term bonds that have maturities of three to five years.

Short-term debt
Debt obligations, recorded as current liabilities, requiring payment within the year.

Short-term financial plan
A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.

Short-term gain (or loss)
A profit or loss realized from the sale of securities held for less than a year that is taxed at normal income tax rates if the net total is positive.

Short-term investment services
Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.

Short-term solvency ratios
Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term obligations as they come due, including (1) the current ratio, (2) the acid test ratio, (3) the inventory turnover ratio, and (4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.

Short-term tax exempts
Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, and quesi-government entities such as local housing and urban renewal agencies.

Shortage cost
Costs that fall with increases in the level of investment in current assets.

Shortfall risk
The risk of falling short of any investment target.

Show me buyer/seller
Used in the context of general equities. Customer who has not placed a firm order to buy stock but has requested that the salesperson propose available stock for sale or purchase, along with the asking/bid price. See: Bidding buyer.

Show stopper
A legal barrier, such as a scorched-earth policy or shark repellant system, that firms use to prevent a takeover.

Show and tell list
Used in the context of general equities. Block list which is full of real customer indications (rather than profile).

Discrepancy between a firm's actual inventory and its recorded inventory due to theft, deterioration, loss, or clerical problems.

Shut out the book
Used for listed equity securities. Exclude a public bid or offer from participation in a print.

Side effects
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm.

Side-by-side trading
Trading a security and an option on the same security on the same exchange.

Hypothetical position referring to noninvolvement in a stock; merely watching.

Sideways market
See: Horizontal price movement

Sight draft
Demand for immediate payment.

To convey information through a firm's actions. The more costly it is to provide a signal, the more credibility it has. For example, to call a press conference and tell everyone that the firm's prospects have improved is less effective than saying the same thing and raising the dividend.

Signaling approach
Notion that insiders in a firm have information that the market does not have, and that the choice of capital structure by insiders can signal information to outsiders and change the value of the firm. This theory is also called the asymmetric information approach.

Signaling approach (on dividend policy)
The argument that dividend changes are important signals to investors about changes in management's expectation about future earnings.

Signature loan
A good faith loan that is unsecured and requires only the borrower's signature on the loan application.

Significant influence
The holding of a large portion of the equity of a corporation, usually at least 20%, which gives the holder a significant amount of control over the corporation. This degree of holding must be recorded in a firm's financial statements.

Significant order
An order to buy or sell a large enough quantity of securities that the price of the security may be affected. Institutional investors usually spread out such an order over a few days or weeks to avoid adverse pressures on the buy or sell price.

Significant order imbalance
A large number of buy or sell orders for a stock that cause an abnormally wide spread between bid and offer prices, and often causes the exchange to halt the sale of the stock until significant balance has been reestablished.

Silent partner
A partner in a business who has no role in management but shares in the liability, tax responsibility, and cash flow.

Simple compound growth method
Calculating a growth rate by relating terminal value to initial value and assuming a constant percentage annual rate of growth between the two values.

Simple interest
Interest calculated as a simple percentage of the original principal amount. Compare to compound interest.

Simple IRA
A salary deduction plan for retirement benefits provided by some small companies with no more than 100 employees.

Simple linear regression
A regression analysis between only two variables, one dependent and the other explanatory.

Simple linear trend model
An extrapolative statistical model that asserts that earnings have a base level and grow at a constant amount each period.

Simple moving average
The mean, calculated at any time over a past period of fixed length.

Simple prospect
An investment opportunity in which only two outcomes are possible.

Simple rate of return
The return from investments figured by dividing income plus capital gains by the amount of capital invested. The effect of compounding is not taken into account.

Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) plan
A pension plan in which both the employee and the employer contribute to an individual retirement account. Also available to the self-employed.

The use of a mathematical model to imitate a situation many times in order to estimate the likelihood of various possible outcomes. See: Monte Carlo simulation.

Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX)
A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.

Single-country fund
A mutual fund that invests in individual countries outside the United States.

Single-factor model
A model of security returns that acknowledges only one common factor. The single factor is usually the market return. See: Factor model.

Single-index model
A model of stock returns that decomposes influences on returns into a systematic factor, as measured by the return on the broad market index, and firm specific factors. Related: Market Model

Single option
A single put option or call option, as opposed to a spread or straddle, which involves multiple puts and calls.

Single-payment bond
A bond that makes only one payment of principal and interest.

Single-Premium Deferred Annuity (SPDA)
An IRA-like annuity into which an investor makes a lump-sum payment that is invested in either a fixed-return instrument or a variable-return portfolio, which is taxed only when distributions are taken.

Single-premium life insurance
A whole life insurance policy requiring one premium payment, which accrues cash value much more quickly than a policy paid in installments.

Single-state municipal bond fund
A mutual fund investing only in government obligations within a single state, with state tax-free dividends, but taxed capital gains.

A bond with interest and principal payments coming from the proceeds of a sinking fund.

Sinking fund
A fund to which money is added on a regular basis that is used to ensure investor confidence that promised payments will be made and that is used to redeem debt securities or preferred stock issues.

Sinking fund requirement
A condition included in some corporate bond indentures that requires the issuer to retire a specified portion of debt each year. Any principal due at maturity is called the balloon maturity.

Sit tight
Directive from the trader to the customer to be patient, emphasizing that one's piece of business will be executed.

Refers to the magnitude of an offering, an order, or a trade. Large as in the size of an offering, the size of an order, or the size of a trade. Size is relative from market to market and security to security. "I can buy size at 102-22," means that a trader can buy a significant amount at 102-22. Small is <10,000 shares. Medium is 15,000-25,000 shares. Good is 50,000 shares. Size is 100,000 shares. Good six-figure size is 200,000-300,000 shares. Multiple six-figure size is >300,000 shares. Size of the market is actual number of shares represented in one's market, or bid and offering; unless specified, assumed to be at least 500 to 1000 shares, depending on the stock.

Size out the book
Overt action to exclude a public bid or offer from participation in a print through trading a larger size in the book. Can never size out a market order. See: Priority, shut out the book.

Skewed distribution
Probability distribution in which an unequal number of observations lie below (negative skew) or above (positive skew) the mean.

Negative skewness means there is a substantial probability of a big negative return. Positive skewness means that there is a greater-than-normal probability of a big positive return.

Skip-day settlement
Settling a trade one business day beyond what is normal.

Skip-payment privilege
A mortgage contract clause giving borrowers the right to skip payments if they are ahead of schedule.

SLD last sale
Shortened version of "sold last sale," which shows up on the consolidated tape when a large change (one point for lower priced securities and two points for higher-priced securities) occurs between transactions.

Stock in which there is little investor interest but that has significant potential to gain in price once its attractions are recognized. Antithesis of high flyer.

Sleeping beauty
Often used in risk arbitrage. Potential takeover target that has not yet been approached by an acquirer. Such a company usually has particularly attractive features, such as a large amount of cash, or undervalued real estate or other assets.

The difference between estimated transactions costs and actual transactions costs. The difference usually represents revisions to price difference or spread and commission costs.

A temporary fall in performance, often describing consistently falling security prices for several weeks or months.

A stock with a small capitalization, meaning a total equity value of less than $500 million.

Small-firm effect
The tendency of small firms (in terms of total market capitalization) to outperform the stock market (consisting of both large and small firms).

Small investor
An individual person investing in small quantities of stock or bonds. This group of investors makes up a minimal fraction of total stock ownership.

Small issues exemption
Securities issues that involve less than $1.5 million are not required to file a registration statement with the SEC. Instead, they are governed by Regulation A, for which only a brief offering statement is needed.

Small Order Execution System (SOES)
Three-tiered system of automatic execution of an order at the best price. Size is either 200, 500, or, most often, 1000 shares.

Smart money
Investors who make consistent profits in the market, regardless of the investing environment, by making wise, educated moves.

Small amount of price, usually +/- 1/8 or 1/4.

Smithsonian Agreement
A revision to the Bretton Woods international monetary system that was signed at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., in December 1971. Included were a new set of par values, widened bands to +/- 2.25% of par, and an increase in the official value of gold to US$38.00 per ounce.

Used in the context of general equities. Process by which the exercise of stop orders in a declining or advancing market causes further downward or upward pressure on prices, thus triggering more stop orders and more price pressure, and so on.

Social Security Disability Income Insurance
Program financed by the Social Security tax to provide assistance to disabled individuals with disabilities expected to last at least one year, to compensate for lost income.

Socially conscious mutual fund
A mutual fund that does not invest in companies that have interests in socially unacceptable markets or produce harmful products or by-products, such as high levels of environmental pollution.

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT)
A dedicated computer network to support funds transfer messages internationally between over 900 member banks world-wide.

"Soft" capital rationing
Constraints on spending that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed as constituting targets rather than absolute limits.

Soft currency
A money of a country that is expected to drop in value relative to other currencies.

Soft dollars
The value of research services that brokerage houses supply to investment managers "free of charge" in exchange for the investment manager's business commissions.

Soft landing
A term describing a growth rate high enough to keep the economy out of recession, but also slow enough to prevent high inflation and interest rates.

Soft market
A buyer's market in which supply exceeds demand, causing little trading activity and wide bid-ask spreads.

Soft spot
Stocks or groups of stocks that remain weak in a strong market.

Tropical commodities such as coffee, sugar, and cocoa.

Sold away
Refers to over-the-counter trading. Having sold stock to another dealer before making the present offering.

Sold-out market
Unavailability of a futures contract in a particular commodity or maturity date because of contract executions and limited offerings.

Sole proprietorship
A business owned by a single individual. A sole proprietor pays no corporate income tax but has unlimited liability for business debts and obligations.

Ability to meet obligations.

Sour bond
A bond issue that has defaulted on interest or principal payments, and will thus trade at a large discount and a poor credit rating.

Source of funds seller
Customer seller of stock for the purpose of raising cash for other purchases. Such a seller will sell only at advantageous prices, and not aggressively.

Sources and applications of funds statement
See: Statement of cash flows

South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX)
Electronic futures and options exchange based in South Africa.

Sovereign risk
The risk that a central bank will impose foreign exchange regulations that will reduce or negate the value of FX contracts. Also refers to the risk of government default on a loan made to a country or guaranteed by it.

To cover all contingencies within a specified range.

SPDRs (Spiders) are designed to track the value of the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Price Index. Stands for Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipt. They trade on the American Stock Exchange under the symbol SPY. SPDRs are similar to closed-end funds but are formally known as, a unit investment trust. One SPDR unit is valued at approximately one-tenth (1/10) of the value of the S&P 500. Dividends are disbursed quarterly, and are based on the accumulated stock dividends held in trust, less any expenses of the trust. See: Mid-cap SPDR.

Special arbitrage account
A margin account with lower cash requirements, reserved for transactions that are hedged by an offsetting position in futures or options.

Special assessment bond
A municipal bond with interest paid by the taxes of the community benefiting from the bond-funded project.

Special bid
A method of purchasing a large block of stock on the NYSE by advertising a client's large buy order, and matching it up with a number of other traders' smaller sell orders.

Special bond account
A special broker margin account used only for transactions in U.S. government bonds, municipals, and eligible listed and unlisted non-convertible corporate bonds.

Special dividend
Also referred to as an extra dividend. Dividend that is unlikely to be repeated.

Special Drawing Rights (SDR)
A form of international reserve assets, created by the IMF in 1967, whose value is based on a portfolio of widely used currencies.

On an exchange, the member firm that is designated as the market maker (or dealer for a listed common stock). Member of a stock exchange who maintains a "fair and orderly market" in one or more securities. Only one specialist can be designated for a given stock, but dealers may be specialists for several stocks. In contrast, there can be multiple market makers in the OTC market. Major functions include executing limit orders on behalf of other exchange members for a portion of the floor broker's commission, and buying or selling for the specialist's own account to counteract temporary imbalances in supply and demand and thus prevent wide swings in stock prices.

Specialist block purchase and sale
Purchase of a large number of securities by a specialist for himself or to pass on to another floor trader or block buyer.

Specialist market
Market in a stock made solely by the specialist, as no public orders, and henceforth no depth, exist in the market.

Specialist unit
A specialist who maintains a stable market by acting as a principal and agent for other brokers in one or many stocks.

Specialist's book
Chronological record maintained by a specialist that includes the specialist's own inventory of securities, market orders to sell short, and limit orders and stop orders that other stock exchange members have placed with the specialist.

Specialist's short-sale ratio
The percentage of the total short sales of stock sold short by specialists.

Specific issues market
The market in which dealers reverse in securities they wish to short.

Specific risk
See: Unique risk

A dealer doing business with retail but concentrating more on acquiring and financing its own speculative positions.

Purchasing risky investments that present the possibility of large profits, but also pose a higher-than-average possibility of loss. A profitable strategy over the long term if undertaken by professionals who hedge their portfolios to control the amount of risk.

Speculative demand (for money)
The need for cash to take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise.

Speculative-grade bond
Bond rated BA or lower by Moody's, or BB or lower by S&P, or an unrated bond.

Speculative motive
A desire to hold cash in order to be poised to exploit any attractive investment opportunity requiring a cash expenditure that might arise.

One who attempts to anticipate price changes and, through buying and selling contracts, aims to make profits. A speculator does not use the market in connection with the production, processing, marketing, or handling of a product. See: Trader.

Related: Prepayment speed

See: SPDRs

Order ticket that shows the stock, price, number of shares, type, and account of the order. Origin: Practice of placing the ticket on a metal spike upon execution or cancellation.) Spike is also a sudden, drastic increase in a company's share price.

A company can create an independent company from an existing part of the company by selling or distributing new shares in the so-called spin-off.

Stands for Standard & Poor's 500 Index Subordinated Notes.

Sometimes, companies split their outstanding shares into more shares. If a company with 1 million shares executes a two-for-one split, the company would have 2 million shares. An investor with 100 shares before the split would hold 200 shares after the split. The investor's percentage of equity in the company remains the same, and the share price of the stock owned is one-half the price of the stock on the day prior to the split.

Split commission
A commission shared between a broker and a financial adviser or other professional who brought the customer to the broker.

Split-coupon bond
A bond that begins as a zero-coupon bond paying no interest and converts to an interest paying bond on a future date.

Split-fee option
An option on an option. The buyer generally executes the split fee with first an initial fee, with a window period at the end of which (upon payment of a second fee) the original terms of the option may be extended to a later predetermined final notification date.

Split offering
A municipal bond issue that is made up of serial bonds and term maturity bonds.

Split order
A large securities transaction that is divided into smaller orders that are spread out over some period of time to avoid large fluctuations in the market price.

Split print
Block trade printed at two different prices. Often used in dividend rolls to get an average price equal to the dividend.

Split-rate tax system
A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are distributed as dividends.

Split rating
Two different ratings given to the same security by two important rating agencies.

Split stock
(1) Purchases or sales shared with others. (2) Division of the outstanding shares of a corporation into a large number of shares. Ordinarily, splits must be proposed by directors and approved by shareholders.

Spoken for
Amount of opposite demand (placement) or supply (availability) the trader has in efforts to cross the stock. Not open.

An underwriting investment company that offers shares in its mutual funds, or an influential institution that highly values a particular security and thus creates additional demand for the security.

Spot commodity
A commodity that is traded with the expectation of actual delivery, as opposed to a commodity future that is usually not delivered.

Spot exchange rates
Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery. Related: Forward exchange rate.

Spot futures parity theorem
Describes the theoretically correct relationship between spot and futures prices. Violation of the parity relationship gives rise to arbitrage opportunities.

Spot interest rate
Interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: Forward interest rates.

Spot lending
Originating mortgages by processing applications taken directly from prospective borrowers.

Spot markets
Related: Cash markets

Spot month
The nearest delivery month on a futures contract.

Spot price
The current market price of the actual physical commodity. Also called cash price. Current delivery price of a commodity traded in the spot market, in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately. Antithesis of futures price.

Spot rate
The theoretical yield on a zero-coupon Treasury security.

Spot rate curve
The graphical depiction of the relationship between the spot rates and maturity.

Spot secondary
Secondary distribution that may not require an SEC registration statement and may be attempted without delay. An underwriting discount is normally included in these offerings.

Spot trade
The purchase and sale of a foreign currency, commodity, or other item for immediate delivery.

Spousal IRA
An individual retirement account in the name of an unemployed spouse.

Spousal remainder trust
A fixed-term trust from which income is distributed to the beneficiary (such as a child of the grantor) to take advantage of a lower tax bracket, and that at the end of the term passes to the grantor's spouse.

(1) The gap between bid and ask prices of a stock or other security. (2) The simultaneous purchase and sale of separate futures or options contracts for the same commodity for delivery in different months. Also known as a straddle. (3) Difference between the price at which an underwriter buys an issue from a firm and the price at which the underwriter sells it to the public. (4) The price an issuer pays above a benchmark fixed-income yield to borrow money.

Spread income
Also called margin income, the difference between income and cost. For a depository institution, the difference between the assets it invests in (loans and securities) and the cost of its funds (deposits and other sources).

Spread option
A position consisting of the purchase of one option and the sale of another option on the same underlying security with a different exercise price and/or expiration date.

Spread order
An order listing the series of options that the customer wants to buy and sell and the desired spread between the premiums paid and received for the options.

Spread position
The status of an account after a spread order has been carried out.

Spread strategy
A strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an option is funded entirely or in part by selling another option in the same underlying. Also called spreading.

A computer program that organizes numerical data into rows and columns in order to calculate and make adjustments based on new data.

Sprinkling trust
A trust in which the trustee decides how to distribute trust income among a group of designated people.

Applies to derivative products. Symbol for the S&P 500 index.

Period when stocks or commodities futures increase in price and investors who have sold short must cover their short positions to prevent loss of large amounts of money.

Securities sales speaker box that transmits to all investment banks' regional trading and sales desks.

The action undertakes a country when it buys and sells its own currency to protect its exchange value.

Actions registered competitive traders undertake by on the NYSE to meet the exchange requirement that 75% of their traded be stabilizing, meaning that sell orders follow a plus tick and buy orders a minus tick.

Actions a managing underwriter undertake so that the market price does not fall below the public offering price during the offering period

Speculator who buys and sells stocks to hold for short intervals to make quick profits.

A period of slow economic growth and high unemployment with rising prices (inflation).

Staggered board of directors
Occurs when a portion of directors are elected periodically, instead of all at once. Board terms are often staggered in order to thwart unfriendly takeover attempts, since potential acquirers would have to wait longer before they could take control of a company's board through the normal voting procedure.

Staggering maturities
Hedging against interest rate movements by investment in short-, medium-, and long-term bonds.

A period of slow economic growth, or, in securities trading, a period of inactive trading.

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.

Stamp duty
Applies mainly to international equities. Taxes on foreign transactions, usually a percentage of total transaction amount, that can be unilateral or bilateral in nature.

Stand-alone principle
Investment approach that advocates a firm should accept or reject a project by comparing it with securities in the same risk class.

Stand up to
Make a good-sized market in the trader's own bid and offering prices. Hence, "standing up" to the bid signifies the trader's willingness to buy size (i.e., 50m) volume at the advertised bid, even if the customer buyer/seller falls down.

Standard deduction
The IRS-specified amount by which a taxpayer is entitled to reduce income an alternative to itemizing deductions.

Standard deviation
The square root of the variance. A measure of dispersion of a set of data from its mean.

Standard error
In statistics, a measure of the possible error in an estimate. Plus or minus 2 standard errors usually provides a 95% confidence interval.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
A code system that designates a unique business activity classified by industry.

Standardized normal distribution
A normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

Standardized value
Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by the standard deviation of the distribution.

Standby agreement
In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.

Standby commitment
An agreement between a corporation and investment firm that the firm will purchase whatever part of a stock issue that is offered in a rights offering that is not subscribed to in the two- to four- week standby period.

Standby fee
Amount paid to an underwriter who agrees to purchase any stock that is not purchased by public investors in a rights offering.

Level of priority in the trading crowd.

Standstill agreement
Contract by which the bidding firm in a takeover attempt agrees to limit its holdings of another firm.

The earliest stage of a new business venture.

State bank
A bank authorized in a specific state by a state-based charter, with generally the same functions as a national bank.

Stated annual interest rate
The interest rate expressed as a per year percentage, by which interest payments are determined. See: Annual percentage rate.

Stated conversion price
At the time of issuance of a convertible security, the price the issuer effectively grants the securityholder to purchase the common stock, equal to the par value of the convertible security divided by the conversion ratio.

Stated maturity
For the CMO tranche, the date the last payment would occur at zero CPR.

Stated value
A monetary worth figure that bears no relation to market value that is assigned, for accounting purposes, to stock for use instead of par value.

Statement billing
Billing method in which the sales for a period such as a month (for which a customer also receives invoices) are collected into a single statement, and the customer must pay all the invoices represented on the statement.

Statement of Cash Flows
A financial statement showing a firm's cash receipts and cash payments during a specified period.

Statement-of-Cash-Flows Method
A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.

Statement of condition
A document describing the status of assets, liabilities, and equity of a person or business at a particular time.

Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8
The is a currency translation standard once used by U.S. accounting firms. See: Statement of Accounting Standards No. 52.

Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52
The currency translation standard currently used by U.S. firms. It mandates the use of the current rate method. See: Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 8.

Static theory of capital structure
Theory that the firm's capital structure is determined by a trade-off of the value of tax shields against the costs of bankruptcy.

Statistical tracking error
Used in the context of general equities. Standard deviation of the difference between the portfolio return and the desired investment benchmark return.

Statutory investment
An investment that a trustee is authorized to make under state law.

Statutory merger
A merger in which one corporation remains as a legal entity, instead of a new legal entity being formed.

Statutory surplus
The surplus of an insurance company determined by the accounting treatment of both assets and liabilities as established by state statutes.

Statutory voting
The standard rule in most corporations that there is one vote per share in elections of the board of directors.

Staying power
The ability of an investor to stay in the market and not to sell out of a position when an investment has fallen in value.

Steady state
As an MBS pool ages, or four to six months after component mortgages have passed at least once the threshold for refinancing, the prepayment speed tends to stabilize within a fairly steady range.

1/16 (0.0625) of one full point in price. Often used in negotiations to compromise an eighth difference, and in options trading. See: Teenyo.

Steepening of the yield curve
A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift.

Step aside
Allow a block to trade at a price at which you do not care to participate in the trade.

Step-down note
A floating-rate note whose interest rate declines after a specified period of time.

Step up
To increase, as in step up the tax basis of an asset.

Step-up bond
A bond that pays a lower coupon rate for an initial period, and then increases to a higher coupon rate. Related: Deferred-interest bond, payment-in-kind bond.

Sterilized intervention
Foreign exchange market activity by which monetary authorities insulate their domestic money supplies from the foreign exchange transactions with offsetting sales or purchases of domestic assets.

Sticky deal
A new securities issue that may be difficult to sell because of problems in the market or underlying problems with the corporation.

Stochastic models
Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash flows are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.

Stochastics index
A computerized tool measuring overbought and oversold conditions in a stock over a certain period.

Ownership of a corporation indicated by shares, which represent a piece of the corporation's assets and earnings.

Stock ahead
When two or more orders for a stock at a certain price arrive about the same time, and the exchange's priority rules take effect. NYSE rules stipulate that the bid made first should be executed first, or, if two bids come in at once, the bid for the larger number of shares receives priority. The bid that is not executed is then turned to the broker, who informs the customer that the trade was not completed because there was "stock ahead." See: Ahead.

Stock bonus plan
A plan used as an incentive that rewards employee performance with stock in the company.

See: Registered representative

Stock buyback
A corporation's purchase of its own outstanding stock, usually in order to raise the company's earnings per share.

Stock certificate
A document representing the number of shares of a corporation owned by a shareholder.

Stock dividend
Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash. The stock dividend may be additional shares in the company, or it may be shares in a subsidiary being spun off to shareholders. Stock dividends are often used to conserve cash needed to operate the business. Unlike a cash dividend, stock dividends are not taxed until sold.

Stock Exchange Automated Quotation System (SEAQ)
London's Nasdaq system.

Stock Exchange of Hong Kong (SEHK)
Only stock exchange located in Hong Kong.

Stock Exchange, Mumbai (BSE)
Formerly the Bombay stock exchange, the BSE accounts for more than one-third of Indian trading volume.

Stock Exchange of Singapore (SES)
The only stock exchange in Singapore.

Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET)
The only stock exchange in Thailand.

Stock exchanges
Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that are made up of members who use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major national stock exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American Stock Exchange (ASE or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati. The Arizona Stock Exchange is an after-hours electronic marketplace where anonymous participants trade stocks via personal computers.

Stock Index Future
A security that uses composite stock indexes to allow investors to speculate on the performance of the entire market, or to hedge against losses in long or short positions. The settlement of the contracts is in cash.

Stock index option
An option in which the underlying is a common stock index.

Stock index
Index like the Dow Jones Industrial Average that tracks a portfolio of stocks.

Stock insurance company
An insurance company owned by a group of stockholders, who are not necessarily policyholders.

Stock jockey
A stock broker who frequently buys and sells shares in a client's portfolios.

Stock list
The department within a stock exchange that oversees compliance with listing requirements and exchange regulations.

Stock market
Also called the equity market, the market for trading equities.

Stock option
An option whose underlying asset is the common stock of a corporation.

Stock power
A power of attorney form giving ownership of a security to another person, brokerage firm, bank, or lender after it has been sold or pledged to that party.

Stock purchase plan
A plan allowing employees of a company to purchase shares of the company, often at a discount or with matching employer funds.

Stock rating
An evaluation by a rating agency of the expected financial performance or inherent risk of common stocks.

Stock record
The accounting a brokerage firm keeps of all securities held in inventory.

Stock replacement strategy
A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, used when the futures contract is expensive according to its theoretical price. The strategy involves a swap between the futures and a Treasury bill and stock portfolio.

Stock repurchase
A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.

Stock right
Another terminology for a stock option.

Stock selection
An active portfolio management technique that focuses on advantageous selection of particular stock rather than on broad asset allocation choices.

Stock split
Occurs when a firm issues new shares of stock and in turn lowers the current market price of its stock to a level that is proportionate to pre-split prices. For example, if IBM trades at $100 before a two-for-one split, after the split it will trade at $50, and holders of the stock will have twice as many shares as they had before the split. See: Split.

Stock ticker
A letter designation assigned to securities and mutual funds that trade on U.S. financial exchanges.

Stock watcher (NYSE)
A computerized service that monitors and investigates trading activity on the NYSE in order to identify any unusual activity or security movement that might be caused by rumors or illegal activities.

See: Shareholder.

Stockholder books
Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.

Stockholder equity
Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It includes capital stock, paid-in surplus, and retained earnings.

Stockholder of record
Stockholder whose name is registered on the books of a corporation and thus will receive dividends from the corporation.

Stockholder's equity
The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by subtracting all current liabilities and debt liabilities from total assets.

Stockholder's report
The annual report and other reports given to stockholders to inform them of the company's financial standing and developments.

Stockholm Stock Exchange
The only official equity trading market in Sweden.

Running out of inventory.

Stop basis
Refers to over-the-counter trading. Method of entering an OTC trade into the trader's position without reporting the trade on the OTC tape.

Stop-limit order
A stop order that designates a price limit. Unlike the stop order, which becomes a market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order.

Stop-loss order
An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.

Stop order (or stop)
An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.

Stop-out price
The lowest auction price at which Treasury bills are sold.

Stop payment
An order given a depository institution not to pay out cash for a check; often used when the check has been stolen or lost.

Guaranteed a specific price on the customer's working order while the dealer tries to obtain a better one. Stopped against one's self involves a customer order and a firm's own account, not two customers. One can cancel an order even after being stopped by another party.

Stopped out
A purchase or sale that is executed under a stop order at the stop price specified by the customer.

Stopping curve
A curve showing the refunding rates for different times at which the expected value of refunding immediately equals the expected value of waiting to refund.

Stopping curve refunding rate
A refunding rate that falls on the stopping curve.

Story stock/bond
A highly complex security that requires a long "story" so that investors may understand the corporation and be persuaded of its merits.

Purchase or sale of an equal number of puts and calls with the same terms at the same time. Related: Spread.

Direct telephone line, compared to an outside line that requires a telephone number to be dialed.

Straight-line depreciation
Amortizing or apportioning an equal dollar amount of depreciation in each accounting period.

Straight term insurance policy
Term life insurance policy providing a fixed-amount death benefit over a certain number of years.

Straight value
Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the conversion option.

Straight voting
Allows shareholder to cast all of the shareholder's votes for each candidate for the board of directors.

Buying or selling an out-of-the-money put option and call option on the same underlying instrument, with the same expiration. Profits are made only if there is a drastic change in the underlying instrument's price.

Strategic buyout
Acquisition of another firm in order to realize some operational benefits which will result in increased earnings.

Stratified equity indexing
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio that classifies the stocks in the index into strata, and represents each stratum in the portfolio.

Stratified sampling approach to indexing
Dividing an index into cells, each representing a different characteristic of the index, such as duration or maturity.

Stratified sampling bond indexing
A method of bond indexing that divides the index into cells, each cell representing a different characteristic, and that buys bonds to match those characteristics.

(1) Not a member of the participating party in the trade at hand; (2) not a meaningful indication of a customer's desire to take a sizable position or be involved in a stock.

Means Wall Street financial community; brokers, dealers, underwriters, and other knowledgeable participants.

Street name
Registration under which securities maybe held by a broker on behalf of a client but be registered in the name of the Wall Street firm.

Strike index
For a stock index option, the index value at which the buyer of the option can buy or sell the underlying stock index. The strike index is converted to a dollar value by multiplying by the option's contract multiple. Related: Strike price.

Strike price
The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (in the case of a call) or sold (in the case of a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.

Variant of a straddle. A strip is two puts and one call on a stock. A strap is two calls and one put on a stock. The puts and calls have the same strike price and expiration date. See: Strap.

Strip mortgage participation certificate (strip PC)
Ownership interests in specified mortgages purchased by Freddie Mac from a single seller in exchange for separate instruments representing interests in the same mortgages.

Stripped bond
Bond that can be subdivided into a series of zero-coupon bonds.

Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBS)
Securities that redistribute the cash flows from the underlying generic MBS collateral into the principal and interest components of the MBS to enhance their attaractiveness to different groups of investors.

Stripped yield
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Return on the debt portion of a bond/warrant unit after subtracting the value of the issued warrant segment.

Strong dollar
When the dollar can be exchanged for a large amount of foreign currency, benefiting travelers but hurting exporters.

Strong-form efficiency
A form of pricing efficiency, that posits that the price of a security reflects all information, whether or not it is publicly available. Related: Weak-form efficiency, semi-strong form efficiency.

Structured arbitrage transaction
A self-funding, self-hedged series of transactions that usually use mortgage-backed securities (MBS) as the primary assets.

Structured debt
Debt that has been customized for the buyer, often by incorporating unusual options.

Structured note
A derivative investment that will change in value with movements of an underlying index; or a note whose issuer makes swap arrangements to alter its required cash flows.

Structured portfolio strategy
Desigining a portfolio to achieve a level of performance that matches some predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.

Structured settlement
An agreement in settlement of a lawsuit involving specific payments made over a period of time. Property and casualty insurance companies often buy life insurance products to pay the costs of such settlements.

Often used in risk arbitrage. Piece of equity security left over from a major cash or security distribution from a recapitalization.

Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA)
A publicly traded corporation established by federal action that increases availability of educational loans by guaranteeing student loans traded in the secondary market. Also known as Sallie Mae.

Subchapter M
An IRS regulation dealing with investment companies and real estate investment trusts that avoid double taxation by distributing interest, dividends, and capital gains directly to shareholders, who are taxed individually.

Subchapter S
IRS regulation that gives a corporation with 35 or fewer shareholders the option of being taxed as a partnership to escape corporate income taxes.

Refers to a bid or offer that cannot be executed without confirmation from the customer. In other words, not firm, but a bid/offer that needs additional information/confirmation before becoming firm and is therefore still negotiable.

Subject market
Quote in which prices are subject to confirmation. See: Fast market.

Subject to a (NY) can
Contingent upon trader's ability to cancel an order (on the indicated exchange).

Subject to opinion
An auditor's opinion reflecting acceptance of a company's financial statements subject to pervasive uncertainty that cannot be adequately measured, such as information relating to the value of inventories, reserves for losses, or other matters open to judgment.

Subject to a print/execution/trading
Contingent on execution of a trade because the picture in the stock has not been materially altered.

Subjective probabilities
Probabilities that are determined subjectively (for example, on the basis of judgment rather than statistical sampling).

Subordinated debenture bond
An unsecured bond that ranks after secured debt, after debenture bonds, and often after some general creditors in its claim on assets and earnings. Related: Debenture bond, mortgage bond, collateral trust bonds.

Subordinated debt
Debt over which senior debt takes priority. In the event of bankruptcy, subordinated debtholders receive payment only after senior debt claims are paid in full.

Subordination clause
A provision in a bond indenture that restricts the issuer's future borrowing by subordinating future lenders' claims on the firm to those of the existing bondholders.

Subpart F
Special category of foreign-source "unearned" income that is currently taxed by the IRS whether or not it is remitted to the U.S.

Subperiod return
The return of a portfolio over a shorter period of time than the evaluation period.

An insurance process whereby a company that has paid out to a policyholder for a loss incurred recovers the amount of the loss from the party that is legally liable.

Agreement to buy new issue of securities.

Subscription agreement
An application reviewed by the general partner to join a limited partnership.

Subscription price
Price that current shareholders pay for a share of stock in a rights offering.

Subscription privilege
The right of current shareholders of a corporation to buy newly issued shares before they are available to the public.

Subscription right
See: Subscription privilege

Subscription warrant
Applies to derivative products. Type of security, usually issued with another security, such as a bond or stock, that entitles the holder to buy a proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price, usually higher than the market price at the time of issuance. Warrant.

A wholly or partially owned company that is part of a large corporation. A foreign subsidiary is a separately incorporated entity under the host country's law.

Substitute sale
A method for hedging price risk that uses debt market instruments, such as interest rate futures, or that involves selling borrowed securities as the primary assets.

Substitution swap
A swap in which a money manager exchanges one bond for another bond that is similar in terms of coupon, maturity, and credit quality, but that offers a higher yield.

Suicide pill
A hostile takeover prevention tactic that could destroy the target company. Taking on a large amount of debt to prevent the takeover might cause bankruptcy, for example.

Suitability rules
Policies and guidelines that brokers must use to ensure that investors have the financial means to assume risks that they wish to undertake. These are enforced by the NASD and other self-regulatory organizations.

Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation
Method of accelerated depreciation.

Sunk costs
Costs that have been incurred and cannot be reversed.

Sunrise industries
Growth industries in an economy that may become leaders in the market in the future.

Super Bowl indicator
A theory that if a team from the old American Football League pre-1970 wins the Super Bowl, the stock market will decline during the coming year. If a team from the old pre-1990 National Football League wins the Super Bowl, stock prices will increase in the coming year.

Super DOT
Super DOT provides faster execution than regular DOT and focuses on large-size trades and baskets. See: Program trading.

Super message
See: Autex

Super sinker bond
Usually a home financing bond, but also any other bond that has long-term coupons but short maturity; the mortgages may be prepaid, and the holders may receive the long-term yield after a short period of time.

Provision in a company's charter requiring a majority of, say, 80% of shareholders to approve certain changes, such as a merger.

Supermajority amendment
Often used in risk arbitrage. Corporate amendment requiring that a substantial majority (usually 67% to 90%) of stockholders approve important transactions, such as mergers.

Supervisory analyst
An analyst who is qualified to approve publicly distributed research reports on the NYSE.

Supplemental Security Income
A Social Security program established to help the blind, disabled, and poor.

Supply shock
An event that influences production capacity and costs in an economy.

Supply-side economics
A theory of economics that reductions in tax rates will stimulate investment and in turn will benefit the entire society.

Support level
A price level below which it is supposedly difficult for a security or market to fall. That is, the price level at which a security tends to stop falling because there is more demand than supply; can be identified on a technical basis by seeing where the stock has bottomed out in the past.

An additional levy added to some charge.

An individual or corporation that guarantees the performance or actions of another.

Surplus funds
Cash flow available after payment of taxes in a project.

Surplus management
Related: Asset management

A tax added to the normal tax paid by corporations or individuals who have earned income above a certain level.

Surveillance department of exchanges
A department that monitors trading activity on an exchange in order to identify any unusual activity that may indicate illegal practices.

Sushi bond
A Eurobond issued by a Japanese corporation.

Suspended trading
Temporary halt in trading in a particular security, in advance of a major news announcement or to correct an imbalance of orders to buy and sell.

Suspense account
An account used temporarily to record receipts and disbursements that have yet to be classified.

Sustainable growth rate
Maximum rate of growth a firm can sustain without increasing financial leverage.

An arrangement in which two entities lend to each other on different terms, e.g., in different currencies, and/or at different interest rates, fixed or floating.

Swap assignment
Related: Swap sale

Swap buy back
The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.

Swap fund
See: Exchange fund

Swap option
See: Swaption. Related: Quality option.

Swap rate
The difference between spot and forward rates expressed in points, e.g., $0.0001 per pound sterling.

Swap reversal
An interest rate swap designed to end a counterparty's role in another interest rate swap, accomplished by counterbalancing the original swap in maturity, reference rate, and notional amount.

Swap sale
Also called a swap assignment, a transaction that ends one counterparty's role in an interest rate swap by substituting a new counterparty whose credit is acceptable to the other original counterparty.

Options on interest rate swaps. The buyer of a swaption has the right to enter into an interest rate swap agreement by some specified date in the future. The swaption agreement will specify whether the buyer of the swaption will be a fixed-rate receiver or a fixed-rate payer. The writer of the swaption becomes the counterparty to the swap if the buyer exercises.

Sweat equity
An increase in equity created by the labor of the owner.

Sweep account
Account providing that a bank invest all the excess available funds at the close of each business day for the firm.

A feature of a security that makes it more attractive to potential purchasers.

Swingline facility
Bank borrowing facility to provide finance while the firm replaces U.S. commercial paper with eurocommercial paper.

Swiss Electronic Bourse (EBS)
Computer linking system between the former stock exchange trading floors in Zurich, Geneva, and Basel, Switzerland so that trades can be carried out among traders on all three of the trading floors.

Swiss Options and Financial Futures Exchange (SOFFEX)
The Swiss derivatives market with the first fully electronic trading system in the world, now called Eurex Zurich AG.

Slang for the Swiss franc.

Switch order
Order for the purchase (sale) of one stock and the sale (purchase) of another stock at a stipulated price difference. Contingent order, swap.

Liquidating a position and simultaneously reinstating a position in another futures contract of the same type.

Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE)
The derivatives market of Australia.

Letters used to identify companies on the consolidated tape and other locations.

Symbol book special
Illiquid, inactively traded stock not familiar market

Symmetric cash matching
An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, reducing the cost of funding liabilities.

Synchronous data
Information available at the same time. To test option-pricing models, the price of the option and of the underlying should be synchronous and reflect the same moment in the market.

A group of banks that acts jointly, on a temporary basis, to loan money in a bank credit (syndicated credit) or to underwrite a new issue of bonds.

Syndicate manager
See: Managing underwriter

Synergistic effect
A violation of value-additivity in that the value of a combination is greater than the sum of the individual values.

Synthetic convertible
Combination of usable bonds and warrants (that expire on or after the bonds' maturity) that resembles convertible bond.

Customized hybrid instruments created by blending an underlying price on a cash instrument with the price of a derivative instrument. It is a combination of security holdings that mimics the price movement of another single security (i.e., synthetic call: long position in a stock combined with a put on that position; a protected long sale; synthetic put: short position in a stock combined with a call on that position; a protected short sale).

Common to all businesses.

Systematic investment plan
An approach involving regular investments in order to take advantage of dollar-cost averaging.

Systematic risk
Also called undiversifiable risk or market risk.

Systematic risk principle
Only the systematic portion of risk matters in large, well-diversified portfolios. Thus, expected returns must be related only to systematic risks.

Systematic withdrawal plan
A provision of certain mutual funds to pay out to the shareholder specified amounts after specified periods of time.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicating that the stock has warrants or rights.

See: Tactical asset allocation

See: Tax anticipation bill

See: Tax anticipation notes

See: To be announced

T-period holding-period return
The percentage return over the T-year period an investment is held.

TAC bonds
See: Targeted amortization class bond.

Tactical Asset Allocation (TAA)
Portfolio strategy that allows active departures from the normal asset mix according to specified objective measures of value. Often called active management. It involves forecasting asset returns, volatilities, and correlations. The forecasted variables may be functions of fundamental variables, economic variables, or even technical variables.

(1) The difference between the average price in Treasury auctions and the stopout price. (2) A future money market instrument (one available some period hence) created by buying an existing instrument and financing the initial portion of its life with a term repo. (3) The extreme ends under a probability curve. (4) The odd amount in an MBS pool.

Purchase of a security by a broker after the broker places an order for the same security for a customer. The broker hopes to profit either because of information which the customer has or because the customer's purchase is of sufficient size to affect security prices. This is an unethical practice.

Taiwan Stock Exchange
Exchange of the Republic of China in Taipei.

(1) To agree to buy. A dealer or customer who agrees to buy at another dealer's offered price is said to take the offer. (2) Euro bankers speak of taking deposits rather than buying money.

Take a bath
To sustain a loss on either a speculation or an investment.

"Take it down"
Reduce the offering price or hit others' bids to such an extent as to lower the inside market.

Take a flier
To speculate on highly risky securities.

"Take me along"
"Allow me to participate in the side of a particular trade.

Take off
A sharp increase in the price of a stock, or a positive movement of the market as a whole.

Take the offer
Buy stock by accepting a floor broker's (listed) or dealer's (OTC) offer at an agreed-upon volume. Antithesis of hit the bid.

A cash surplus generated by the sale of one block of securities and the purchase of another, e.g., selling a block of bonds at 99 and buying another block at 95. Also, a bid made to a seller of a security that is designed (and generally agreed) to take the seller out of the market.

Take-or-pay contract
An agreement that obligates the purchaser to take any product that is offered (and pay the cash purchase price) or pay a specified amount if the product is not taken.

Take a position
To buy or sell short; that is to own or to owe some amount on an asset or derivative security.

Take a powder
Temporarily cancel an order or indication in a stock, while unrepresented interest still exists. See: Back on the shelf, sidelines.

Take a swing
Execute a trade at a price that the trader feels is higher or more risky than would normally be acceptable, in order to gain market share in the institutional arena.

The share of securities of each participating investment banker in a new or a secondary offering, or the price at which the securities are distributed to the different members of an underwriting group.

General term referring to transfer of control of a firm from one group of shareholders to another group of shareholders. Change in the controlling interest of a corporation, either through a friendly acquisition or an unfriendly, hostile, bid. A hostile takeover (with the aim of replacing current existing management) is usually attempted through a public tender offer.

Takeover target
A company that is the object of a takeover attempt, friendly or hostile.

Take-up fee
A fee paid to an underwriter in connection with an underwritten rights offering or an underwritten forced conversion. Represents compensation for each share of common stock the underwriter obtains and must resell upon the exercise of rights or conversion of bonds.

Takes a call
Requires a phone call to an account in order for a trade to be completed. See: Show me.

Takes price
Requiring some price movement or concession on behalf of the initiating party before a trade can be consummated. See: Price give.

Taking delivery
When the buyer actually assumes possession from a seller of assets agreed upon in a forward contract or a futures contract.

Taking a view
A London expression; means forming an opinion as to where market prices are headed and acting on it.

Tandem programs
Ginnie Mae mortgage funds provided at below-market rates to residential MBS buyers with FHA Section 203 and 235 loans and to developers of multifamily projects with Section 236 loans initially and later with Section 221(d)(4) loans.

Tangible asset
An asset whose value depends on particular physical properties. These include reproducible assets such as buildings or machinery and non-reproducible assets such as land, a mine, or a work of art. Also called real assets. Converse of: Intangible asset

Tangible net worth
Total assets minus intangible assets, which include patents and copyrights, and total liabilities.

(1) Service that reports prices and sizes of transactions on major exchanges-ticker tape. (2) Dow Jones and other news wires. See: Consolidated tape.

Tape is late
When the trading volume is so heavy that trades appear on the tape more than a minute behind the timer they actually take place.

A tax on imports or exports.

Target cash balance
Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

Target company
Often used in risk arbitrage. Firm chosen as an attractive takeover candidate by a potential acquirer. The acquirer may buy up to 5% of the target's stock without public disclosure, but it must report all transactions and supply other information to the SEC, the exchange the target company is listed on, and the target company itself once the 5% threshold is hit. See: Raider.

Target firm
A firm that is the object of a takeover by another firm.

Target payout ratio
A firm's long-run dividend-to-earnings ratio. The firm's policy is to attempt to pay out a certain percentage of earnings, but it pays a stated dollar dividend and adjusts it to the target as base line increases in earnings occur.

Target price
In the context of takeovers, the price at which an acquirer aims to buy a target firm.

In the context of options, the price of the underlying security at which an option will become in the money.

In the context of stocks, the price that an investor hopes a stock will reach in a certain time period.

Target zone arrangement
A monetary system under which countries pledge to maintain their exchange rates within a specific margin around agreed-upon, fixed central exchange rates.

Targeted repurchase
Buying back of a firm's stock from a potential acquirer, usually at a substantial premium, to forestall a takeover attempt. Related: Greenmail.

Targeted Amortization Class (TAC) bonds
Bonds offered as a tranche class of some CMOs, according to a sinking fund schedule. They differ from PAC bonds whose amortization is guaranteed as long as prepayments on the underlying mortgages do not exceed certain limits. A TAC's schedule is met at only one prepayment rate.

Tax anticipation bills (TABs)
Special bills that the Treasury occasionally issues that mature on corporate quarterly income tax dates and can be used at face value by corporations to pay their tax liabilities.

Tax Anticipation Notes (TANs)
Notes issued by states or municipalities to finance current operations in anticipation of future tax receipts.

Tax audit
Audit by the IRS or other tax-collecting agency to determine whether a taxpayer has paid the correct amount of tax.

Tax avoidance
Minimizing tax burden through legal means such as tax-free municipal bonds, tax shelters, IRA accounts, and trusts. Compare with tax evasion.

Tax base
The assessed value of the taxable property, assets, and income within a specific geographic area.

Tax basis
In the context of finance, the original cost of an asset less depreciation that is used to determine gains or losses for tax purposes.

In the context of investments, the price of a stock or bond plus the broker's commission.

Tax books
Records kept by a firm's management that follow IRS rules. The books follow Financial Accounting Standards Board rules.

Tax bracket
The percentage of tax obligation for a particular taxable income.

Tax clawback agreement
An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back. Exercised to the extent required to cover any cash deficiency of the project.

Tax credit
A direct dollar-for-dollar reduction in tax allowed for expenses such as child care and R&D for building low-income housing. Compare tax deduction.

The effect of creating a tax deduction, such as charitable contributions and mortgage interest.

Tax deduction
An expense that a taxpayer is allowed to deduct from taxable income.

Tax deferral option
Allowing the capital gains tax on an asset to be payable only when the gain is realized by selling the asset.

Tax-deferred retirement plans
Employer-sponsored and other plans that allow contributions and earnings to be made and accumulate tax-free until they are paid out as benefits.

Tax differential view (of dividend policy)
The view that shareholders prefer capital gains over dividends, and hence low payout ratios, because capital gains are effectively taxed at lower rates than dividends.

Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA)
Legislation to increase tax revenue by eliminating various taxation loopholes and instituting tougher enforcement procedures in collecting taxes.

Tax-equivalent yield
The pre-tax yield required from a taxable bond in order to equal the tax-free yield of a municipal bond.

Tax evasion
Illegal by reducing tax burden by underreporting income, overstating deductions, or using illegal tax shelters.

Tax-exempt money market fund
A money market fund that invests in short-term tax-exempt municipal securities.

Tax-exempt sector
The municipal bond market where state and local governments raise funds. Bonds issued in this sector are exempt from federal income taxes.

Tax-exempt security
An obligation whose interest is tax-exempt, often called a municipal bond, offered by a country, state, town, or any political district.

Tax free acquisition
A merger or consolidation in which (1) the acquirer's tax basis on each asset whose ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and (2) each seller who receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain realized until the shares are sold.

Tax haven
A nation with a moderate level of taxation and/or liberal tax incentives for undertaking specific activities such as exporting or investing.

Tax liability
The amount in taxes a taxpayer to the government.

Tax lien
The right of the government to enforce a claim against the property of a person owing taxes.

Tax and loan account
An account at a private bank, held in the name of the district Federal Reserve Bank, which holds operating cash for the business of the U.S. Treasury.

Tax loss carryback, carryforward
A tax benefit that allows business losses to be used to reduce tax liability in previous and or following years.

Tax planning
Devising strategies throughout the year in order to minimize tax liability, for example, by choosing a tax filing status that is most beneficial to the taxpayer.

Tax preference item
Items that must be included when calculating the alternative minimum tax.

Tax preparation services
Firms that prepare tax returns for a fee.

Tax rate
The percentage of tax paid for different levels of income.

Tax Reform Act of 1976
Legislation aimed at tightening provisions relating to taxation, including changes in the capital gains tax laws.

Tax Reform Act of 1984
Legislation enacted as part of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 to reduce the federal budget deficit. Among its provisions are a decrease in the minimum holding period for assets to qualify for long-term capital gains treatment from one year to six months.

Tax Reform Act of 1986
A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.

Tax Reform Act of 1993
See: Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993

Tax refund
Money back from the government when too much tax has been paid or withheld from a salary.

Tax schedules
Tax forms used to report itemized deductions, dividend and interest income, profit or loss from a business, capital gains and losses, supplemental income and loss, and self-employment tax.

Tax selling
Selling of securities to realize losses that will offset capital gains and reduce tax liability. See: Wash sale.

Tax shelter
Legal methods taxpayers can use to reduce tax liabilities. An example is the use of depreciation of assets.

Tax shield
The reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.

Tax software
Computer software designed to assist taxpayers in filling out tax returns and minimizing tax liability.

Tax status election
The decision of the status under which to file a tax return. For example, a corporation may file as a C corporation or an S corporation.

Tax straddle
Technique used in futures and options trading to create tax benefits. For example, an investor with a capital gain takes a position creating an artificial offsetting loss in the current tax year and postponing a gain from the position until the next tax year.

Tax swap
Swapping two similar bonds to receive a tax benefit.

Tax-timing option
The option to sell an asset and claim a loss for tax purposes or not sell the asset and defer the capital gains tax.

Tax umbrella
Tax loss carryforwards from previous business losses that form a tax shelter for profits earned in current and future years.

Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
Legislation forming part of a larger act designed to balance the federal budget. Some of the legislation's provisions included tax credits for taxpayers supporting children, an increase in the amount that could be excluded from estate taxes, and a lower capital gains tax rate.

Taxable acquisition
A merger or consolidation that is not a tax-fee acquisition. The selling shareholders are treated as having sold their shares.

Taxable estate
That portion of a deceased person's estate that is subject to transfer tax.

Taxable event
An event or transaction that has a tax consequence, such as the sale of stock holding that is subject to capital gains taxes.

Taxable income
Gross income less a variety of deductions.

Taxable municipal bond
Taxed private-purpose bonds issued by the state or local government to finance prohibited projects such as sports stadiums.

Taxable transaction
Any transaction that is not tax-free to the parties involved, such as a taxable acquisition.

Tear sheet
A page from an S&P stock that provides information on thousands of stocks, often sent to prospective purchasers.

Teaser rate
A low initial interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage to entice borrowers, that is later eliminated and replaced by a market-level rate.

Technical analysis
Security analysis that seeks to detect and interpret patterns in past security prices.

Technical analysts
Also called chartists or technicians, analysts who use mechanical rules to detect changes in the supply of and demand for a stock, and to capitalize on the expected change.

Technical condition of a market
Demand and supply factors affecting price, in particular, the net position, either long or short, of the dealer community.

Technical descriptors
Variables that are used to describe the market in terms of patterns in historical data.

Technical insolvency
Default on a legal obligation of the firm. Technical insolvency occurs when a firm doesn't pay a bill on time.

Technical rally
Short rise in securities or commodities futures prices in the face of a general declining trend. Such a rally may result because investors are bargain hunting or because analysts have noticed a particular support level at which securities usually bounce up. Antithesis of correction.

Technical sign
A short-term trend in the price movement of a security that analysts recognize as significant.

Related: Technical analysts

TED spread
Difference between U.S. Treasury bill rate and Eurodollar rate; used by some traders as a measure of investor/trader anxiety or credit quality.

1/16 or 0.0625 of one full point in price. Steenth.

Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Israel's only stock exchange.

Telephone switching
Moving one's assets from one mutual fund or variable annuity to another by telephone.

Temporal method
A currency translation method under which the choice of exchange rate depends on the underlying method of valuation. Assets and liabilities valued at historical cost (market cost) are translated at the historical (current market) rate.

Temporary investment
A short-term investment, such as a money market fund, Treasury bills, or short-term CD, which is usually held a year or less.

10% guideline
The standard analysts' principle that funded debt over 10% of the assessed valuation of taxable property for a municipality is excessive.

Annual report required by the SEC each year. Provides a comprehensive overview of a company's state of business. Must be filed within 90 days after fiscal year-end. A 10-Q report is filed quarterly.

Quarterly report required by the SEC each quarter. Provides a comprehensive overview of a company's state of business.

1040 form
The standard individual tax return form of the IRS.

A statement sent to the IRS and taxpayers by the payers of dividends and interest and by issuers of taxable original issue discount securities.

A partial owner of a security, or the holder of some property. See: Lessee.

A stock that grows in value ten-fold.

To offer for delivery against futures.

Tender offer
General offer made publicly and directly to a firm's shareholders to buy their stock at a price well above the current market price.

Tender offer premium
The premium offered above the current market price in a tender offer.

Maturity of a loan.

The period of time during which a contract is in force.

Term bonds
Bonds whose principal is payable at maturity. Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds. Related: Serial bonds.

Term certificate
A certificate of deposit with a longer time to maturity.

Term Fed funds
Fed funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.

Term insurance
Provides a death benefit only, no build up of cash value.

Term life insurance
A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build up or investment component. The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the end of each term.

Term loan
A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between one and ten years, and requires a specified repayment schedule.

Term to maturity
The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.

Term premiums
Excess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.

Term repo
A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.

Term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities, usually depicted in the form of a graph often called a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures (long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.

Term trust
A closed-end fund that has a fixed termination or maturity date.

Terminal value
The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire firm) on some specified future valuation date. Usually, a perpetuity formula is used. For example, suppose we forecast cash flows through year 10. We make an assumption that year 11 and beyond will be no growth (except for inflation). If the cash flow forecast for year 11 is 100, the firm's discount rate is 12%, and inflation is expected to be 2%, we use the formula V10 = CF11/(disc rate-inflation). Hence, the value is 100/(0.12 - 0.02) that is 1,000. This cash flow needs to be brought back to present value using the formula 1000/(1.12)10, which is 321.97. Note the importance of the inflation assumption.

Terms of sale
Conditions under which a firm proposes to sell its goods or services for cash or credit.

Terms of trade
The weighted average of a nation's export prices relative to its import prices.

The event of a price movement that approaches a support level or a resistance level established earlier by the market. A test is passed if prices do not go below the support or resistance level, and the test is failed if prices go on to new lows or highs.

Testamentary trust
A trust created by a will, that is scheduled to occur after the maker's death.

Theoretical futures price
The equilibrium futures price. Also called the fair price.

Theoretical spot rate curve
A curve derived from theoretical considerations as applied to the yields of actually traded Treasury debt securities, because there are no zero-coupon Treasury debt issues with a maturity greater than one year. Like the yield curve, this is a graphic depiction of the term structure of interest rates.

Theoretical value
Applies to derivative products. Mathematically determined value of a derivative instrument as dictated by a pricing model such as the Black-Scholes model.

The ratio of the change in an option price to the decrease in time to expiration. Also called time decay.

Thin market
A market in which trading volume is low, and consequently bid and asked quotes are wide and the instrument traded is not very liquid. Very little stock to buy or sell. Illiquid.

Thinly traded
Infrequently traded.

Third market
Exchange-listed securities trading in the OTC market.

Thirty-day visible supply
The total volume in dollars of municipal bonds with maturities of 13 months or more that should reach the market within 30 days.

Thirty-day wash rule
IRS rule stating that losses on a sale of stock may not be used as tax shelter if equivalent stock is purchased 30 days or less before or after the sale of the stock.

Three-phase DDM
A version of the dividend discount model that applies a different expected dividend rate depending on a company's life-cycle phase: growth phase, transition phase, or maturity phase.

Three steps and a stumble rule
A rule predicting that stock and bond prices will fall following three increases in the discount rate by the Federal Reserve. This is a result of increased costs of borrowing for companies and the increased attractiveness of money market funds and CDs over stocks and bonds as a result of the higher interest rates.

Threshold for refinancing
The point when the weighted-average coupon of an MBS is at a level to induce homeowners to prepay the mortgage in order to refinance to a lower-rate mortgage, generally reached when the weighted-average coupon of the MBS is 2 percentage points or more above currently available mortgage rates.

Thrift institution
An organization formed as a depository for primarily consumer savings. Savings and loan associations and savings banks are thrift institutions.

Throughput agreement
An agreement to put a specified amount of product per period through a particular facility. An example is an agreement to ship a specified amount of crude oil per period through a particular pipeline.

Refers to the minimum change in price a security can have, either up or down. Related: Point.

Tick indicator
A market indicator based on the number of stocks whose last trade was an uptick or a downtick. Used as an indicator of market sentiment or psychology to try to predict the market's trend.

Tick-test rules
SEC-imposed restrictions on when a short sale may be executed, intended to prevent investors from destabilizing the price of a stock when the market price is falling. A short sale can be made only when either (1) the sale price of the particular stock is higher than the last trade price (referred to as an uptick trade) or (2) if there is no change in the last trade price of the particular stock, the previous trade price must be higher than the trade price that preceded it (referred to as a zero uptick).

Ticker tape
Computerized device that relays to investors around the world the stock symbol and the latest price and volume on securities as they are traded.

An abbreviation of order ticket.

Tier 1 and Tier 2
Descriptions of the capital adequacy of banks. Tier 1 refers to core capital while Tier 2 refers to items such as undisclosed resources.

Acronym for Treasury Investors Growth Receipt. U.S. government-backed bonds without coupons, meaning that the bondholders do not receive the periodic interest payments. The principal of the bond and the individual coupons are sold separately.

In line with or extremely close to the inside market or last sale in a stock (+/- 1/8). On the money.

Tight market
A market in which volume is high, trading is active and highly competitive, and consequently spreads between bid and ask prices are narrow.

Tight money
When a restricted money supply makes credit difficult to secure. The antithesis of tight money is easy money.

Tick of Dow Jones Industrial Average component issues.

Tilted portfolio
An indexing strategy that is linked to active management through the emphasis of a particular industry sector, selected performance factors such as earnings momentum, dividend yield, price-earnings ratio, or selected economic factors such as interest rates and inflation.

Time decay
Related: Theta

Time deposit
Interest-bearing deposit at a savings institution that has a specific maturity. Related: Certificate of deposit.

Time draft
Demand for payment at a stated future date.

Time to maturity
The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time until expiration.

Time order
Order that becomes a market or limited price order or is cancelled at a specific time.

Time premium
Also called time value, the amount by which an option price exceeds its intrinsic value. The value of an option beyond its current exercise value representing the optionholder's control until expiration, the risk of the underlying asset, and the riskless return.

Time spread strategy
Buying and selling puts and calls with the same exercise price but different expiration dates, and trying to profit from the different premiums of the options.

Time until expiration
The time remaining until a financial contract expires. Also called time to maturity.

Time value
Applies to derivative products. Portion of an option price that is in excess of the intrinsic value, due to the amount of volatility in the stock; sometime referred to as premium. Time value is positively related to the length of time remaining until expiration.

Time value of money
The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

Time value of an option
The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining until the expiration date of the option contract, and the idea that the underlying components that determine the value of the option may change during that time. Time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium and the intrinsic value. Related: In the money.

Times-interest-earned ratio
Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.

Time-weighted rate of return
Related: Geometric mean return

See: Market timing

Timing option
The seller's choice of when in the delivery month to deliver. A Treasury Bond or note futures contract.

Information given by one trader to another, which is used in making buy or sell decisions but is not available to the general public.

Has been strong for a while and will probably fall due to increased supply at current price level (due to e.g. profit taking, technical analysis). Heavy.

Title insurance
Insurance policy that protects a policyholder from future challenges to the title claim a property that may result in loss of the property.

To be announced (TBA)
A contract for the purchase or sale of an MBS to be delivered at an agreed-upon future date but does not include a specified pool number and number of pools or precise amount to be delivered.

Tobin's Q
Market value of assets divided by replacement value of assets. A Tobin's Q ratio greater than 1 indicates the firm has done well with its investment decisions. Named after James Tobin, Yale University economist.

Toehold purchase
Often used in risk arbitrage. Accumulation by an acquirer of less than 5% of the shares of a target company. Once 5% is acquired, the acquirer must file with the SEC and other agencies to explain its intentions and notify the acquiree. See: Rule 13d.

Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM)
Tokyo exchange for trading futures on gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rubber, cotton yarn, and woolen yarn.

Tokyo International Financial Futures Exchange
Exchange that trades Euroyen futures and options, and futures on the one-year Euroyen, three-month eurodollar, and U.S. dollar/Japanese yen currency.

Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE)
The largest stock exchange in Japan with the some of the most active trading in the world.

Toll revenue bond
A municipal bond that is repaid with revenues from tolls that are paid by users of the public project built with the bond revenue.

Tolling agreement
An agreement to put a specified amount of raw material per period through a particular processing facility. For example, an agreement to process a specified amount of alumina into aluminum at a particular aluminum plant.

Tom next
Means to "tomorrow next.". In the interbank market in Eurodollar deposits and the foreign exchange market, the value (delivery) date on a tom next transaction is the next business day.

Advertisement listing the underwriters of a security issue.

$100 million in bond trader's terms.

Indicates the higher price one is willing to pay for a stock in an order; implies a not held order.

Top-down equity management style
Investment style that begins with an assessment of the overall economic environment and makes a general asset allocation decision regarding various sectors of the financial markets and various industries. The bottom-up manager, in contrast, selects specific securities within the particular sectors.

At a price level where supply is exceeding demand. See: Resistance level.

Topping out
Denoting a market or a security that is at the end of a period of rising prices and can now be expected to stay on a plateau or even to decline.

Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE)
Canada's largest stock exchange, trading approximately 1,200 company stocks and 33 options.

Complete amount of buy or sell interest, as opposed to having more behind it. See: Partial.

Total asset turnover
The ratio of net sales to total assets.

Total capitalization
The total long-term debt and all types of equity of a company that constitutes its capital structure.

Total cost
The price paid for a security plus the broker's commission and any accrued interest that is owed to the seller (in the case of a bond).

Total debt-to-equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing current liabilities plus long-term debt to shareholders' equity.

Total dollar return
The dollar return on a nondollar investment, which includes the sum of any dividend/interest income, capital gains or losses, and currency gains or losses on the investment. See also: Total return.

Total return
In performance measurement, the actual rate of return realized over some evaluation period. In fixed income analysis, the potential return that considers all three sources of return (coupon interest, interest on coupon interest, and any capital gain/loss) over some investment horizon.

Total revenue
Total sales and other revenue for the period shown. Known as "turnover" in the U.K.

Total volume
The total number of shares or contracts traded on national and regional exchanges in a stock, bond, commodity, future, or option on a certain day.

Touch, the
Mainly applies to international equities. Inside market in London terminology.

Tough on price
Firm price mentality at which one wishes to transact stock, often at a discount/premium that is not available at the time.

To promote a security in order to attract buyers.

Tracking error
In an indexing strategy, the standard deviation of the difference between the performance of the benchmark and the replicating portfolio.

Tracking stock
Best defined with an example. Suppose Company A purchases a business from Company B and pays B with 1 million shares of A's stock. The agreement provides that B cannot sell the 1 million shares for 60 days, and also prohibits B from hedging by purchasing put options on A's shares or short-selling A's shares. B is worried that the market may fall in the next 60 days. B could hedge by purchasing put options or selling the futures on the S&P 500. However, it is possible that A's business is much more cyclical than the S&P 500. One solution to this problem is to find a tracking stock. This is a stock that has high correlation with A. Let us call it Company C. The solution is to sell short or buy protective put options on this tracking stock C. This protects B from fluctuations in the price of A's stock over the next 60 days. Because the degree of the protection is related to the correlation of A and C's stock, it is extremely unlikely that the protection is perfect. Tracking stock is also used for internal evaluation. A firm with four divisions, for example, might set up four tracking stocks. The value-weighted sum of the four stocks exactly equals the firm's stock price observed in the market. This is a way to reward managers for good divisional performance with an equity that is tied to their division-rather than potentially penalizing them compensation for bad performance in a division they have no control over.

An oral (or electronic) transaction involving one party buying a security from another party. Once a trade is consummated, it is considered "done" or final. Settlement occurs 1-5 business days later.

Trade acceptance
Written demand that has been accepted by an industrial company to pay a given sum at a future date. Related: Banker's acceptance.

Trade away
Trade execution by another broker/dealer.

Trade credit
Credit one firm grants to another firm for the purchase of goods or services.

Trade date
The date that the counterparties in an interest rate swap commit to the swap. Also, the day on which a security or a commodity future trade actually takes place. Trades generally settle (are paid for) 1-5 business days after a trade date. With stocks, settlement is generally 3 business days after the trade. The settlement date usually follows the trade date by five business days, but varies depending on the transaction and method of delivery used.

Trade debt
Accounts payable.

Trade deficit or surplus
The difference in the value of a nation's imports over exports (deficit) or exports over imports (surplus).

Trade draft
A draft addressed to a commercial enterprise. See: Draft.

Trade flat
For convertibles, trade without accrued interest. Preferred stock always "trades flat," as do bonds on which interest is in default or is in doubt. In general, trade in and out of a position at the same price, neither making a profit nor taking a loss.

Trade house
A firm that deals in actual commodities.

"Trade me out"
Work out of one's long position (usually created by committing firm principal to complete a trade block trade) by selling stock. Antithesis of "buy them back."

Trade on the wire
Immediately give a bid or offer to a salesperson without checking the floor conditions (listed), dealer depth (OTC) or customer interest. An aggressive trading posture.

Trade on top of
Trade at a narrow speed or no spread in basis points relative to some other bond yield, usually Treasury bonds.

A distinctive name or symbol used to identify a product or company and build recognition. Trademarks may be registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Individuals who take positions in securities and their derivatives with the objective of making profits. Traders can make markets by trading the flow. When they do this, their objective is to earn the bid/ask spread. Traders can also take proprietary positions in which they seek to profit from the directional movement of prices or spread positions.

Trades by appointment
A stock that is very difficult to trade to because of illiquidity.

Buying and selling securities.

Trading authorization
A document (power of attorney) a customer gives to a broker in order that the broker may buy and sell securities on behalf of the customer.

Trading costs
Costs of buying and selling marketable securities and borrowing. Trading costs include commissions, slippage, and the bid/ask spread. See: Transactions costs.

Trading dividends
Maximizing a firm's revenues by purchasing stock in other firms in order to collect the maximum amount of dividends of which 70% is tax-free.

Trading halt
When trading of a stock, bond, option or futures contract is stopped by an exchange while news is being broadcast about the security. See: Suspended trading.

Trading paper
CDs purchased by accounts that are likely to resell them. The term is commonly used in the Euromarket.

Trading pattern
Long-range direction of a security or commodity futures price, charted by drawing one line connecting the highest prices the security has reached and another line connecting the lowest prices at which the security has traded over the same period. See: Technical analysis.

Trading posts
The positions on the floor of a stock exchange where the specialists stand and securities are traded.

Trading profit
The profit earned on short-term trades of securities held for less than one year, subject to tax at normal income tax rates.

Trading range
The difference between the high and low prices traded during a period of time; for commodities, the high/low price limit an exchange establishes for a specific commodity for any one day's trading.

Trading unit
The number of shares of a particular security that is used as the acceptable quantity for trading on the exchanges.

Trading variation
The increments to which securities prices are rounded up or rounded down.

Trading volume
The number of shares transacted every day. As there is a seller for every buyer, one can think of the trading volume as half of the number of shares transacted. That is, if A sells 100 shares to B, the volume is 100 shares.

Traditional view (of dividend policy)
An argument that, "within reason," investors prefer higher dividends to lower dividends because the dividend is sure but future capital gains are uncertain.

One of several related securities offered at the same time. Tranches from the same offering usually have different risk, reward, and/or maturity characteristics.

The delivery of a security by a seller and its acceptance by the buyer.

Transaction demand (for money)
The money needed to accommodate a firm's expected cash transactions.

Transaction exposure
Risk to a firm with known future cash flows in a foreign currency, that arises from possible changes in the exchange rate. Related: Translation exposure.

Transaction loan
A loan extended by a bank for a specific purpose. Lines of credit and revolving credit agreements involve by contrast loans that can be used for various purposes.

Transaction tax
Applies mainly to international equities. Levies on a deal that foreign governments sometimes charge.

Transactions costs
The time, effort, and money necessary, including such things as commission fees and the cost of physically moving the asset from seller to buyer. Related: Round-trip transactions costs, information costs, search costs.

Transactions motive
A desire to hold cash in order to conduct cash-based transactions.

A change of ownership from one person or party to another.

Transfer agent
Individual or institution a company appoints to look after the transfer of securities.

Transfer payments
Payments from a government to its citizens, such as welfare and other government benefits.

Transfer price
The price at which one unit of a firm sells goods or services to another unit of the same firm.

Transfer tax
A small federal tax on the movement of ownership of all bonds (except obligations of the U.S., foreign governments, states, and municipalities) and all stocks.

Transferable put right
An option issued by a firm to its shareholders to sell the firm one share of its common stock at a fixed price (the strike price) within a stated period (the time to maturity). The put right is "transferable" because it can be traded in the capital markets.

Transition phase
A stage of development when a company begins to mature and its earnings decelerate to the rate of growth of the economy as a whole. Related: Three-phase DDM.

Translation exposure
Risk of adverse effects on a firm's financial statements that may arise from changes in exchange rates. Related: Transaction exposure.

Transmittal letter
A letter describing the contents and purpose of a transaction delivered with a security that is changing ownership.

Travel and entertainment expense
Funds spent on business travel and entertainment that qualify for a tax deduction of 50% of the amount claimed.

The corporate officer responsible for designing and implementing a firm's financing and investing activities.

Treasurer's check
A check issued by a bank to make a payment. Treasurer's checks outstanding are counted as part of a bank's reservable deposits and as part of the money supply.

Related: Treasury securities

U.S. Department of the Treasury, which issues all Treasury bonds, notes, and bills as well as overseeing agencies. Also, the department within a corporation that oversees its financial operations including the issuance of new shares.

Treasury bills
Debt obligations of the U.S. Treasury that have maturities of one year or less. Maturities for T-bills are usually 91 days, 182 days, or 52 weeks.

Treasury bonds
Debt obligations of the U.S. Treasury that have maturities of 10 years or more.

Treasury direct
A system allowing an individual investor to make a noncompetitive bid on U.S. Treasury securities and thus avoid broker-dealer fees.

Treasury notes
Debt obligations of the U.S. Treasury that have maturities of more than 2 years but less than 10 years.

Treasury securities
Securities issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

Treasury stock
Common stock that has been repurchased by the company and held in the company's treasury.

" Treat me subject "
In the equities market, a conditional bid or offer. "My bid or offer is not firm, but is subject to confirmation between other parties and to market changes."

The general direction of the market.

A technical chart line that depicts the past movement of a security and that is used in an attempt to help predict future price movements.

Treynor Index
A measure of the excess return per unit of risk, where excess return is defined as the difference between the portfolio's return and the risk-free rate of return over the same evaluation period and where the unit of risk is the portfolio's beta. Named after Jack Treynor.

T-Rex Fund
A large venture capital fund (over one billion dollars). Such funds are known for imposing strong discipline on the firms they fund.

Triangular arbitrage
Striking offsetting deals among three markets simultaneously to obtain an arbitrage profit.

Trickle down
An economic theory that the support of businesses that allows them to flourish will eventually benefit middle- and lower-income people, in the form of increased economic activity and reduced unemployment.

Used in the context of general equities. Short-term trading index that shows a minute-by-minute correlation of the ratio of advances to declines to the ratio of advancing volume to declining volume. Depicts whether changes in the relationship of advances and declines are taking place more quickly or more slowly than changes in the general volume movement of the market, <1 indicates a bull market, 1 = neutral; and > 1 bear market. See: A/D and arms index.

Triple net lease
A lease providing that the tenant pay for all maintenance expenses, plus utilities, taxes, and insurance. This results in lower risk for investors, who usually form a limited partnership.

Triple tax-exempt
Municipal bonds featuring federal, state, and local tax-free interest payments.

Triple witching hour
The four times a year that the S&P futures contract expires at the same time as the S&P 100 index option contract and option contracts on individual stocks. It is the last trading hour on the third Friday of March, June, September, and December, when stock options, futures on stock indexes, and options on these futures expire concurrently. Massive trades in index futures, options, and underlying stock by hedge strategists and arbitrageurs cause abnormal activity (noise) and volatility.

The transition point between economic recession and recovery.

True interest cost
For a security such as commercial paper that is sold on a discount basis, true interest cost is the coupon rate required to provide an identical return assuming a coupon-bearing instrument of like maturity that pays interest in arrears.

True lease
A contract that qualifies as a valid lease agreement under the Internal Revenue Code.

A fiduciary relationship calling for a trustee to hold the title to assets for the benefit of the beneficiary. The person creating the trust, who may or may not also be the beneficiary, is called the grantor.

Trust company
An organization that acts as a fiduciary and administers trusts.

Trust deed
Agreement between trustee and borrower setting out terms of a bond.

Trust Indenture Act of 1939
A law that requires all corporate bonds and other debt securities to be issued subject to indenture agreements and comply with certain indenture provisions approved by the SEC.

Trust receipt
Receipt for goods that are to be held in trust for the lender.

Trustee in bankruptcy
An appointed trustee who supervises and administers the affairs of a bankrupt company or individual.

TSE 300 (Toronto Stock Exchange 100 index)
Canadian form of a S&P 500.

Truth in lending law
Legislation governing the granting of credit, that requires lenders to disclose the true cost of loans and the actual interest rates and terms of the loans in a manner that is easily understood.

TT&L account
Treasury tax and loan account at a bank.

A losing investment.

In the equities market, a reversal; unwind.

Securities bought and sold for settlement on the same day. Also describes a firm that has been performing poorly, but changes its financial course and improves its performance.

Turnaround time
Time available or needed to effect a turnaround.

Turnkey construction contract
A type of construction contract under which the construction firm is obligated to complete a project according to prespecified criteria for a price that is fixed at the time the contract is signed.

For mutual funds, a measure of trading activity during the previous year, expressed as a percentage of the average total assets of the fund. A turnover rate of 25% means that the value of trades represented one-fourth of the assets of the fund. For finance, the number of times a given asset, such as inventory, is replaced during the accounting period, usually a year. For corporate finance, the ratio of annual sales to net worth, representing the extent to which a company can grow without outside capital. For markets, the volume of shares traded as a percent of total shares listed during a specified period, usually a day or a year. For Great Britain, total revenue. Percentage of the total number of shares outstanding of an issue that trades during any given period.

12B-1 fees
The percent of a mutual fund's assets used to defray marketing and distribution expenses. The amount of the fee is stated in the fund's prospectus. The SEC has recently proposed that 12B-1 fees in excess of 0.25% be classed as a load. A true no load fund has neither a sales charge nor a 12b-1 fee.

12B-1 funds
Mutual funds that do not charge an up-front or back-end commission, but instead take out up to 1.25% of average daily fund assets each year to cover the costs of selling and marketing shares, an arrangement allowed by the SEC's Rule 12B-1 (passed in 1980).

Twenty bond index
A benchmark indicator of the level of municipal bond yields. It consists of the yields on 20 general obligation municipal bonds with 20-year maturities with an average rating equivalent to a1l.

Twenty-day period
The period during which the SEC inspects registration statement and preliminary prospectus prior to a new issue or secondary distribution.

20% cushion rule
Guideline that revenues from facilities financed by municipal bonds should exceed the operating budget plus maintenance costs and debt service by at least 20% to allow for unforeseen expenses.

25% rule
The guidelines that bonded debt over 25% of a municipality's annual budget is excessive.

Convincing a customer that trades are necessary in order to generate a commission. This is an unethical practice.

Two dollar broker
Floor broker of the NYSE, who executes orders for other brokers having more business at that time than they can handle with their own private floor brokers or who do not have their exchange member on the floor.

Two-factor model
Black's zero-beta version of the capital asset pricing model.

Two-fund separation theorem
The theoretical result that all investors will hold a combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.

Two-sided market
A market in which both bid and asked prices, good for the standard unit of trading, are quoted. When customers or market makers are lined up on both sides (buy and sell) of a stock.

Two-state option pricing model
A pricing equation allowing an underlying asset to assume only two possible (discrete) values in the next time period for each value it can take on in the preceding time period. Also called the binomial option pricing model.

Two-tier bid
Takeover bid in which the acquirer offers to pay more for the shares needed to gain control than for the remaining shares, or to pay the same price but at different times in the merger period; contrasts with any-or-all bid.

Two-tier tax system
Taxation system that results in taxing the income going to shareholders twice.

The classification of an option contract as either a put or a call.

Ultra vires activities
Corporate actions and operations that are not sanctioned by corporate charter, sometimes leading to shareholder lawsuits.

Applies to derivative products. Firm proprietary software that stores, and sends baskets of stock through SEAQ to either the NYSE or the curb for program trading.

Ultra-short-term bond fund
A mutual fund that invests in bonds with very short maturity periods, usually one year or less.

Umbrella personal liability policy
A liability insurance policy that provides protection against damages not covered by standard liability policies, such as large jury awards in lawsuits.

Unamortized bond discount
Par value of a bond less the proceeds received from the sale of the bond, less whatever portion has been amortized.

Unamortized premiums on investments
The unexpensed portion of the difference between the price paid for a security and its par value.

Unbiased predictor
A theory that spot prices at some future date will be equal to today's forward rates.

Separation of a multinational firm's transfers of funds into discrete flows for specific purposes. See: Bundling.

Uncollected funds
The amount of bank deposits in the form of checks that have not yet been paid by the banks on which the checks are drawn.

Uncollectible account
An account which cannot be collected by a company because the customer is not able to pay or is unwilling to pay.

Uncovered call
A short call option position in which the writer does not own shares of underlying stock represented by the option contracts. Uncovered calls are much riskier for the writer than a covered call, where the writer of the uncovered call owns the underlying stock. If the buyer of a call exercises the option to call, the writer would be forced to buy the asset at the current market price. Also called a "naked" asset.

Uncovered put
A short put option position in which the writer does not have a corresponding short stock position or has not deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise value of the put. The writer has pledged to buy the asset at a certain price if the buyer of the option chooses to exercise it. Uncovered put options limit the writer's risk to the value of the stock (adjusted for premium received.) Also called "naked" puts.

Under the belt
Long position in a stock.

When an originating investment banker cannot find enough firms to underwrite a new issue.

Describes limited interest by prospective buyers in a new issue of a security during the preoffering registration period.

A business has insufficient capital to carry out its normal functions.

Underfunded pension plan
A pension plan that has a negative surplus (i.e., liabilities exceed assets).

Underinvestment problem
The mirror image of the asset substitution problem, in that stockholders refuse to invest in low-risk assets to avoid shifting wealth from themselves to debtholders.

What supports the security or instrument that parties agree to exchange in a derivative contract.

Underlying asset
The security or property or loan agreement that an option gives the option holder the right to buy or to sell.

Underlying debt
Municipal bonds issued by government entities but under the control of larger government entities and for which the larger entity shares the credit responsibility.

Underlying futures contract
A futures contract that supports an option on that future, which is executed if the option is exercised .

Underlying security
For options, the security that is subject to purchase or sold upon exercise of an option contract. For example, IBM stock is the underlying security for IBM options. For Depository receipts, the class, series, and number of the foreign shares represented by the depository receipt.

Undermargined account
A margin account that no longer meets minimum maintenance requirements, requiring a margin call on the investor.

When a security is expected to, or does, appreciate at a slower rate than the overall market rate of performance.

Issuing securities at less than their market value.

A stock price perceived to be too low or cheap, as indicated by a particular valuation model. For instance, some might consider a particular company's stock price cheap if the company's price-earnings ratio is much lower than the industry average. To refer to undervaluation or overvaluation implicitly assumes some model of valuation. It is always possible that the security is valued correctly and that model applied is wrong.

When a taxpayer has withheld too little tax from salary and will therefore owe tax when filing a return.

To guarantee, as to guarantee the issuer of securities a specified price by entering into a purchase and sale agreement. To bring securities to market.

A firm, usually an investment bank, that buys an issue of securities from a company and resells it to investors. In general, A party that guarantees the proceeds to the firm from a security sale, thereby in effect taking ownership of the securities.

Acting as the underwriter in the issue of new securities for a firm.

Underwriting agreement
The contract between a corporation issuing new publicly offered securities and the managing underwriter as agent for the underwriting group. Compare to agreement among underwriters.

Underwriting fee
The portion of the gross underwriting spread that compensates the securities firms that underwrite a public offering for their services.

Underwriting income
For an insurance company, the difference between the premiums earned and the costs of settling claims.

Underwriting spread
The income that is generated by the underwriting syndicate and the selling group, which is essentially the difference between the amount paid to the issuer of securities in a primary distribution and the public offering price.

Underwriting syndicate
A group of investment banks that work together to sell new security offerings to investors. The underwriting syndicate is led by the lead underwriter. See also: Lead underwriter.

Underwritten offering
A purchase and sale.

Undigested securities
Newly issued securities that are not purchased because of lack of demand during the initial public offering.

Undiversifiable risk
Related: Systematic risk

Unearned income (revenue)
Income received in advance of the time at which it is earned, such as prepaid rent.

Unearned interest
Interest that has been received on a loan, but that cannot be treated as a part of earnings yet, because the principal of the loan has not been outstanding long enough.

Unemployment rate
The percentage of the people classified as unemployed as compared to the total labor force.

Property that is not subject to any claims by creditors. For example, securities bought with cash instead of on margin and homes with mortgages paid off.

Unfunded debt
Debt maturing within one year (short-term debt). See: Funded debt.

Unfunded pension plan
Provides for the employer to pay out amounts to retirees or beneficiaries as and when they are needed. There is no money put aside on a regular basis. Instead, it is taken out of current income.

Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)
Collection of laws dealing with commercial business.

Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA)
Legislation that provides a tax-effective manner of transferring property to minors without the complications of trusts or guardianship restrictions.

Uniform practice code
Standards of the NASD prescribing procedures for handling over-the-counter securities transactions, such as delivery, settlement date, and ex-dividend date.

Uniform securities agent state law examination
A test required in some states for registered representatives who are employees of member firms of the NASD or over-the-counter brokers.

Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA)
A law similar to the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act that extends the definition of gifts to include real estate, paintings, royalties, and patents.

Unilateral transfers
Items in the current account of the balance of payments of a country's accounting books that correspond to gifts from foreigners or pension payments to foreign residents who once worked in the particular country.

Uninsured motorist insurance
Insurance that covers the policyholder and family if they are injured by a hit-and-run or uninsured motorist, assuming the other driver is at fault.

Unique risk
Also called unsystematic risk or idiosyncratic risk. Specific company risk that can be eliminated through diversification. See: Diversifiable risk and unsystematic risk.

Unissued stock
Shares authorized in a corporation's charter, but not issued.

More than one class of securities traded together (e.g., one common share and three subscription warrants).

Unit benefit formula
Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan. Involves multiplying years of service by the percentage of salary.

Unit investment trust
Money invested in a portfolio whose composition is fixed for the life of the fund. Shares in a unit trust are called redeemable trust certificates, and they are sold at a premium to net asset value.

Unit Share Investment Trust (USIT)
A unit investment trust comprising one unit of prime and one unit of score.

Unit of trading
See: Trading unit.

United States government securities
Debt issues of the U.S. government, as distinguished from government-sponsored agency issues.

Universal life
A whole life insurance product whose investment component pays a competitive interest rate rather than the below-market crediting rate.

Universe of securities
A group of stocks having a common feature, such as similar outstanding market capitalization or same product line.

Unleveraged beta
The beta of an unleveraged required return (i.e., no debt) on an investment when the investment is financed entirely by equity.

Unleveraged program
The use of borrowed funds to finance less than 50% of a purchase of assets. In a leveraged program borrowed funds are used to finance more than 50%.

Unleveraged required return
The required return on an investment when the investment is financed entirely by equity (i.e., no debt).

Unlimited liability
Full liability for the debt and other obligations of a legal entity. The general partners of a partnership have unlimited liability.

Unlimited tax bond
A municipal bond secured by the pledge to levy taxes until full repayment at an unlimited rate.

Unlisted security
A security traded in the over-the-counter market that is not listed on an organized exchange.

Unlisted trading
Trading in unlisted securities that occurs on an organized exchange to accommodate members. This practice is not permitted at the NYSE.

Selling securities or commodities whose prices are dropping to minimize loss.

Unmargined account
A cash account held at a brokerage firm.

Unmatched book
If the average maturity of a bank's liabilities is shorter than that of its assets, it is said to be running an unmatched book. The term is commonly used with the Euromarket. Also refers to entering into OTC derivatives contracts and not hedging by making trades in the opposite direction to another financial intermediary. In this case, the firm with an unmatched book usually hedges its net market risk with futures and options. Related expressions: Open book and short book.

Unpaid dividend
A dividend declared by the directors of a corporation that has not yet been paid.

Unqualified opinion
An independent auditor's opinion that a company's financial statements comply with accepted accounting procedures. Antithesis of qualified opinion.

Unseasoned issue
Issue of a security for which there is no existing market. See: Seasoned issue.

Unsecured debt
Debt that does not identify specific assets that the debtholder is entitled to in case of default.

Unsterilized intervention
Foreign exchange market intervention in which the monetary authorities have not insulated their domestic money supplies from the foreign exchange transactions.

Unsystematic risk
Also called the diversifiable risk or residual risk. The risk that is unique to a company such as a strike, the outcome of unfavorable litigation, or a natural catastrophe that can be eliminated through diversification. Related: Systematic risk.

Unwind a trade
Reverse a securities transaction through an offsetting transaction in the market.

Market indication; willingness to go both ways (buy or sell) at the mentioned volume and market. Print; up on the ticker tape, confirming that the trade has been executed.

Up tick
Plus tick.

Raising the quality rating of a security because of new optimism about the prospects of a firm due to tangible or intangible factors. This can increase investor confidence and push up the price of the security.

Upset price
The minimum price at which a seller of property will accept a bid at an auction.

Upside potential
The amount by which analysts or investors expect the price of a security may increase.

Upstairs market
A network of trading desks for the major brokerage firms and institutional investors, which communicate with each other by means of electronic display systems and telephones to facilitate block trades and program trades.

Upstairs order
Used for listed equity securities. Off-floor order.

An upward turn in a security's price after a period of falling prices.

Uptick rule
SEC rule that selling short is allowed only on an up tick.

Uptick trade
A transaction that takes place at a higher price than the preceding transaction involving the same security. Related: Tick test rules.

Useful life
The expected period of time during which a depreciating asset will be productive.

U.S. Treasury bill
U.S. government debt with a maturity of less than a year.

U.S. Treasury bond
U.S. government debt with a maturity of more than 10 years.

U.S. Treasury note
U.S. government debt with a maturity of one to 10 years.

Usury laws
Laws limiting the amount of interest that can be charged on loans.

A power company that owns or operates facilities used for the generation, transmission, or distribution of electric energy, which is regulated at state and federal levels.

Utility function
A mathematical expression that assigns a value to all possible choices. In portfolio theory, the utility function expresses the preferences of economic entities with respect to perceived risk and expected return.

Utility revenue bond
A municipal bond issued to finance the construction of public utility services. These bonds are repaid from the operating revenues the project produces after the utility is finished.

Utility value
The welfare a given investor assigns to an investment with a particular expected return and risk.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicate that it is when-issued or when-distributed.

See: Value-at-risk model

See: Variable-rated demand bond

Determination of the value of a company's stock based on earnings and the market value of assets.

Valuation reserve
An allowance to provide for changes in the value of a company's assets, such as depreciation.

Value-added tax
Method of indirect taxation that levies a tax is at each stage of production on the value added at that specific stage.

Value additivity principal
When the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Or, the principle that the net present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.

Value broker
A discount broker whose rates are a percentage of the dollar value of each transaction.

Value date
In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, the delivery date of funds traded. For spot transactions, it is normally on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon. In the case of a forward foreign exchange trade, it is the future date.

Value dating
When value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks.

Value Line investment survey
A proprietary service that ranks stocks for timeliness and safety.

Value manager
A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and to sell them at or in excess of that value. Often a value stock is one with a low price-to-book value ratio. Opposite of to growth stock.

Value-at-risk model (VaR)
Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.

Vancouver Stock Exchange (VSE)
A securities and options exchange in Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada), specializing in venture capital companies.

Vanilla issue
A security issue that has no unusual features.

An element in a model. For example, in the model RS&Pt+1 = a + b Tbillt + et, where RS&Pt+1 is the return on the S&P in month t+1 and Tbill is the Tbill return at month t, both RS&P and Tbill are "variables" because they change through time; i.e., they are not constant.

Variable annuities
Investment contracts whose issuer pays a periodic amount linked to the investment performance of an underlying portfolio.

Variable cost
A cost that is directly proportional to the volume of output produced. When production is zero, the variable cost is equal to zero.

Variable interest rate
See: Adjustable rate

Variable life insurance policy
A whole life insurance policy that provides a death benefit dependent on the insured's portfolio market value at the time of death. Typically the company invests premiums in common stocks, so variable life policies are referred to as equity-linked policies.

Variable-price security
A security that sells at a fluctuating market-determined price stocks and bonds are example.

Variable-rate CDs
Short-term certificate of deposits that pay interest periodically on roll dates. On each roll date, the coupon on the CD is adjusted to reflect current market rates.

Variable-rate demand note
A note that is payable on demand and bears interest tied to a money market rate.

Variable-rate loan
Loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates depending on a base interest rate, such as the prime rate or LIBOR.

Variable rated demand bond (VRDB)
Floating-rate bond that periodically can be sold back to the issuer.

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

Variance-minimization approach to tracking
An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to estimate the variance of the tracking error.

Variance rule
Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to satisfy a TBA trade. For Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac pass-through securities, the accepted variance is plus or minus 2.499999 % per million of the par value of the T.B.A. quantity.

Variation margin
An additional required deposit to bring an investor's equity account up to the initial margin level when the balance falls below the maintenance margin requirement.

Velda Sue
Stands for Venture Enhancement and Loan Development Administration for Smaller Undercapitalized Enterprises. A federal agency that buys and pools small business loans made by banks, and then issues securities that are bought by large institutional investors.

The number of times a dollar is spent, or turns over, in a specific period of time. Velocity affects the amount of economic activity generated by a given money supply.

Seller or supplier.

Venture capital
An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but does not have access to capital markets. Type of financing sought by early-stage companies seeking to grow rapidly.

Venture capital limited partnership
A partnership between a start-up company and a brokerage firm or entrepreneurial company that provides capital for the new business in return for stock in the company and a share of the profits.

Vertical acquisition
Buying or taking over a firm in the same industry in which the acquired firm and the acquiring firm represent different steps in the production process.

Vertical analysis
Dividing each expense item in the income statement of a given year by net sales to identify expense items that rise more quickly or more slowly than a change in sales.

Vertical line charting
A form of technical charting that shows the high, low, and closing prices of a stock or a market on each day on one vertical line with the closing price indicated by a short horizontal mark.

Vertical merger
When one firm acquires another firm that is in the same industry but at another stage in the production cycle. For example, the firm being acquired serves as a supplier to the firm doing the acquiring.

Vertical spread
Simultaneous purchase and sale of two options that differ only in their exercise price. See: Horizontal spread.

Become applicable or exercisable. A term mainly used on the context of employee stock ownership or option programs. Employees might be given equity in a firm but they must stay with the firm for a number of years before they are entitled to the full equity. This is a vesting provision. It provides incentive for the employee to perform.

Veterans Administration (VA) mortgage
A home mortgage loan granted by a lending institution to U.S. veterans and guaranteed by the Veterans Administration.

V formation
A technical chart pattern that follows a letter V form, indicating that the security price has bottomed out, and is now in a bullish trend.

Vienna Stock Exchange (VSX)
One of the world's oldest exchanges, which accounts for approximately 50% of Austrian stock transactions; the balance are traded OTC.

Virtual currency option
A new option contract introduced by the PHLX in 1994 that is settled in U.S. dollars rather than in the underlying currency. These options are also called 3-Ds (dollar-denominated delivery).

Visible supply
New muni bond issues scheduled to come to market within the next 30 days.

A measure of risk based on the standard deviation of the asset return. Volatility is a variable that appears in option pricing formulas, where it denotes the volatility of the underlying asset return from now to the expiration of the option. There are volatility indexes. Such as a scale of 1-9; a higher rating means higher risk.

Volume deleted
A note appearing on the consolidated tape when the tape is running behind under heavy trading, meaning that only the stock symbol and price will be shown for trades under 5000 shares.

Volume discount
A reduction in price based on the purchase of a large quantity.

Voluntary accumulation plan
Arrangement allowing shareholders of a mutual fund to purchase shares over a period of time on a regular basis, and in so doing take advantage of dollar cost averaging.

Voluntary bankruptcy
The legal proceeding that follows a petition of bankruptcy.

Voluntary liquidation
Liquidation proceedings that are supported by a company's shareholders.

Voluntary plan
A pension plan supported partially by the employee by pension contributions deducted from each paycheck.

Volatility risk
The risk in the value of options portfolios due to the unpredictable changes in the volatility of the underlying asset.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicating that this particular stock is a warrant.

See: Weighted average cost of capital

See: World Equity Benchmark Series

See: When issued

Wage assignment
A loan agreement provision allowing the lender to deduct payments from an employee's wages in case of default.

Wage-push inflation
Inflation caused by skyrocketing wages.

Waiting period
Time during which the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) studies a firm's registration statement. During this time the firm may distribute a preliminary prospectus.

Waiver of premium
A provision in an insurance policy that allows payment of insurance premiums to be permanently or temporarily stopped in the event the policyholder becomes incapacitated.

Walk away
To take and maintain a position in a stock after going to the floor to consummate a trade. Antithesis of trade me out, buy them back.

Wall Street
Generic term for the securities industry firms that buy, sell, and underwrite securities.

Wall Street analyst
Related: Sell-side analyst

Stock that has fallen out of favor with investors; stock that tends to have a low P/E (price-to-earnings ratio).

A security with no monetary value.

Wanted for cash
A statement displayed on market tickers indicating that a bidder will pay cash for same-day settlement of a block of a specified security.

War babies
Slang term for the stocks and bonds of corporations in the defense industry.

War chest
Cash kept aside for a takeover or for defense against a takeover bid.

Warehouse receipt
Evidence that a firm owns goods stored in a warehouse.

The interim holding period from the time of the closing of a loan to its subsequent marketing to capital market investors.

A security entitling the holder to buy a proportionate amount of stock at some specified future date at a specified price, usually one higher than current market price. Warrants are traded as securities whose price reflects the value of the underlying stock. Corporations often bundle warrants with another class of security to enhance the marketability of the other class. Warrants are like call options, but with much longer time spans-sometimes years. And, warrants are offered by corporations, while exchange-traded call options are not issued by firms.

A guarantee by a seller to a buyer that if a product requires repair or remedy of a problem within a certain period after its purchase, the seller will repair the problem at no cost to the buyer.

Gains equal losses.

Wash sale
Purchase and sale of a security either simultaneously or within a short period of time, often in order to recognize a tax loss without altering one's position. See: Tax selling.

Wasting asset
An asset that has a limited life and thus decreases in value (depreciates) over time. Also applies to consumed assets, such as oil or gas, and termed "depletion."

Watch list
A list of securities selected for special surveillance by a brokerage, exchange, or regulatory organization; firms on the list are often takeover targets, companies planning to issue new securities, or stocks showing unusual activity.

Watered stock
A stock representing ownership in a corporation that is worth less than the actual invested capital, resulting in problems of low liquidity, inadequate return on investment, and low market value.

Weak dollar
A depreciated dollar with respect to other currencies, meaning that more dollars are needed to buy a unit of foreign currency. Antithesis of strong dollar.

Weak-form efficiency
A pricing theory that the price of a security reflects the past price and trading history of the security. Theory implies that security prices follow a random walk. Related: Semistrong-form efficiency, strong-form efficiency.

Weak market
A market with few buyers and many sellers and a declining trend in prices.

A chart pattern composed of two converging lines connecting peaks and troughs. In the case of falling wedges, the pattern indicates temporary interruptions of upward price rallies. In the case of rising wedges, indicates interruptions of a falling price trend.

Weekend effect
The common recurrent low or negative average return from Friday to Monday in the stock market.

Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)
Expected return on a portfolio of all a firm's securities. Used as a hurdle rate for capital investment. Often the weighted average of the cost of equity and the cost of debt The weights are determined by the relative proportions of equity and debt in a firm's capital structure.

Weighted average Coupon
The weighted average of the gross interest rates of mortgages underlying a pool as of the pool issue date; the balance of each mortgage is used as the weighting factor.

Weighted average life
See: Average life

Weighted average maturity
The weighted average maturity of an MBS is the weighted average of the remaining terms to maturity of the mortgages underlying the collateral pool at the date issue, using as the weighting factor the balance of each of the mortgages as of the issue date.

Weighted average portfolio yield
The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.

Weighted average remaining maturity
The average remaining term of the mortgages underlying a MBS.

Well-diversified portfolio
A portfolio that includes a variety of securities so that the weight of any security is small. The risk of a well-diversified portfolio closely approximates the systematic risk of the overall market, and the unsystematic risk of each security has been diversified out of the portfolio.

When distributed
When issued.

When issued (W.I.)
Refers to a transaction made conditionally, because a security, although authorized, has not yet been issued. Treasury securities, new issues of stocks and bonds, stocks that have split, and in-merger situations after the time the proxy has become effective but before completion are all traded on a when-issued basis. With ice.

Buying stocks just before prices fall and selling stocks just before prices rise in a volatile market, often as the result of misleading signals.

Whisper number or forecast
An unofficial earnings estimate of a company given to clients by a security analyst if there is more optimism or pessimism about earnings than shown in the published number. These are often found on the Internet.

Whisper stock
A stock rumored to be the target of a takeover bid, drawing speculators who hope to make a profit after the takeover is completed.

Whistle blower
A person who has knowledge of fraudulent activities inside a firm or government agency, who is protected from the employer's retribution by federal law.

White knight
A friendly potential acquirer sought out by a target firm that is threatened by a less welcome suitor.

White sheets
Lists of prices published by the National Quotation Bureau for Market Makers.

White-shoe firm
Broker-dealer firms that disdain practices such as hostile takeovers.

White squire
White knight who buys less than a majority interest.

White's rating
A rating of municipal securities, that uses market factors rather than credit considerations to find appropriate yields.

Sale of a large amount of stock by a company that is the target of a takeover bid to a friendly party at below-market prices, so that the raider is forced to buy more of highly priced shares to accomplish the takeover.

Whole life insurance
A contract with both insurance and investment components: (1) It pays off a stated amount upon the death of the insured, and (2) it accumulates a cash value that the policyholder can redeem or borrow against.

Whole loan
A term that distinguishes an investment representing an original mortgage loan from a loan representing a participation with one or more lenders.

Wholesale mortgage banking
The purchasing of loans originated by others, for the acquisition of the servicing rights.

An underwriter or a broker-dealer who trades with other broker-dealers, rather than with the retail investor.

Wholly owned subsidiary
A subsidiary whose parent company owns virtually 100% of its common stock.

A nickname for the Washington Public Power Supply System, which in the 1970s raised billions of dollars through municipal bond offerings, the projects that never materialized. WPPSS defaulted on the payments to bondholders.

Wi wi
Come from when issued. Treasury bills trade on a WI basis between the day they are auctioned and the day settlement is made. Bills traded before they are auctioned are said to be traded Wi wi.

Wide opening
Abnormally wide spread between the bid and asked prices of a security at the opening of a trading session.

Widow-and-orphan stock
A stock paying high dividends with a low beta and noncyclical business, that is an extremely safe investment.

Wild card option
The right of the seller of a Treasury bond futures contract to give notice of intent to deliver at or before 8:00 p.m. Chicago time after the closing of the exchange (3:15 p.m. Chicago time) when the futures settlement price has been fixed. Related: Timing option.

Williams Act
Federal legislation enacted in 1968 (and now constituting Rules 13d and 14d of the Security Exchange Act of 1934) that imposes requirements with respect to public tender offers.

Wilshire indexes
Widely followed performance measurement indexes measuring performance of all U.S.-headquartered equity securities with readily available price data, created by Wilshire Associates, Inc.

Windfall profit
A sudden unexpected profit uncontrolled by the profiting party.

A brokerage firm's cashier department, where delivery of securities and settlement of transactions take place.

Window contract
A guaranteed investment contract purchased with deposits over some future designated time period (the "window"), usually between 3 and 12 months. All deposits made are guaranteed the same credit rating. Related: Bullet contract.

Window dressing
Trading activity near the end of a quarter or fiscal year that is designed to improve the appearance of a portfolio to be presented to clients or shareholders. For example, a portfolio manager may sell losing positions so as to display only positions that have gained in value.

Winnipeg Commodity Exchange
Canada's only agricultural futures and options exchange, located in Manitoba.

Winner's curse
Problem faced by uninformed bidders. For example, in an initial public offering uninformed participants are likely to receive larger allotments of issues that informed participants know are overpriced.

Wire house
A firm operating a private wire to its own branch offices or to other firms, commission houses, or brokerage houses.

Wire room
A department within a brokerage firm that receives customers' orders and transmits the orders to the exchange floor or the firm's trading department.

With dividend
Purchase of shares that entitle the buyer to the forthcoming dividend. Related: Ex-dividend.

With ice
When issued.

With rights
Shares sold accompanied by entitlement the buyer to buy additional shares in the company's rights issue.

Withdrawal plan
Agreement that a mutual fund will disburse automatic periodic redemptions to the investor.

Used in the context of securities, the illegal practice of a public offering participant keeping some shares in a private account or with a family member, employee, or dealer to profit from the higher market price of a hot issue.

Used in the context of taxes, the withholding by an employer of a certain amount of an employee's income in order to cover the employee's tax liability. Also used to refer to the withholding by corporations and financial institutions of a flat 10% of interest and dividend payments due to security holders.

Withholding tax
A tax levied by a country of source on income paid, usually on dividends remitted to the home country of the firm operating in a foreign country.

Indicates a one-way market if 70 were bid in the market and there was no offer, the quote would be "70 bid without.".

Without recourse
Giving the lender no right to seek payment or seize assets in the event of nonpayment from anyone other than the party specified in the debt contract (such as a special-purpose entity).

Slang to describe a market moving strongly upward, as in, "This market has a woody."

Attempting to complete the remaining part of a trade, by finding either buyers or sellers for the rest.

Working away
Transacting with another broker/dealer.

Working capital
Defined as the difference between current assets and current liabilities (excluding short-term debt). Current assets may or may not include cash and cash equivalents, depending on the company.

Working capital management
The deployment of current assets and current liabilities so as to maximize short-term liquidity.

Working capital ratio
Working capital expressed as a percentage of sales.

Working control
Control of a corporation by a shareholder or shareholders having less than 51% voting interest because of the wide dispersion of share ownership.

Working order
Standing order in the marketplace, through which a broker bids or offers to fill the order in a series of lots at opportune times in hopes of obtaining the best price.

Informal repayment or loan forgivness arrangement between a borrower and creditors.

Workout market
Market indicating prices at which it is believed a security can be bought or sold within a reasonable length of time.

Workout period
Realignment of a temporarily misaligned yield relationship that sometimes occurs in fixed income markets.

World Bank
A multilateral development finance agency created by the 1944 Bretton Woods, (New Hampshire) negotiations. It makes loans to developing countries for social overhead capital projects that are guaranteed by the recipient country. See: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

World Equity Benchmark Series (WEBS)
The World Equity Benchmark Series are similar to SPDRs. W.E.B.S. trade on the AMEX, and track the Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) country indexes. WEBS are available for: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Malaysia Free, Mexico, the Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

World investible wealth
The part of world wealth that is traded and is therefore accessible to investors.

World Trade Organization (WTO)
A multilateral agency that administers world trade agreements, fosters trade relations among nations, and solves trade disputes among member countries.

Wrap account
An investment consulting relationship for management of a client's funds by one or more money managers, that bills all fees and commissions in one comprehensive fee charged quarterly.

Wraparound annuity
An investment that allows the annuitant the choice of underlying investments tax-deferred.

Wraparound mortgage
A second mortgage that leaves the original mortgage in force. The wraparound mortgage is held by the lending institution as security for the total mortgage debt. The borrower makes payments on both loans to the wraparound lender, which in turn makes payments on the original senior mortgage.

A feature of a new product or security intended to entice a buyer.

Sell an option. Applies to derivative products.

Reducing the book value of an asset if its is overstated compared to current market values.

Charging an asset amount to expense or loss, such as through the use of depreciation and amortization of assets.

Write out
The procedure used when a specialist makes a trade involving his own inventory, on one hand, and a floor broker's order, on the other. The broker must first complete the trade with the specialist, who then transacts a separate trade with the customer.

The seller of an option, usually an individual, bank, or company that issues the option and consequently has the obligation to sell the asset (if a call) or to buy the asset (if a put) on which the option is written if the option buyer exercises the option.

Writing cash-secured puts
An option strategy to avoid using a margin account. Instead of depositing margin with a broker, a put writer can deposit a cash balance equal to the option exercise price, and can avoid additional margin calls.

Writing naked
See: Naked option

Writing puts to acquire stock
Selling a put option at an exercise price that would represent a good investment by an option writer who believes a stock's value will fall, so that the writer cannot lose. If the stock price unexpectedly goes up, the option will not be exercised and the writer is at least ahead the amount of the premium received. If the stock loses value, as expected, the option will be exercised, and the writer has the stock at what he had earlier decided was originally a good buy, and he has the premium income in addition.

Written-down value
The book value of an asset after allowing for depreciation and amortization.

W-type bottom
A double bottom pattern in a price history that looks like the letter W. See: Technical analysis.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicating that listing is a mutual fund.

Applies to derivative products. Quotron symbol for the Major Market Index (MMI).

X or XD
Symbol that indicating that stock is trading ex-dividend, with no dividend.

Symbol indicating that a stock is trading ex-rights, with no rights attached.

Symbol indicating that a stock is trading ex-warrants, with no warrants attached.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol specifying that it is an ADR

Yankee bonds
Foreign bonds denominated in U.S. dollars and issued in the United States by foreign banks and corporations. These bonds are usually registered with the SEC. Such as, bonds issued by originators with roots in Japan are called Samurai bonds.

Yankee CD
A CD issued in the domestic market, typically New York, by a branch of a foreign bank.

Yankee market
The foreign market in the United States.

Slang for one billion currency units. Used particularly in currency trading, e.g., for Japanese yen since one billion yen equals approximately US$10 million. It is clearer to say, "I'm a buyer of a yard of yen," than to say, "I'm a buyer of a billion yen," which could be misheard as "I'm a buyer of a million yen."

Year-end dividend
A special dividend declared at the end of a fiscal year that usually represents distribution of higher-than-expected company profits.

Year-to-date (YTD)
The period beginning at the start of the calendar year up to the current date.

Yellow sheets
Sheets published by the National Quotation Bureau that detail bid and ask prices, plus those firms that are making a market in over-the-counter corporate bonds.

Yen bond
Any bond denominated in Japanese yen currency.

The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest paid on a bond or note.

Yield advantage
The advantage gained by purchasing convertible securities instead of common stock, which equals the difference between the rates of return of the convertible security and the common shares.

Yield burning
A municipal bond financing method. Underwriters in advance refundings add large markups on U.S. Treasury bonds bought and held in escrow to compensate investors while waiting for repayment of old bonds after issuance of the new bonds. Since bond prices and yields move in opposite directions, when the bonds are marked up, they "burn down" the yield, which may violate federal tax rules and diminishes tax revenues.

Yield curb
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Difference in current yield between the convertible and the underlying common.

Yield curve
The graphic depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality but different maturities. Related: Term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle.

Yield curve option-pricing models
Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the yield curve, such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing models.

Yield curve strategies
Investments that position a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.

Yield differential/pickup
Mainly applies to convertible securities. Graph showing the term structure of interest rates by plotting the yield of all bonds of the same quality with maturities ranging from the shortest to the longest available.

Yield equivalence
The interest rate at which a tax-exempt bond and a taxable security of similar quality give the investor the same rate of return.

Yield ratio
The quotient of two bond yields.

Yield spread
The difference in yield between different security issues usually securities of different credit quality.

Yield spread strategies
Investments that position a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in yield spreads between sectors of the bond market.

Yield to average life
A yield calculation in which bonds are retired routinely during the life of the issue. Since the issuer buys its own bonds on the open market because of sinking fund requirements, if the bonds are trading below par, this action provides automatic price support for these bonds and they will usually trade on a yield to average life basis.

Yield to call
The percentage rate of a bond or note if the investor buys and holds the security until the call date. This yield is valid only if the security is called prior to maturity. Generally bonds are callable over several years and normally are called at a slight premium. The calculation of yield to call is based on coupon rate, length of time to call, and market price.

Yield to maturity
The percentage rate of return paid on a bond, note, or other fixed income security if the investor buys and holds it to its maturity date. The calculation for YTM is based on the coupon rate, length of time to maturity, and market price. It assumes that coupon interest paid over the life of the bond will be reinvested at the same rate.

Yield to warrant call
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Effective yield of usable or synthetic convertible bonds determined against the first date at which the warrants can be called.

Yield to warrant expiration
Applies mainly to convertible securities. Effective yield of usable convertible bonds determined by the expiration date of the applicable warrants.

Yield to worst
The bond yield computed by using the lower of either the yield to maturity or the yield to call on every possible call date.

Yo-yo stock
A highly volatile stock that moves up and down like a yo-yo.

Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicating that listing is a fifth class of preferred stock, a stub, a certificate representing a limited partnership interest, foreign preferred when issued, or a second class of warrants.

See: Zero balance account

Applies mainly to international equities. Japanese securities transactions conducted on the principal of auction, i.e., (1) price priority in which the selling (buying) order with the lowest (highest) price takes precedence over other orders, and (2) time priority in that an earlier order takes precedence over other orders at the same price.

Z bond
A bond on which interest accrues but is not currently paid to the investor but rather is added to the principal balance of the Z bond and becoming payable upon satisfaction of all prior bond classes.

Zero-balance account (ZBA)
A checking account in which zero balance is maintained by transfers of funds from a master account in an amount only large enough to cover checks presented.

Zero-base budgeting (ZBB)
Budgeting method that disregards the previous year's budget in setting a new budget, since circumstances may have changed. Each and every expense must be justified in this system.

Zero-beta portfolio
A portfolio constructed to have zero systematic risk, similar to the risk-free asset, that is, having a beta of zero.

Zero-bracket amount
The standard deduction portion of income which is not taxed for taxpayers choosing not to itemize deductions.

Zero-coupon bond
A bond in which no periodic coupon is paid over the life of the contract. Instead, both the principal and the interest are paid at the maturity date.

Zero-coupon convertible security
A zero-coupon bond convertible into the common stock of the issuing company after the stock reaches a certain price, using a put option inherent in the security.

Also refers to zero-coupon bonds, which are convertible into an interest bearing bond at a certain time before maturity.

Zero-investment portfolio
A portfolio of zero net value established by buying and shorting component securities, usually in the context of an arbitrage strategy.

Zero-minus tick
Sale that takes place at the same price as the previous sale, but at a lower price than the last different price. Antithesis of zero-plus tick.

Zero-one integer programming
An analytical method that can be used to determine the solution to a capital rationing problem.

Zero prepayment assumption
The assumption of payment of scheduled principal and interest with no payments.

Zero-plus tick
Used for listed equity securities. Transaction at the same price as the preceding trade, but higher than the preceding trade at a different price. Antithesis of zero-minus tick. See: Short sale.

Zero-sum game
A type of game wherein one player can gain only at the expense of another player.

Zero uptick
Related: Tick-test rules

Companies that continue operation while they await merger or closure, even though they are insolvent and bankrupt.

Z score
Statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) a data point is from the mean of a data set. Separately, Z score is the output from a credit-strength test that gauges the likelihood of bankruptcy.